Thursday, January 31, 2019
Divorce is non an exception anymore. In fact, with the rate of marriage decrease over the past decade, and the divorce rate remaining steady, we be seeming to know more people who argon disassociate than those who are de jure bound. During this semester we read four novels. Divorce was a common theme in all of them.Only a few generations ago, American culture jilted divorce as scandalous. Today, law, behavior, and culture embrace and even celebrate it.It got me to inquire about the children of divorced parents. It got me to wondering, what about the children? Being concerned about them, I decided to research the Disruption of many an(prenominal) traditional households. What happens during and after the attend to of divorce, predominantly to the children. Does parents divorce have negative impact on their later(prenominal) outcomes.After considerable research, I found that an increased social credenza of divorce over the years has not reduced the negative cause experience d by the children of divorced parents.Every year, more than a meg of American children suffer the divorce of their parents. Divorce causes pain to all involved, however most especially to the children. Though it is showed to be more accepted by society, it may put children in a downward trajectory from which they big businessman never fully recover.A 2011 study by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that children of divorced parents often fall behind their classmates in math and social skills, and are more likely to suffer anxiety, stress, and low self-esteem. The reason that math skills are affected is likely because learning math is cumulative. If I do not understand that one plus one is two, lead researcher and a Ph.D. candidate in sociology Hyun Sik Kim says, then I cannot unde... ...ge formation behavior and educational attainment.Wolfingers research is based on the National Survey of Families and Households, which included enlarge information on family background fo r 13,000 people, and the General Social Survey, which surveyed 20,000 people over a 30-year period.In conclusion, children of divorce are often subject to many negative effects. Broken homes are a tough situation to conduct with. Divorce causes many problems and should not always be the solution to family problems, in that location is counseling and many other solutions to look into before automatically exchange to divorce. As was discussed in this research, there are many educational, psychological and wound up effects on children of divorce. The best solution to all this pain is to be open and honest with children as well as try to hear out help. Divorce should be a last resort.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
The dreaming performance was first introduced to the US Congress in August 2001 under chairman George W. Bushs first term. This act which stands for Development, Relief, and Education of Alien Minors has be watch over a major stepping stone for the long debated study of in-migration reform. It wasnt until mid-2012 under chairperson Barack Obamas first term that legislature similar to The inhalation Act actually came to fruition.Legislation known as DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) grants those persons who were brought to this e enjoin illegally spell they were under the age of 6 and who were under age 31 when the indemnity took side, abide no criminal record, and be testamenting to go to college or serve the US military the right stay in this domain without the fear of face up deportation during the next two years. The outlet of immigration in particular illegal immigration has been a controversial number our presidency has argued on a variety of sp atial relations.This issue has been long debated from the perspective of national security to Jobs, economy as well as man rights violations. The reality is that this orbit was built upon the hard work and edication of immigrants, and while it continues to appease welcoming to immigrants from around the world the issue of illegal immigration in particular after the terrorist attacks of September 1 lth 2001 have only make the debate on immigration reform that lots more difficult. term advocates of The Dream Act and new(prenominal) rectitudemaking such as DACA argue that those who arrived to this country illegally while still a minor should not be penalized for their pargonnts actions and/or decisions to bring them to the US, those who fence the act claim that allowing those rattling equivalent minors the pportunity to study and serve the US military be victorious those same opportunities away from current US citizens. Regardless of which side you nonplus yourself standin g on the issue of illegal immigration is a actually real one, and one that mustiness continue to be addressed.Throughout this report I depart highlight slightly of the social service and tender-hearted rights ask currently facing this demographic assemblage within our communities. It is my plan of action as a social worker and interested community penis to become an active advocate on base state representatives and law akers to discover that comprehensive immigration reform is passed while addressing the social service and humankind rights needfully highlighted. Without advocates getting involved in the process true confirming change can not be had especially when it comes to this complicated give in of immigration reform.According to the article The American Dream by Barbara Krasner currently there are approximately 11 million illegal or unregistered immigrants in the US. This figure continues to grow as US border guard agents miss approximately 1,000 people foo ling who chase after the border illegally. While personally I agree that our country must secure our borders in the interest of national security, I also believe that comprehensive immigration reform enactment should be passed to address the social complex need facing those that are currently here.Legislation such as DACA only encourages exit a temporary solution to a much greater worry facing our society. Out of the approximate 11 million illegal immigrants currently in the US it is expected that only 2 million will qualify for the DACA policy leaving 8 million illegal immigrants unaddressed. Without the decorous implementation of a plan to better secure our orders the issues regarding illegal immigration will continue to act as a revolving door for generations to come. at once a minority state the US Latino/Latino population has grown to what is projected to become the US majority group by 2015.As can be moderaten during the past few presidential elections this demogra phic group highly persuaded campaigns and election results. When it comes to the issue of immigration reform the US Latino/Latino population has been a driving force behind decree such as DACA and the current bipartisan committee working on the issue at hand. The reality is that the issue of illegal immigration has been an issue primarily focused on Hispanics and Latinos as the security of the border in question has been the US/Mexico border. umpteen of the unregistered or illegal immigrants that arrive to this country on a daily basis tend to be of Hispanic or Latino descent. However it must remain clear that other nationalities that arrive at Latin American countries can and do cross the border illegally as well. Since there is an ability to have septuple nationalities and persons with all different intentions cross he border illegally the issue of national security becomes a very valid issue. Securing the border is a must for any comprehensive immigration reform legislation t hat whitethorn be passed.As a social worker my concern goes far beyond the issue of national security. I am also highly concerned about the social handicaps and human rights issues the demographic groups of illegal immigrants face once they are in this country. Being of Hispanic descent myself it has become much easier for me to identify with many illegal immigrants from a variety of rearwardsgrounds as exploitation up I oo was considered a minority. Many arrive in hopes of quest better quality of life consisting of better employment opportunities, living conditions and educational resources for their children.Others are given false promises of a better life as they are trafficked into this country and enslaved into prostitution or a life of drug trafficking. Both groups end up becoming a part of our communities, schools and churches. We occur how they are constantly living in fear of universe deported back to their countries often times tearing families apart all while facing abuse by mployers who exploit their labor, discrimination by other demographic groups who may isolate them or become hostile towards them Just for being here.We also face children who arrived here illegally who have no reminiscence of their inbred country and grow up as Americans without anything to prove or say that they are. As you can see the issues regarding illegal immigration are very complex and encompass a variety of social needs that people such as me must advocate for. Those of us who see the faces and know the names behind the stories must become active articipants alongside our legislators and state representatives to help ensure that adequate laws and policies are put into place to help address the basic social and human rights needs we are all too familiar with.Besides the needs I already mentioned there are many more this group encounters on a daily basis. Illegal immigrants can be found among our fellowshipless populations, at our soup kitchens, facing language b arriers as well as financial barriers. Many are exploited for their labor often being p guardianship very little for long hours of work. Depression is also an issue ha a c this demographic group as many miss their native country and tind themselves at a loss belonging to neither their home country nor the country they currently reside in.Others reign themselves in an offensive relationship unable to seek help as they fear that law enforcement will deport them rather than help them address their current situation. As social workers these are only some of the needs we are confronted with and we must take proactive measures to help ensure they are addressed. Unfortunately I find that sometimes we are limited with the resources for which we are able to help the undocumented population. Many times we end up providing band aid solutions rather than a long term one to the conundrums we address.Although the federal government has not been successful over the past several decades in notc h comprehensive immigration reform I do believe we are getting closer each day to seeing something come to pass. The exploitation minority populations along with pressure from states have caused the wheels of progress to maintain themselves in constant movement towards a solution. Many states such as mommy and mendelevium have already passed their own form of a Dream Act rimarily addressing the secondary educational opportunities available to undocumented immigrants.As Dr. Loh the president of the University of Maryland put it the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the values of education when it ruled in 1982 that undocumented children are entitled toa public school education. It is found on that premise that the argument was made in Maryland as in Massachusetts and other states that it would make no sense to hold for the public school education for undocumented children while denying them the right to that pursue their education as would any other child.The Dream Acts in those state s now treat undocumented children who graduate high school as residents of the state allowing them to apply to colleges while paying the in-state tuition rates. Just as DACA legislations like those I Just mentioned do help provide some relief to the illegal immigrant population however it is not enough. As states comes to the fruition that only addressing the educational needs of this demographic group isnt enough we find that more pressure is placed on the federal government to come up with a solution.On the other side of the spectrum there are states in particular those losest to the US/Mexico border who have attempted to pass legislation that only further burdens the undocumented immigrant population. States such as Arizona have attempted to pass legislation that would allow law enforcement the ability to sack any vehicle for practically any reason to demand establishment of citizenship of those within the vehicle. Legislation such as this one only creates greater fear among t he immigrant population and often times causes them to move to another state creating a social/ human rights burden on the other states communities and resources.Just s professors and advocates united and lobbied in states like Massachusetts and Maryland to ensure undocumented children were given the right to further their education other advocates united to oppose the civil rights violations created in states such as Arizona and others by legislation such as the one previously mentioned. Without the help of advocates law makers will address the problem of illegal immigration as a statistics problem rather than a human problem. It is important for them to hear the social and human rights ramifications the lack of comprehensive reform has on our communities across the country.
Monday, January 28, 2019
It is said that we undersurface judge a slices eccentric person from his sic But its non endlessly so. Dress potentiometer only help us to a certain extent in hit the sacking the broad facts of a hu spell beingss character. A man who wears a costly ornament is inescapably a man of lavish habits. On the other hand, a man who wears tattered change state is not necessarily a man of wet habits. He may be do so only referable to his financial limitations. Yet it is true that in some cases exerciseserves as a social functionful index to the character of a man. Some common examples, from which we can get some idea of a mans character from his dress, ar given below.We daily come across such persons as put on clothes of loud colours. We find them dressed in gaudy colours. They wear bushshirts printed withThe faces factors and actresses. So, is the case with their shoes. Shoes withdifferent designs on them are want by them. We can easily know thecharacter of such plurality b y looking at the way in which they dress. Such pack, if we carefully observe them, are actually fond of show and ostentation. They lack the maturity of taste. They do not have sober habits. We can know this by their dress. Many people even if they are given costly and decent clothes, will maketheir coming into court shabby and ineffective.They will put on the shirt or thecoat, just will not button it up. The laces of their shoes will remain untied. If they implement the tie they will not put the knot properly. They never botherwhether their clothes are pressed or not. As these people are with theirclothes, so they are with their habits. They behave carelessly in other matters also. They are frowzy in their dress, alert, reading and other ways also. So in this way, dress reflects their character. Besides this, we find people wearing very elemental dress. A white kurta,dhoti, and a white cap on the head and simple chappals are all that they dress themselves in.But their clothes are always very neat and clean. Though they do not waste untold of their valuable time in dressing, yet they do not use their dress carelessly. Such people show that they are thefollowers of the principle, Simple living and high thinking. They do notbelieve in ostentation. Mostly such people are intellectual. Broadly speaking, the dress of a man helps us to know his character. But atthe same time it may also be added that the dress should not be regarded as the sole index to the character of a man. Many saints and Sadhuscompletely neglect their dress.But it does not mean that they are very low either in their mental or emotional standard. On the contrary, they raise themselves so high from the level of such human racely considerations that dress becomes quite meaningless to them. In the present age, Mahatma Gandhiused to wear only a loin cloth. But he was the man before whom the entire world bowed its head. So in judicial decision the character of a man dress can kelp us only to a certain extent. It can never be the sole guide. We should alsotake other factors into consideration in judging a man.
Friday, January 25, 2019
Historical look for has been defined as the imperious and objective location, evaluation and synthesis of evidence in order to pre break away facts and draw conclusions about ult events. It is an act of reconstruction undertaken in a spirit of life-sustaining inquiry designed to achieve a unwavering representation of a precedent age. In seeking data from the ain experiences and observations of otherwises, from muniments and records, re bet workers often have to contend with inadequate information so that their reconstructions tend to be sketches rather than portraits.Indeed, the difficulty of obtaining adequate data makes historic research i of the most taxing kinds of inquiry to conduct satisfactorily (William 1949). reconstruction implies a holistic perspective in that the method of inquiry characterizing diachronic research attempts to encompass and then explain the whole realm of cosmoss past in a perspective that greatly accents his favorable, cultural, economic, and talented development (Billington 1995).Ultimately, historical research is linked with a broad see of the conditions and not necessarily the specifics which bring them about, although such a synthesis is r bely achieved without intense debate or controversy, especi anyy on matters of detail. The act of historical research involves the identification and limitation of a job or an do master(prenominal) of a rifle of piece of assvass both(prenominal)times the formulation of a possibleness (or set of questions) the involveion, organization, verification, validation, abridgment and selection of data testing the surmise (or answering the questions) where appropriate and write a research report.This sequence leads to a new understanding of the past and its relevance to the present and future. Historical research in fosterage chiffonier also show how and why educational theories and practices developed. It enables educationalists to use former practices to men surate newer, emerging ones. Recurrent trends can be more easily place and assessed from a historical standpoint mantrap, for example, the various guises in which progressivism in education have appeargond.And it can contribute to a fuller understanding of the human relationship between politics and education, between school and society, between local and cardinal government, and between teacher and pupil. Historical research whitethorn be unified by a flexible sequence of stages, beginning with the selection and evaluation of a conundrum or area of study. Then follows the definition of the problem in more precise terms, the selection of suitable sources of data, collection, classification and affect of the data, and finally, the evaluation and synthesis of the data into a balanced and objective theme of the subject under investigating.In historical research, it is especially important that the learner thoroughly defines his problem and appraises its appropriateness bef ore committing himself too fully. M whatever problems are not adaptable to historical research methods and cannot be adequately treat using this approach. Other problems have little or no feel of producing significant results either because of the lack of pertinent data or because the problem is a trivial one. Research, if it is to be fresh and thereby justify itself, ought to start, at least in a planetary way, where previous research leave off.Thus, it is necessary to find out the present status of scholarly investigation on the subject in hand. This can be ascertained from reliable, street smart bibliographical surveys, such as are sometimes found in the more scholarly type of history books now appearing, and from standard bibliographies, general or special, supplemented by notices of new publications in the current historical reviews. The hypothesis provides a framework for stating the conclusions of the study in a meaningful manner.It enables the historian to determine wha t is relevant to a study and to screen out strange materials. Within the framework of the hypothesis, of course, the historian depart pattern his material in some dogmatic order, such as chronological, geographical, topical, or a combine of these. He will also make judgments concerning the amount of emphasis or space to give to various evidence. Considerable information may be collected on relatively minor points in a study and little evidence on more significant events. Obviously, reporting eachthing would put out a distorted picture of the past.Determining which data are packed with the greatest significance and how many of them to include requires a continuous reevaluation of the hypothesis and the study as a whole. Weaving raw data into a cohesive, well-proportioned, colorful exposition requires painstaking labor. To achieve the twin objectives of maintaining accuracy and interest, a historian refrains from embellishing chronicles with dramatic flourishes that distort th e truth, but strives for literary excellence. Stretching or supplementing the existing evidence to create a more spirited narrative is not permissible.Artfully fitting the pieces of established evidence into a simple, pictural mosaic that dramatically delineates past events is the difficult but desired nonesuch to attain. History is life and it deserves better than a drab description. The historian cannot apply accuracy for eloquence but by developing his creative and critical skills he can learn to write lucid, lively, logical accounts without violating the rigorous rules of historical scholarship. Since historians cannot psycheally view the educational practices of hundreds of years ago, they essential rely on observations made by others in bygone days and on the interrogative of relics.If detectives are fully aware of the fallibility of human observation, they can check the legitimacy and credibility of recommendation by subjecting it to intensive orthogonal and inter nal criticism. Ascertaining whether every fact is absolutely true is not possible, for the most reliable witness to an event may have erred in perception or memory. except a research worker can determine the credibility of testimony in degrees of confidence from confidence that is approximately certain at one end of the scale to confidence that is mingled with considerable doubt on the other end.Historians can ascertain with a high degree of probability that some data are true facts. But, because the reliability of data is dependent on the character, circumstances, and competence of the creators and interpreters, they are extremely cautious about accepting any historical artifact or report. The reliability of a historical research report is determined not only by how critically the investigator examined witnesses observations of past events, but also by the depth and breath of his intimacy about the past and present.Historical research involves the researcher both in selecting an appropriate problem and devising relevant research techniques. Questions to be asked at this stage are first, Who is to be the object of the study? the great person, the uncouth person, the volunteer, the selected, the coerced? Second, What makes a good informant? Plummer draws attention to key factors such as accessibility of place and availability of time, and the awareness of the potential informant of his/her grouchy cultural milieu.Third, What needs clarifying in the early stages of the research? The motivations of the researcher need to be made explicit to the intended subject. Sources of data in historical research may be classified into 2 main groups first-string sources, which are the life blood of historical research and standby sources, which may be used in the absence of, or to supplement, principal(a) data. Primary sources of data have been described as those items that are schoolmaster to the problem under study. Secondary sources are those that do not sham a direct physical relationship to the event being studied.They are made up of data that cannot be described as original. A secondary source would thus be one in which the person describing the event was not actually present but who obtained descriptions from another person or source (Atkinson 1998). Various commentators stress the importance of using primary sources of data where possible. The value, too, of secondary sources should not be minimized. There are legion(predicate) occasions where a secondary source can contribute importantly to more valid and reliable historical research than would otherwise be the case.In his preliminary search for historical data, a researcher will find that the card catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, historical reviews, dissertations, and research journals provide laboursaving leads. Although he may locate useful materials in his local library, his search probably will extend to other institutions and to specialized depositories that have business, government, legal, or private papers relating to his problem. Some individuals and agencies have exerted considerable effort to collect educational records and remains and have established a number of historical depositories to preserve them.The types of resources and completeness of the accumulations in the various depositories vary greatly some fit extensive collections of a cross kind of materials and others have fragmentary collections of items from diametric battlegrounds. Owing to the wide expanse of time and the broad scope of educational endeavors, no one depository, however excellent, can possibly house all the lendable materials. One further point the review of the literature is regarded as a preparatory stage to gathering data and serves to acquaint researchers with previous research on the topics they are studying (Marwick 1989).It thus enables them to continue in a tradition, to place their work in context, and to learn from earlier endeavors. The functi on of the review of the literature in historical research, however, is different in that it provides the data for research the researchers acceptance or otherwise of their hypotheses will depend on their selection of information from the review and the recitation they put on it. Further, text files needful in historical research often date back more than further than those in empirical research.And one final point documents in education often consist of unpublished material and are and then less accessible than reports of empirical studies in professional journals. Because workers in the field of historical research gather much of their data and information from records and documents, these must be carefully taxd so as to attest their worth for the purposes of the particular study. Evaluation of historical data and information is often referred to as historical criticism and the reliable data yielded by the process are cognise as historical evidence.Historical criticism is us ually undertaken in two stages first, the authenticity of the source is appraised and second, the accuracy or worth of the data is evaluated. orthogonal criticism is concerned with establishing the authenticity or genuineness of data. It is therefore aimed at the document (or other source) itself rather than the statements it contains with analytic forms of the data rather than the interpretation or meaning of them in relation to the study. It therefore sets out to debunk frauds, forgeries, hoaxes, inventions or distortions.To this end, the taxs of establishing the age or inditeship of a document may involve tests of factors such as signatures, hand written material, script, type, style, spelling and place-names. Further, was the knowledge it purports to transmit available at the time and is it consistent with what is known about the author or period from another source? Increasingly sophisticated analyses of physical factors can also yield clues establishing authenticity or oth erwise physical and chemic tests of ink, paper, parchment, cloth and other materials, for example.Investigations in the field of educational history are less likely to encounter deliberate forgeries than in, say, political or social history, though it is possible to find that official documents, correspondence and autobiographies have been ghosted, that is, inclined(p) by a person other than the alleged author or signer. Having established the authenticity of the document, the researchers next task is to evaluate the accuracy and worth of the data contained therein.While they may be genuine, they may not necessarily disclose the most faithful picture. In their concern to establish the meaning and reliability of data, investigators are confronted with a more difficult problem than external criticism because they have to establish the credibility of the author of the documents. Many documents in the history of education tend to be unbiassed in character, though it is possible that some may be in error because of these kinds of observer characteristics.Once the data have been gathered and subjected to external criticism for authenticity and to internal criticism for accuracy, the researcher is next confronted with the task of piecing together an account of the events embraced by the research problem. This stage is known as the process of synthesis. It is probably the most difficult phase in the send off and calls for considerable imagination and resourcefulness. The resulting pattern is then applied to the testing of the hypothesis.The writing of the final report is equally demanding and calls for creativity and high standards of objective and systematic analysis. By far the greater part of research in historical studies is qualitative in nature. This is so because the proper subject-matter of historical research consists to a great extent of verbal and other symbolic material emanating from a societys or a cultures past. The staple skills required of the re searcher to analyze this kind of qualitative or symbolic material involve collecting, classifying, ordering, synthesizing, evaluating and interpreting.At the basis of all these acts lies sound ad hominem judgement. In the comparatively recent past, however, attempts have been made to apply the valued methods of the scientist to the solution of historical problems (Boyd-Barrett & Scanlon 1991). Of these methods, the one having greatest relevance to historical research is that of content analysis, the basic goal of which is to take a verbal, non-quantitative document and transform it into quantitative data (Allen 2001).Content analysis itself has been defined as a multipurpose research method developed specifically for investigating a broad spectrum of problems in which the content of communication serves as a basis of inference, from word counts (Allen 2001) to categorization. Approaches to content analysis are careful to identify appropriate categories and units of analysis, bo th of which will reflect the nature of the document being analyzed and the purpose of the research. Categories are normally determined subsequently initial inspection of the document and will cover the main areas of content.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
These are some statements that show what the advantages of engineering in our lives. proficient change has its advantages and harms. itsolves problems. Modern engineering science casts life easier much comfortable and more convenient for most people.. However, there are numerous people who gain vigor the advantages of technology. first of totally, the products of new technologies like electronic devices are very useful. technology makes the world become smaller. for instance 3G people connected at all times and in all places. ecnology put enjoable materials to our lifes like smart phones tablets or even mp3 players.. and Companies need to use their competitive advantage in technology. Although the compulsive influence of technology on our lives is credible but at the alike time various drawbacks of technology can not be neglected, technology has so many disadvantages it has created harzards to the health of societies. it damege human relations. for example people dont go s teady their friends and collateral kins in crowded dining outOne disadvantage is that as technology develops, robots a will take over many jobs and people will weak their jobs by contrast. As people loose their jobs, they will have hard time getting money which would make it hard for them to continue to meet living expenses. it will create a large expense to repair them. To sum up even as there are as many advantages ad disadvantages of technology. I personally wish a more advanced world with great technologies. take int you think it will be awesome with in 3D to go stores and buy new clothes in our house confortably. I hope these days come within my lifetime.
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
There are m both different themes, images, and symbols in Francis Scott Key Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby that render great importance to the reading of the story. One particular image and symbol seen throughout Fitzgeralds myth that acts as a major contributor to the plot is the travel. The image of the go brook be seen in relation with any of the characters in the overbold who involve themselves in with driving an simple machine or even exactly talking active an automobile. Two characters in the novel that Fitzgerald uses to portray the images and symbols of the automobile are Tom Buchannan and Jay Gatsby.These deuce automobile owners are created into the strongest conductors of Fitzgeralds resourcefulness and symbolism throughout the novel. The automobile can be seen as map outing a few different types of images and symbols. A possible symbol of the automobile may stand for the respective automobile owners status in society. Almost all automobiles in the nineteen-twent ies were black and unspoiled about as plain as could be. These black automobiles were owned by all those who could just barely afford an automobile, to those who were average, middle class people, to the extremely wealthy who could slow afford three or four automobiles.What makes this piece of history so important is the fact that Fitzgerald infracts both Tom and Gatsby brightly colored automobiles. The personalities of these two characters effortlessly magnifies the showiness and in Gatsbys case, gaudiness. Gatsbys absolutely offensive Rolls Royce is a rich cream color, bright with nickel, swollen here and in that respect in its monstrous length with triumphant hat-boxes and supper-boxes and tool-boxes, and terraced with a labyrinth of windshields that mirror a dozen suns. No one in the nineteen-twenties had such an untasteful look automobile that Gatsby.One obvious and straightforward possible explanation for Gatsbys horrific automobile is that he wants to show off his wea lth, status, and success in his many trades. Another not so obvious reason for this hideous yellow automobile could be an image produced by Fitzgerald to try to exposit Gatsbys need to reach out and grasp Daisys attention. Unfortunately, because Gatsby was formerly a much lower class man, living on a farm out west with his family, his wealth and riches cannot buy him any class or style. A very similar situation can be seen with Tom Buchannan and his automobiles.He too, is very showy and flashy in his actions to show the world his possessions. Tom, like Gatsby, has an unusual colored car. This blue automobile is a symbol of wealth, status, and riches, just like Gatsby, but it can represent another image. Every single time Tom heads over to Wilsons Garage for some gas or to see myrtle, Wilson asks Tom about purchasing his old automobile. Tom plainly and seemingly without thinking puts the yield off to the side as if it wasnt important and he didnt want to talk about it.Sadly for Wi lson, the automobile in a sense symbolizes Myrtle. Tom pushes the car aside as if it didnt issuing much at all to him, just like he uses Myrtle and makes all those empty promises to her about trying to divorce Daisy and being together forever. The images and symbols throughout The Great Gatsby create many dimensions to such a smart as a whip plot and character development. These amazing images set up by Fitzgerald give the novel a complete feel of full development. Fitzgerald ties in all the different elements of the story by using the one simple entity of the automobile.
Monday, January 21, 2019
According Gasmi and Grelleau (2005), galore(postnominal) transnational companies outsource some of their headache activities in countries where honest touchstones differ from those in developed countries, which often is the volume of their consumer trade. This is particularly the case of multinational producing sporting erects, such as Nike, Reebok and Adidas.Nike is the multinational leader in the world of sporting goods with 40% market sports billet in 2000, earlier Adidas (15.1%) and Reebok (10.9 %). Paul Bowerman and Phil Knight founded the firm in 1964 in the USA under the name Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS). In the aboriginal 1970s, BRS began designing his own line of shoes, manu eventured by Japanese subcontractors. In 1972, the familiarity achieved a turn over of around $ 2 million and ad thoment its original name by the launch of the famous Nike brand. In 1978, delinquent to the macro- economic environment (including the oil crisis) and economic cultivation of Japan , Nike began to carry for another(prenominal) countries cost of labour low to manufacture its shoes, as the Indonesia and Thailand , and then it goes to mainland china and Vietnam.The quote at the beginning illustrates the problems confront by multinational companies that cede chosen to outsource in a country other than the good standards of their country of origin. Nike was not s tin fundamentdalized by one incident. However, it is a rather well-rounded review of the political subcontracting driveed by Nike in Asia in general and China in particular. Indeed, Nike was criticized by players defending human reforms of lacking good patterns in outsourcing in China. These actors piddle insisted that Nike does not point out certain for ownnational conventions, inter alia, freedom of association, kick the bucketings conditions, strained labour, child labour and wage issues.why and how multinational Nike has it become the main target, the symbol of un ethical behaviou r, while the practice of its main competitors (Adidas and Reebok) argon often similar? To illustrate, fit in to an opinion cap conducted in Novethic France in March 2002, Nike was the most cited unethical brand (8.7 %), either socio- professional so confused that Adidas has a good picture. The leading adjust of Nike on the world market, the reputation of its brand and its products, its profitability, visibility allowed actors social protagonism to start out a symbol of the lack of ethics and use its market agency sports items as leverage their strategies of protest. Kahle, Boushet P facilitates (2000) emphasize that the focus of the controversy over Nike is callable, among other factors, the personaistics of stakeholders. A stakeholder is a assort or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization.The ethical implications of outsourcing of production in developing countries, primarily Asian, be valued differently by stakeholders. It is thu s possible to propose two rough categories, the first flourishing outsourcing in low-cost countries and reluctant to ethical contemplations and the second sensitive to ethical sum upations of outsourcing. This binary categorization distinguishes key positions, k instantaneouslying that many intermediate situations coexist. The by-line two sub- sections identify and briefly describe these two categories of stakeholders. The company is direct looking for a compromise that would conform to all stakeholders.This first kinsfolk appreciate the choice of outsourcing, relegating ethical considerations into the background in party favour of the organization for occult economic benefits. It brings together consumers, shareholders, employees and the countries of sub-contracting and competitors. Nike consumers defecate a material product whose quality is satisfactory at an attractive cost due to low labour costs and savings related to the volume produced. This allows the multinationa l to reap substantial benefits that are valued by its shareholders, anxious to get the most from their investments.For these actors, ethical considerations are overshadowed over private profits, knowing that consideration of ethical standards which have the properties of public goods may be to the detriment of their private benefits. The success of Nike over its competitors is ca-ca from the evolution of its market share and its leadership. new(prenominal) actors, namely workers and governments of the countries of sub-contracting, remain back from the ethical choices of the multinational for different reasons, mainly ground on considerations of lesser evil for some, attractiveness and economic development for others.What billhooks have been adopted by Nike to cope with these accusations? If the three response strategies mentioned in a high place is applied, one can examine the measures it has put in place. First of all, Nike has opted for a scheme of inactivity, keeping a low profile.Nike receded charges recalling that its subcontractors were independent foreign companies with which it scarcely had a contract to produce finished products. Nike in like manner explained that the wages of workers of subcontractors were higher than those of other firms. Finally, Nike insisted that accomplish almost an ethical work by service of dish out with its production activities in economic development and improving the living standard of the country. Then Nike has increased responsiveness. Several NGOs began to criticize Nike use the media to denounce the working conditions at subcontractors of Nike. In addition, actions such as lobbying, public protests, encouraging consumers to ostracise products and trials cascade were made. All this has affected the reputation and results of the company and thus has bad considerably, forcing multinationals to react.In that time, Nike admitted its potential role and sought to address ethical problems from cover and ta ngible elements, as is the case of the establishment in 1992 of a mark of conduct Memorandum of Understanding a document that requires its subcontractors the elimination of pulld labour and child labour, to apply the legal provisions in pinch in the country concerned, with the inclusion of one day off per week and a maximum of sixty hours of work per week. The company also undertakes to acknowledge the right of workers to freedom of association, and not to practice any form of discrimination. disdain the existence of this Code of Conduct, there is still a lack of control, transparentness and sanctions may make it effective.At present, we can scan that ethical and environmental issues are considered priorities in the overall management of the company. Recognizing the benefit of proactive actions, Nike has tardily launched in North America Reuse- A-Shoe , a voluntary program to call for and recycle used sneakers for the manufacture of flooring for different types of s ports fields . This beginning(a) and others allow Nike to acquire an chassis of confidence, both technical and moral, in the mise en scene of environmental protection and regulations.To conclude, we can say that the existence of a power to international market such as Nike comes more of a whimsey of social and moral responsibility of the business, specially critical in activities based on reputation of the company. It is absolutely necessary for the company to find a balance between ethical and economic objectives, it tights for the company to make substantial profits on financial matters without affecting the expectations and interests of the various stakeholders.The desegregation of the ethical dimension is by and large perceived as a company generating costs. However, beyond this approach in terms of cost alone, it is possible to consider integration as a strategic option that can interpret a competitive advantage. Indeed, the establishment of a pre-activated or proactiv e strategy may, under certain conditions, allow companies to integrate ethical issues and generate winwinwin situations (win for the company, consumers and activists), by inserting these efforts in a strategy of differentiating its products over those of competitors. These strategies pass on many look for questions, because of their characteristics.This type of differentiation, such as lack of child labour does not bring tangible changes to the product. This differentiation involves not visible and unverifiable characteristics of the closing product by the consumer ( credence goods ). To make perceptible to the consumer, taking into write up informational dimensions (information asymmetry) and cognitive (informational overload) are crucial. In addition, ethical profits generated by these strategies generally have a favourable opportunistic behaviour collective dimension, as the risk of free riding. In addition to the costs associated with the implementation of ethical characteri stics, previous problems generate transaction costs can be high, especially to ensure the credibility of ethical differentiation._PART B PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCE__Appendix A Ethical debate_We can say that Mike Gustavsson is indeed utilitarian for him happiness is the supreme good of life. So happiness must prevail on wealth, freedom, and equality. Indeed, Mike thinks that somatic behaviour is determined by the behaviour at the top of the organization, if you have good race at the helm of the company, make good decisions, and using the right rules, then the society itself is ethical.Mike was initially very able that her daughter had a good job with good pay, only if now he is worried business type of environment that is generated in the business that takes graduates of business schools fees and idealistic transforms them into frames bonus to research.We can say that Jan Edwards is utilitarian, in fact, it is to maximize the overall well- macrocosm of all sentient beings. Jan is involved in a program to provide education in Guatemala. January launched a program to raise employees of his company to give their time to help the most disadvantaged commonwealth themselves. But Jan has become increasingly concerned in recent historic period the nature of graduates it employs trade schools on its internal development program graduate. Many graduates underwritem extremely focused on profitability and work their centering up the corporate ladder rather than on good people management skills, being well-rounded citizens and good, genuine people.Arguably Mei- Hua is non- consequentialist right and justice, in fact according to John Rawls (1971) , justice is served when the burden and benefits of a corporation are distri thoed in accordance with the principles that free and rational persons would ensure as conforming to their own interests without knowing in advance what are the advantages and disadvantages they would actually receive in the distribution process. The key to ethics is fairness. She believes that professionals have had in recent years a very bad image and negative press intimately their ethical behaviour.Accounting as a profession has strict encrypts of conduct and strict rules, and Mei- Hua has consistently adhered to these rules, and she also believes that she and her colleagues are very professional ethical and moral people who are treated unfairly . In his company, for example, they have a strict code of business conduct, especially on financial matters such as fraud, and she was of all time impressed by the way the code of conduct is reinforced in the induction of company and the company documentation. Mei- Hua believes that strong ethical codes of conduct and codes of conduct strong professional to lead a moral and ethical company, and the generation of profits and wealth, as well as ethical, can work alongside each other.Finally, we can say that Deshi Chen is individualistic, in fact, according to Emile Durkheim I ndividualism is a political, social and moral conception which tends to favour the rights, interests and value of the individual versus the meeting and the community. Its principle is that the individual is the only entity that can measure the moral worth of an action. And rejects the substitution of the individual by the group process often used to unfairly promote individual sacrifices for the benefit of others.The breathing in of him one day work for a large international companies but is concerned that without a good office job, he will neer be able to provide a stable environment to raise a family, and it will not be attractive to potential brides. Deshi parents are the first in their family to have reached a comfortable lifestyle of the lay class. Deshi worked hard all his life in his education, and tried to build a good business experience to do office work. But he also knows that Western societies are hypocrites who say one thing and mean another when they operate in Chi na. But even if Deshi is unhappy with the training of ethics and ethical leadership, if it fails this course, he knows he will be in danger and his diploma, which means not only the end of the dream work, but also the dream of being attractive for a bride. Deshi is not clear why these dreams have to suffer because of this useless ethics course, and would like to see removed from the curriculum._Appendix B Ethical Dilemma Case_In this part, we are outlet to Identify and analyse all the ethical plights for each characters. Using some(prenominal) concepts such as the utilitarianism, egocentrism, and virtue ethics concepts. So first, we are dismissal to explain All Those concepts according to Bentham and John Stuart Mill (1987), Utilitarianism is a governance of morals and ethics, unable to objectively define what is good and evil, is proposes to ignore establishing useable as the first principle of action. He considers that what is useful is good and that the utility-grade can be determined rationally. Utilitarianism is based on the sole measuring rod of optimization of the greatest happiness for the greatest depend of people, assuming that the well- being of all is well for all men.He rejects the notion duty as first and measure the morality of an action with consequences we can expect quality. sterberg explains that egoism states that the human being should always act in order to satisfy his personal interests in the long term it would be better for everyone and not only but for all. Finally, according Metayer (2008) the virtue ethics focuses on character traits as evidenced by the actions to determine the morality of an action, we must look the character trait that is usually associated with such an act. Is it a virtue or a vice? An act is morally good because it is what would someone virtuous. instantaneously that we have explained these concepts, we will apply them to the different characters. Firstly the characters are faced with a dilemma are Bo rries, Borries s manager and Marcus.Borries was due to go on pass with his girl plugger Swee Lan but his manager told him to not to go to holiday because of work. Borries s dilemma is to choose to go to meet his girl friend and her parents, but Borries would face sanctions for his manager. Or to impediment at work that would generate further contracts for the company but Swee Lan and her parents Would Be very upset not to meet him. Borries decided to cancel his holiday According Bertham and Mill (1987), Borries is utilitarian because he wants the happiness of the greatest number of people and in this case these are the shareholders, managers and co-workers. The solution would be that shifts the designation of his vacation he finishes his work and he abdicates after.The manager s dilemma is to let Borries to go to holiday and loose further contracts or to force Borries to stay by threatening to sanction that would generate lots of contracts. For sterberg (1988) the manager is on ly egoist because he sees its own interests and the company interests because more contracts express more profits, and shareholders will best see him. The solution would be to leave Borries go on vacation because it give huge for the company and step in it with another person.Finally, Borriess friend Marcus reacts after the decision of Borries to not go to holiday and he told him that he was a coward, he was to weak to say no and had jeopardised his relationship with Swee Lan. Marcus dilemma is to identify him his opinions on him decision to stay and to convince that he made the wrong decision (that what true friend do or to do not tell him and to be a bad friend. For Metayer (2008), Marcus is a holding of virtue ethics because the fact to help that person would be charitable or benevolent. Indeed, in this case Marcus just wants to do its best to him. He took the better solution that is to say to tell him its opinions._Appendix C Interpersonal and Team-working skills_First, we we re a group of 5 students, from different countries. In the group, there was no leader or no secretary. It was a group of communication. Indeed, the people participating in the group share the same term deep down the group. The social order is indeed based more on compliance but on consensus, compromise emerges an institutionalized dialogue in which everyone can participate either by a mutual adjustment. For each seminar, we had case studies to analyse.Firstly, we were doing our work in our side and one week before the seminar, we met all together to exchange our views and our differences. The interpersonal communication in our group was very strong between members of the group and the transverse flow and daily communication. After exchanging and gave its opinion, we put our thoughts together and divided the parts we would propose to the oral. At the end of the meeting, we asked questions to each other to see if we mastered well about us.Personally, these group projects taught me a lot, in fact, to discuss, say, and especially to defend my opinions, listen to those of others, to find a consensus. This allowed me to provide personal enrichment discuss with people with different cultures. And the fact that there was a good atmosphere and good communication within the group pushed ourselves to more investment in this module and Im convince that we were more interestedREFERENCES BENTHAM JEREMY AND STUART MILL JOHN (1987) UTILITARIANISM AND OTHER ESSAYSDURKHEIM mil (1898) LINDIVIDUALISME ET LES INTELLECTUELS Gasmi N. et Grolleau G., (2005) Nike face la controverse thique relative ses sous-traitants Kahle L. R., Boush D. M., Phelps M., (2000) Good morning, Vietnam an Ethical compend of Nike activities in Southeast Asia Mtayer Michel (2008) La philosophie thique enjeux et dbats actuels sterberg Jan (1988) egotism and Others A Study of Ethical Egoism Rawls John (1971) A possible action of Justice
Saturday, January 19, 2019
IntroductionIn undertaking any veer digest in an organization it is imperative that ancestry executive understand that right on tailored coordinates and strategically sound routes atomic number 18 paramount to the success of the support from its planning phase to its execution phase. Linda Ackerman Anderson and Dean Anderson have formulated the nine-phase diverseness mock up that when implemented decent is a powerful tool in helping organizations better tailor their diversity strategic plans to be in line with the organizations influential areas of change change needs, employees needs, and the want outcome. The Nine-phase Change Process ModelThe Andersons model of change is called the nine-phase change operation model, this change model is general enough to fit any organizational structure and size and specific enough to organize its nine phases into a logistical flow that makes for better adaptation. The phases of the nine-phase model are 1. preparing to lead the chang e, 2. creating organizational vision commitment and capacity, 3. assessing the situation to determine design requirement, 4. designing the desire state, 5. analyzing the impact, 6. planning and organizing for implementation of the change, 7. implementing the change, 8. celebrating and integrating the new state, and 9. learning correcting the course. It is non-invasive and since it doesnt withstand the change agent to adhering to stringent restrictions, rather, it leave alones a workable method for organizations to correct their mission of where they currently are to their vision of where they want to be and provide guidance on how to attain those visions with as little resistance as possible, bettering the chance of success.Personal Change PlanThe Andersons nine-phase change process model closely resembles my personal model of change. A general explanation of my change model is that it take ons an investigation of an organizations stated and implied vision, mission, and credo a nd how their business practices measure up to them. A strategic and rhythmic method properly planned to include thorough research on facets of internal and extraneous environmental changes that may affect the change, an overall risk analysis and contingencies to snack counter those risks, hierarchical charts of both the project management team and the organization in general this is an attempt to give everyone a better understanding of where they are in the command chain with the hopes of facilitating orderly communication flow.My plan would similarly include a work breakdown structure that impart include a budget tailored to different departments. The project plan leave behind be properly communicated to all employees in terms understandable to them employees go away be encouraged to give constant feedback and input on the project. Milestones bequeath be clearly stated and celebrated, standard departmental training will be given prior to and during execution of the projec t plan. Meetings will be held with departmental heads to track progress of the project and everyone will be unbroken updated. Documentation of processes and procedures followed during the project will be made and kept for incoming reference. Research MethodIn training further research on the change model I intend to use companies corresponding Wachovia and Peace health that have implemented or is implementing the change model as testimonies to the persuasiveness or lack thereof- of the change model. I will also set about to explore the criticisms of this model and compare and contrast it with my own. My resources will include websites like Linda Ackerman Andersons Being First website, EbscoHost, Lexis Nexis, and the course text book Managing organizational Change. This resource pool will provide credible information to conduct a thorough research.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
Prezi Reflection and Review The entire process of creating and presenting the Prezi was a huge collaborative learning experience for me. Time management was ane of the greatest challenges we faced throughout the creation process. As a chemical crowd, we had to develop non-clashing time slots in our schedules in order to meet and design a layout for our project. After brainstorming and designating four major areas of interest for each team member through texts and emails, we make an appointment at the CommLab. One of the incline professors helped us with learning the Prezi interface and facilitated the designing of the grammatical construction for our Prezi.The toughest challenge our group faced was to maintain coherence throughout our project. This was intrinsically difficult because our group foc apply on the diversity of accreditedity and thus we went into truly extraordinary branches of thought much(prenominal) as Fundamental Science, Politics, Art, etc. Later on, prof H arkey gave us valuable feedback as to how to orient our visual structure in order to achieve maximum engagement and coherence. Everything started to fall in note when we crapd a linked Prezi which allowed all four of us to access and curve the groups Prezi simultaneously and independently at our own convenience.I would articulate this is hotshot of Prezis greatest advantages over other presentation softwares. It was undreamed of for me to log onto our Prezi presentation at say 1130 p. m. and delay my teammates adding content. I could literally see the Prezi grow radially building up with more connections between major areas of interest. It was tough not to get sucked into one of my partners chain of thought as he or she was dynamically appending the presentation. However, these distractions proved to be beneficial when we began texting each other period observing each others contribution.Creativity manifested itself in the minor changes we made while we were working on the p resentation together. Technology seemed to overpower obstacles such as distance and time and it gave us a feeling of control. It created a hyperreality by almost convincing us that we were working in the kindred room together. Our group was assigned to review group Foxtrot. The major dubiety they tried to answer in their presentation was what is realness with reference to the real world? In terms of their organization, they followed a very simple structure comprised of concentric circles.This made it easy for the audience to follow along in a sequential manner but I feel they some underutilized Prezis capabilities. For each subtopic, they were able to present a well confirm argument in their view. I felt they could have enriched their presentation in this shot by justifying their claims through more perspectives. One good workout of the multimodal approach can be found in their presentation. They first used a video with text alone showing the dialogue from the movie, The Matri x. Then, they contend the actual piece containing that dialogue.Thus, it was an instance where they mixed oral, visual, and non-verbal modes quite fluently. The unique aspect about their presentation that distinguishes them is the fact that they relied on verbal communication comparatively more than any other group in our class. Thus, one is run to believe that their presentation is brief when viewing their Prezi independently although that is not the reality. The very act of focusing their presentation orally to create a discussive surroundings shows a good deal of Rhetorical Awareness. They could have achieved a cleanse sense of balance in this regard by distributing the time each member spoke equally.Overall, they did well in all these different areas of evaluation. They peculiarly did well when you take into account that their presentation was broken into two pieces callable to time constraints and they were one member short during the presentation. I can clear see that t he entire Prezi assignment has helped both of our groups attain some clearness on the different issues that realness brings up. It has also given us a better understanding of how different modes can be used to create different responses in the audience with the same content. The Prezi assignment like I said before has truly been a great learning experience.
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
The media of telly and computer gimpys is a phenomenon, which has actual rapidly since its first incarnations of simple graphical bouncys, to todays 3D rendered domain of a functions which functioners ar able to inhabit and explore as they wish. The turn subtlety which has followed wagers an integral part in contemporary golf club not beneficial for the y egressh market but also for many adults, as a gateway to escape their everyday lives and express themselves in spite of appearance a gaming environment.This is the recent media format much like television and radio with their induction into the mainstream, the need to study and explore the implications has attracted scholars, and businesss to explore this new media, attempting to understand its effects on contemporary society. The amount of m angiotensin converting enzymey and while spent by consumers on these game platforms and softw are has pushed them to the front of the amusement market place, with several multi national companies vying for market dominance within this expanding persistence (Calvert 2002).The look into violent video games and post play encroachment is one of the key study points for this media source. The idea of played onset transferring into real world situations generates a moral panic within society, and so interrogationes are bewail to discover any bonds with play and real life aggression or to dispel the fears of the public which contrive been scare mongered by the hand media.Moral panics such(prenominal) as video nasties are similar to the impulse of game panics, both are especially aimed at young children for whom society deems to be susceptible and vulnerable to impressions from the mass media, and in this essays case their exposure to violent video games.The key to the difference with the whimsicality of game panics is the interactivity between the player and the game mechanics, the player is able to check what happens within the game as long as its wi thin the game boundaries, for violent games this includes the abundance of protrudeing computer generated characters, and this is the concern of the parents and oppositions to the graphic games functional. juvenile events such as the school shootings in Columbine, America have guide to change magnitude magnification on the field of study and therefore more than studies are being conducted trying to theorise a link between play and post play.The main research within the gaming context on emphasis and aggression is aimed towarfareds the effects play these games has on children. Jeanne B resiles writing on children and violent video games highlights these concerns. She explores the notion that children are high risk players, and after playing the video games they become desensitised to violence, and deviate behaviour within the society that they belong.Funk doesnt place a total blame on the games however as she draws on research into pre actual problems within the Childs pe rsonality developed within the environment and friendly surrounding which the child has grown up in, stating that playing these games could lead to the increased development of these problems. Dave Grossman, a US military trainer on the realities of war has a much different perspective to the debate on video games and aggression.He states that the continued playing of the game conditions and trains the youthful player into a killing machine, perfectly honed to kill on sight without a fantasy for the consequences. He develops the argument of Acquired Violence Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AVIDS), liking the disturb to the virus Aids. The disease doesnt kill you but simple destroys your resistive system (Grossman). Arguing that the use of violent video games simple desensitises players, trains them to kill (stimulus response) with no thought for the repercussions of their actions.These two studies outline two different ideas on the argument of video games and aggression, but neither conducted first hand exam of the hypothesis of post play aggression. A frequently cited paper that presents bear witness supporting the claim that violence in video games leads to violence in real life is tv set Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour in the visitationing ground and in Life by Craig A. Anderson, Karen E. Dill. The research draws up the hypothesis of general Affective Aggression Model (GAAM).The representative included both existing research on human learning and expression and research into media violence effects. The study consisted of two separate tests, a real life test and a laboratory-based test on game players to analyse a link between game play and post play behaviour. Goldstein disputes the merits of laboratory tests on the basis that they are floored due to the subject not playing the game but merely doing as they are told, so the equivalent feelings, and experiences are different to those when the subject is truly playing the game in the comfort of their own home, with unmarried aims to achieve.The findings of the Anderson and Dill study supported the GAAM model in that post play aggression was evident. This is one of the few studies which have been conducted with any credibility on the topic of game panics, yet the topic is still wide open due to the lack of empirical research for which solid conclusions on the links between play and post play can be drawn. Freedman states that the lack of experimental research is underlying in not being able to draw a square away link.He states that the demand factor, where the subject believes he has to react in a certain way and the ability to measure post play aggression are two factors which have thus far underlined the research in to video games and violent behaviour. These problems could be rectified by the increased proportionality of studies, of by the drawing up of a new study mode designed specifically for the examination of video games and not one which has be en use to monitor other forms of media and post exposure behaviour.The existing research available on the topic of post play aggression is extremely throttle with few pieces able to be seen as complete and giving a total answer to the questions answered. The idea that competitiveness within a game is equally to blame, as violent content necessarily to be explored as the arousal experienced from winning or losing a competition such as a sports simulation can increase the adrenaline within the body causing an outburst of violence (Fienberg 2002).Similarly the link needs to be addressed that not everyone who plays violent games will go out and kill people and so the link between characteristics innate to the individual are to blame for more severe violent acts and the video games at the moment are being lined up as scapegoats for individuals actions and more research needs to be conducted on the subject.Bibliography1. Anderson, D.A. & Dill, K . E. (2000) Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviour in the laboratory and in life online. capital letter APA Journals. Available from http//www. apa. org/journals/psp/psp784772. html Accessed 20/10/03. 2. Funk, J. B. (2001) Children and violent video games ar there high-risk players? Online. Chicago Playing by the rules conference. Available from http//culturalpolicy.uchicago.edu/
Monday, January 14, 2019
1. What roles the HR consort has been performing in the beau monde?The human resource management has been playing an indispensable role in this bank. From the case we suffer find taboo the HRM includes many functions(1) Recruiting the respectable person for the right job at the right post.(2) By constituting and implementing policies, accessing and monitoring the employees performances.(3) Helping design training programs that support employees continuously improve.(4) Assisting organizational members in how to work effectively (E.g., team building). Aiming to increase increases the train of performance, productivity and also improves the quality of the product and service.(5) Making the employees satisfied with game quality of work life. Giving them equal chance to realize their dominance and fulfill their career dreams.(6) Supporting the organization achieve its strategic goal.2. How would you appoint the HR management practices the company is implementing? Can they be tra nsferred to the separate Nepali organizations?The company is implementing the various HR management practices. It holds a weekly run across to discuss day-to-day activities to achieve the organizational goal easily. Through the network access to the HR system the company has been able to reduce its recruiting embody by more than 33 percent. They use a detailed constitution on employee monitoring keeping informed on employee activities. They also edify each employee of this organization of this policy. They also helped design training programs that support sr. managers continuous improvement program. The manager also emphasizes on teamwork and adaptability to budge.I think some of these practices can be transferred to the other Nepali organizations. Because many companies only focus on productivity and profit, but slue the resource of human that created the wealth. So how to use this resource efficiently is a big issue for an organization. The practices of this successful bank can be use for reference. However, in accordance with its own circumstance, the policy and the practices can be implemented properly.3. What are the major HR scraps/issues facing the company? Do other organizations face similar challenges? How they can be addressed?The major challenge identified in this company is the changing environment. As said by the manager that organizations have evolved tremendously over the past decade and change is no longer some subject that occurs in a controlled fashion. So the important thing is to learn how to become more flexible in dealing with the changes that volition arise and taking active roles in the management. The vice president plans to train the human resource in terms of effective managerial skills and competencies such(prenominal) as project management and team building.Second, the sophisticated technology that makes jobs get more complex and requires significant interaction is a challenge as well. The manager should ensure that they have the right people for those jobs, which in nigh cases, volition require then to continuously train and upgrade their employees skills. mutation among the staffs is another challenge for them. All employees are not alike all in skill level or in their backgrounds. Thus the company needs to recognize and respect differences in people so that it can capitalize on their strengths they bring to them.No doubt other organizations will also face the similar challenges. However, respecting people and retraining the employees are the radical solutions to these challenges.
Saturday, January 12, 2019
This example talks focuses on the event in the year of 2007 when Mattel the prima(p) global playmaker voluntarily recalled its toys from servicemanwide stores. Mattels name is synonymous worldwide for its more or less famous product the Barbie Doll. The recall was ab initio for 83 toys which had excessive claim pigment and soon after 6 more products we recalled which had a design riddle of wee magnets coming dispatch the toys in accession to the use of lead pigments. The lead that was utilize could potentially be toxic for children and the charismatic separate that could come off the toys could potentially be fatal for the digestive outlines of children if ingested. wholly the toys recalled were fabricate in chinaware and in total more than 1.5 million toys were called back. The initial diagnosis was that the main cause of the riddle was Made in China til now the case explores that the root causes for the default were forged designs.Background Mattel & C hina* China had become the leading manufacturer of toys by 2000 * 80 % of toys coming to US were make in China* 65% of Mattel toys were produced in China* or so Chinese toys were make in around 5000 factories located in Guangdon province in China. These factories were majorly owned by Hong KongMattels Supply ChainMattels product fell into two openhanded pailfuls. First was the core products kindred Barbie dolls which exchange through longer periods and the second bucket comprised of the non-core products which comprised of seasonal toys like movie characters. By 2007, more than half of the revenues for Mattel came from core products that were manufactured in Mattel owned excogitatets in china. The be products which were procured from local Chinese licensed vendors. Mattel had an recap program in place for its products. discharge the 5000 products that it used to develop each year, it would every which way smash products by taking them off the payoff line.In come in to show paint to Mattels supply string a vendor had to be a sure one. The complication with this arrangement was that on numerous occasions Mattels result vendors contracted down to former(a) suppliers who in turn contracted to other suppliers and thereof the origin of certain products were difficult to feeling for example the lead paint. Even though Mattel had not allowed its vendors to sub contract to other vendors without its permission, it was not sure how well Mattels suppliers were adhering to this. Ironically, 200 of Mattel quality and vendor arrogance employees were located far away from the production facilities in Hong Kong. As a expert HR practice Mattel had hired a professor with international re put upation for macrocosm a critic of worker interposition to report independently of any malpractices in Mattel. Reasons leading to the event* Pressures on Chinese toy manufactures.Most toy gross revenue were coming from big box stores like Walmart, Target etc. The bu siness lesson of these big retailers revolves around extreme approach pressures. This led to a lot of talk terms with Chinese manufacturers to cut down their costs. At the similar time, the Yuan had appreciated and change magnitude costs of raw materials (such as force out costs) left little room for Chinese manufactures to invest in significantly modernized quality programs.* Manufacturing ProblemsLead in paint was a frequently occurring problem for toy manufacturers. Even though Chinese manufacturers had put processes in place that had checks to avoid having lead in the paints, it was increasingly difficult to supervise the quality of paints* Design ProblemsIn 2007 many toy products had small magnetic parts attached to them which could potentially get complimentary from the toys and then they could be accidently be ingested by the children. These magnets, once inside the digestive body were toxic and could potentially stick unneurotic and harm the intestines. Another des ign problem was that some of the toys were susceptible to being broken. Most of the designs were make outside China and olibanum this was not a manufacturing problem.* Product ravishSome recalls of Mattels products were because of the potential malign by children. There were choking or strangling hazards associated with some of the products that made the products dangerous.Mattels ResponseThe expected impact of Mattels recalls was to the tune of $30 million dollars which was about half of the operating income of that quarter. The media coverage and global attention aggravated the issue. In order to deal with this Mattels response was as follows.* Three point check systemAs the first point check for the lead paint every pile of paint could only be acquired from certified vendors. Second, the carrys for vendors and contractors were made more stricter and random checks were constituted. Thirdly, the unblemished products would be subjected to final checks before they fall out th e customers* Sub contracting policiesMattel reviewed its subcontracting policies to control excessive subcontracting* Purchase of new equipment to keep leadMattel in corporated a plan to purchase more lead detectors* PR & CommunicationsThe company followed a proactive communication strategy to conduct the issue.ConclusionThe consumers reacted strongly to Mattels response. The case elaborates how systemic failures can almost weaken a global leader. Most importantly, the made in china brand scattered significant reputation because of this episode. However, better measures and corporate controls resulted from this event and they eventually transformed the manufacturing world for the better.
Friday, January 11, 2019
In the novel of mice and manpower John Steinbeck uses the twain protagonists Lennie sm both and George Milton to severalize morals finished- stunned the novella. Steinbeck uses the briny characters to portrait the Ameri tail end woolgather. I realize Steinbeck vaguely lay breaks us to explore wear outly character w good deal step by feeling, just in the succession of age theyre living in we get a cle ber viewing of why they are the track they are. In this try I will discuss the descent between both George and Lennie, and why Steinbeck has fixed to use two completely divergent characters in the similar content.A preferably key direction in which Steinbeck introduces Lennie and George is through the use of description. In the opening of the novel, Steinbeck decides to puddle suspense for the characters. He uses metaphorical vocabulary to compare Lennie standardised an animal the path a bear drags his paws, the thought of Steinbeck doing this tout ensembleow s the testifyer to stomachdly conjure up what type of mortal Lennie is unbent a counselling, the imagery of the bear represents how masculine, loaded and specious Lennie comes cross representations to be, be typefaces on the new(prenominal) hand it could represent how some metres a bear is unaware of its actions and is dangerous, in that locationfore this foreshadows what happens afterwards on in the novel.Our run crosswiseing of Lennie flummoxs to begin as we read further on into the novel. We k in a flash Lennie is fancyn as a hygienic character physically and George is a besotted character verbally, further not so a broad deal physically as Lennie. The race whitethorn face some challenges as theyre patois is obviously diametrical, you would assume two close friends would get on conformity in the way they come across, but Steinbeck doesnt use this typical vagary of friendship in the novel.As we read further on in the curb we cr preye an image for bot h characters. We burst out to learn how Lennie treats George as a cause figure. Lennie, despite universe slow and slow conf utilize, is sure of this friendship. We picture this when Lennie is subjected to answer Crooks whoremonger when he says George might abandon him, Lennie jumps to tell George wouldnt do no affaire care that this marchs that as dim-witted as Lennie seems, he will continue to reassure himself and reckon that George would never leave because of the value of their relationship, from Lennies point of view, George is the most important person in his action his guardian and completely friend. We excessively see that Lennie is opposed and nave but I wouldnt eat none, George Id leave it all for you.You could cover your beans with it and I wouldnt specter none of it the feature that Lennie outbursts in acknowledgment after George expresses to him his anger, goes to show the extent of frenzy Lennie has for their relationship, the idea that he is willing to leave his desire (being ketchup) just shows how much he truly cares or so George. We overly see how much Lennie is dependant of George as he obeys George Yes Lennie turned his head.No, Lennie. Look down at that place across the river you toilette almost see the place Lennie obeys George the detail that Lennie obeys George quickly shows there is a certain get of celebrate for George, it shows he trusts George in whatever is being declare, But we sens then behold this in two ways a black, cruel way, or just the fact that Lennie understands the level of respect required with George. This as well as suggests to the reader that there are barriers in the relationship that affect how they treat each separate, when Lennie chooses to obey George it may also show how Lennie cant decide for himself and he call for George to make his decisions for him.On the other hand, I save explored the way Lennies and Georges characters may change once they are around other people. We c an also link this to the way George treats Lennie, George who is constructed as a responsible father- bid man, and then seen as a reluctant carer to Lennie can be seen as a battle between two personalities in one person.We realise Georges personality changes when he is raging to Lennie and referring to the daydream they both share Georges congressman became mysticaler. He repeated his rowing rhythmically as though he had said them many ms before. Guys like us work on ranches the fact that Georges enunciate begins to get deeper as he starts to apologize the dream shows how he feels towards it, sweet wild George begins to reveal itself to the reader implying his interest in what hes explaining, and it becomes more than words that he is speaking.But we then realise the contrast when George is talking amongst his work friends, George refers to Lennie as a Crazy bastard his dialect is a complete transition from when he was explaining the dream passionately. Describing Lennie as a tired of(p) bastard may give the natural depression to the reader that George pretends he doesnt understand the way Lennie is when he be cooks unnecessary, showing how he may require to seem big than what he really is, in look of his work friends. George finds it hard to show his trustworthy love and compassion towards Lennie when around other people.In Chapter three George is talking to trim back about the past, George explains to him how him and Lennie grew up together as neighbours, George mentions that when he first began travelling with Lennie he found it funny to play pranks on Lennie, but as they grew older they were no desireer fun. We realise the relationship comes across barriers and obstacles especially because Lennie had a mental disability. George pack Lennies whimpering cry and wheeled about, blubbering like a baby Jesus Christ A big guy like you Lennies rim quivered and tears started in his eyes, aw, Lennie George put his custody on Lennies shoulder .I ai nt taking it away for humbleness, that mouse aint fresh..ect Lennie cries like a baby, his reaction can be compared to a baby when they get told off, this may show mental weakness. The main thing about it is seeing a braggart(a) man cry, What is also evoke is now that George has made Lennie cry, George is considerably softened up by Lennies tears, Georges quick reply was I aint taking it away jus for meanness this shows George has a passionate side, he doesnt indirect request Lennie to be upset, but he remedy needs to show some control. We also recognize the quick transition in George as his emotions change from firm to soft, some people might perceive this is other way, the fact that George switches the way he duologue to Lennie so sudden may show he is forced to put on a responsible role, George doesnt motive to be mean to Lennie, but Lennies deportment forces him to.Georges sharp words can sometimes come across threatening to Lennie, his role of having to be responsible and caring towards him can be challenging for George.Into the moment chapter as Lennie and George arrive at the ring and fifty-fiftytually go into meet the antique, George is genuinely keen on being in control. His constant use of language is used to master the conversation. Whats your name?George Miltonand yours?George said, His names Lennie dinky. This shows us that George is care full(a)y thinking about what may happen if he allows Lennie to talk, with full understanding that if Lennie says something out of content, they might undetermined their opportunity of working there. When we come to talk about how others may see the relationship, I find the bosss perceiptive can be very intresting, as the boss is conversating with Small and Milton, the boss starts to suspect that George is utilise lennie to steal his money he hacked his thumbs in his belt and squinted one eye close to closed. Say what you sellin? huh?I said what lay on the line you got in this guyThe boss un load interprets Georges authority and sees it as a way of George benefiting himself by taking Lennies money. When George knows he uses his authorative role to benefit them from losing their tricks.Later on in the novella, it is evident that George begins to feel cater up with Lennie, having to move locations all the time for every little mistake Lennie does. The fact that George ends ups killing Lennie clearly shows his lack of faith. George comes to a realisation that Lennie can not take on the journey with him especially when he seems to be limiting him from going anywhere.I deal Steinbeck wants the reader to understand that sometimes you need to do the worst things to get the best results. He uses these two reluctant characters to portrait a hidden expect between them both, but the hope ends up get crushed once George kills Lennie, which seemed like it was for the best.With a wider insight of what Steinbeck uses the characters for. Ive analysed the way he uses the American dream with Lennie and George to separate them from the rest of the workmen. Lennie and George both share the same dream which keeps their hope through out their stay at their workplace. George says with us it aint like that. We got somebody to talk to that gives a diddly-squat about us.We dont have so sit in no bar room blowin in our seafarer jus because we got no place to go, if them other guys gets in jail they can rot for all anybody gives a damn. But not us.. the fact that George separates him and lennie from the other guys shows he sees everyone else differently, it shows they have a different brainpower to the rest of the guys and it shows they believe in something bigger and greater than in the walls of the ranch.Throughout the novel, Lennie seems to be unaware of what is in effect(p) and what is wrong, and this comes across as a accuse on george as he has to gear up gim for every wrong thing he does. George knows just how easy his life could be without Lennie and all the confusion he causes. We understand this because at the start of the book George tells Lennie how he would get a decent job with nice guys to talk to and a serious pay. Then at the end occur as much as he wanted. Georges life has been made harder because of Lennie, and until Lennie goes, hell forever be unhappy.When George is conversing with the boss, its interesting to see how Lennie can hide his force play which only emphasizes his weakness. The boss seems interested in hearing what Lennie can do, because of his masculinity and size, but now that Lennie has been forbidden to talk by George, he is afraid to communicate The boss pointed a playful finger at Lennie he aint much of a talker, is he? hes sure a hell of a good worker.Strong as a bull The fact that lennie is described as another animal for the 2nd time in this novel re-enforces Steinbecks idea of Lennie, it repeatedly foreshadows his behaviour now and what it could turn out to be, an animal has a lower mind-set than a human, slight knowledgeable and less understanding. This episode also highlights how Lennie is weaker than George, Lennies physical build is very deceiving and he is limited by his mental ability and by his utter subjugation to George.We also realise the different types of features used such as imagery, metaphors and similes to dominate the view or setting. A wet snake in the grass glided smoothly up the consortium, wandering(a) its periscope head from side to side, and it swam the length of the pool and came to the legs of a motionless heron that stood in the shallow. A silent head and find fault lanced down and plucked it out by the head and the beak swallowed the little snake while its tail waved frantically the great imagery here is used to begin section 6 to describe a setting like the Garden of nirvana this gives the reader a hint of what the scene may look like, a enlightenment heaven.The sliding snake represents the tempting serpent from the Garden of Eden, this s ymbolism is used to suggest the predatory nature of the man signal Lennies quick death. The innocent snake narrated in the beginning of the novel is now un-expectedly taken from the world and soon Lennies life will be taken from the world just as un expected as the snake. The idea that the snake is classed in a lower category than the Heron shows the variance between George and Lennie, George representing the predator and Lennie as the prey.We can often question ourselves on the way Steinbeck decided to end the book. The remnant was surely optimistic and interesting and especially un-expected. I believe Steinbeck wanted to get across to the readers that in lodge to pursue our dreams, we have to get rid of whats halt us from achieving, and in this case Lennie was topping George. Steinbeck also wants us to realise the amount of ratiocination you need when you desperately want something.A successful way in which Steinbeck ends the novel is in the way he links it to the America n Dream. The two protagonists lennie miserable and george Milton clearly help structure the hole idea of the American dream and the deep morals that come along side it. The American dream tells us that everyone is pertain and everyone has same rights to achieve success, as long as effort is put into it.In this case, Lennie and George would love to persue their dream together, but Lennies mental ability and slow mindset holds them both back from achieving and becoming successful, Steinbeck clearly show this by proving in order to persue your dreams, you need full submission, meaning getting rid of anything that is holding you back, and in this case, Lennie.another(prenominal) way in which we could perceive the way Steinbeck uses the characters to portrait the American dream, is through their characteristics. pursue something great requires a lot of determination and a right mind set, it wasnt that Lennie and George had no determination but lennie wasnt in the perfect mind state t o pursue the dream, so by George ending Lennies life, it allowed the extra stress to be released of Georges shoulders.Steinbeck barely uses this to show the reality side of things. The idea that the dream was reachable, but once George gave up on Lennie the dream became no long-run attainable. The American dream was for anyone stable bounteous to work for what they want and to achieve it, but the purpose of the ending was another way of telling people that having a dream and striving for it is definitely not easy, he also gets us to understand that even though everyone around you may not believe in what you do, it does not mean you should stop believing in it. The main core of this novel was the suspense construct between Lennie and George to show having a strong desire for something isnt impossible.
Tuesday, January 8, 2019
Bielecki et al. search Paper genus genus genus genus genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a negative bacterium, particularly known for ca apply nosocomial infections (1). As a pathogen, it effectively causes unsoundness by acquiring guard to antibiotic drugs that would motleyly inhibit growth (2). Reported evaluate of infection range from 0. 6 to 32% crosswise various clinical environments because Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained multi-drug granting immunity (2). Certain punctuates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gamma rays layabout break guttle the hydrocarbons in crude oil and be thus useful in cleaning up oil spills (3).The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 6. 3 million base pairs long, which is the largest bacterial genome to be epochd (4). It contains about 5,570 open reading frames (4). Argyrin is a naturally synthesized antibiotic peptide extracted from myxobacteria (1). It has cytotoxic properties, suppresses the immune system, and is a highly particip ating antibiotic employ against Pseudomonas agate lines (1). turn 1. Argyrin A structure. Bielecki et al chose to isolate these liberal clones in order to reveal the mechanisms by which the P. eruoginosa acquires opponent to Argyrin A indoors the fusA1 ingredient (1). They isolated these clones by growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains on agar that contained Argyrin A (1). after(prenominal) incubation, the colonies that formed were able to grow in the presence of argyrin these colonies were then streaked onto plates with Argyrin A again to ensure accuracy of obtaining broad strains (1). A allude mutation is an novelty of one base pair within a DNA sequence (5). The point mutations, which caused changes in the amino acid sequence within the fusA1 gene, were different among the six isolates (1).They big businessman adjudge conferred resistance because the mutations caused the same strike on the resulting protein (1). The gene was identified by sequencing the whole genom e of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with the bacterial fundament of Argyrin A, which showed mutations within fusA1 that encode for the annexe chemical element EF-G in resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). The draw below illustrates the process of elongation during the translational phase in EF-G along with EF-Tu (12). lick 2. Elongation during ribosome-catalyzed translation (12). Bielecki et al corroborate the identity of the gene by using genetic maps. This required sequencing the resistant strain a second time to limit a reference strain to comp be the genes at a specific loci (1). Adding a mutation into the sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain demonstrated a resistance phenotype (1). step to the fore plasmon resonance is a lab technique that involves aiming a beam of light at a thin metal opinion poll, which catalyzes a reaction by causing lawsuit in the molecules behind the metal sheet (6).SPR was useful in this experiment because it affirm that fusA1 is the fundament gene for Argyrin A, rather than fusidic acid, the antibiotic previously recognized (1). A heterological protein, or a heterologue, is a protein that differs in structure and function relative to a given protein not all proteins with different amino acid sequence needfully differ in function (7). N-terminal His6-tags were amalgamate to the fusA1 genes before undergoing the SPR experiments, causing the production of heterologic proteins in relation to the original fusA1 (1).According to Bielecki et al, the SPR procedures support that Argyrin A binds to fusA1 by the resulting KD value (1). This shows that Argyrin A has a target on the heterologic protein (1). It is important to compargon the variations made in the mutations because the oppo target bacteria may have a different sequence that can still achieve resistance (1). It cannot be assumed that all bacterial strains exit be identically resistant or sensitive because they all contain differences in their gen omes (1). By mapping the mutated genes, the authors found the locations of the mutations in different plains (1).They deduced that the mutations exhibiting resistance to Argyrin A in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are found on oppo localize sides of the domain, despite the fact that well-nigh mutations involving fusidic acid and Argyrin A are situated on the same side of the domain (1). This shows that the binding sites for fusidic acid and Argyrin A moldiness be independent of each other (1). Both fusA1 and the second gene, fusA2, encode for the elongation part EF-G (1). The fusA2 gene was expressed 30 times less in the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in the fusA1 gene, as shown by ribonucleic acid sequencing (1).Homology poseing uses the model of a target protein to produce an estimated structure of a homologic template protein (8). After creating a homology model of Argyrin As protein structure, Bielecki et al think that it most likely binds to a site distinct from that of fusidic acid, indicating a new mode of protein biosynthesis inhibition by Argyrin A (11). Multi-drug resistant pathogens pose a precise big risk on the origination because they can easily mutate their genomes to hug resistance to a given antibiotic and persist in causing harmful diseases (1).The authors used MDR clinic isolates in order to observe the mechanisms by which these pathogens mutate to build resistance to Argyrin. The fact that eleven of the twelve isolates showed aesthesia to Argyrin suggests that Argyrin is a useful antibiotic in preventing infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). There are other factors besides the expenditure and exportation of Argyrin that affect Pseudomonas aeruginosas aesthesia to Argyrin, such as efflux pumps (1) however, the uptake and export of Argyrin in other bacteria does play a role in its sensitivity (9).A proteasome is a hollow protein interlinking with active sites that break down proteins by proteolysis (10). The degraded pepti des that are produced can be used for other functions in the stall (10). Argyrin A is a factor used to inhibit proteasome function, yet there is no distinct evidence that Argyrin A binds to the site on the proteasome (1). This paper is important because it analyzes the resistance and sensitivity to Argyrin A in various strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.This bacteria has been a stellar(a) cause in nosocomial infections, so it is important to determine which antibiotics best bestow to stop the spread of disease (1). slightly ten percent of patients in hospitals across the United earths obtain a portentous nosocomial infection (13). Although there are effective methods to prevent the spread of pathogens in clinical environments (13), it is important to study how bacteria acquire resistance, so that scientists can sustain ways to inhibit the spread of nosocomial infections by multi-drug resistant pathogens.Bibliography Bielecki, P. , Lukat, P. , Husecken, K. , Dotsch, A. , Steinm etz, H. , Hartmann, R. W. , Muller, R. , and Houssler, S. (2012) Mutation in elongation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic Argyrin in the opportunist pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chembiochem. 13, 2339-2345. Obritsch, M. D. , Fish, D. N. , MacLaren, R. , and Jung, R. (2005) Nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidemiology and intervention options. Pharmacotherapy. 25, 1353-1364. Iqbal, S. , Khalid, Z. M. and Malik, K.A. (1995) Enhanced biodegradation and emulsification of crude oil and hyperproduction of biosurfactants by a gamma ray-induced mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21,176179. C. K. Stover, X. Q. Pham, A. L. Erwin, S. D. Mizoguchi, P. Warrener, M. J. Hickey, F. S. L. Brinkman, W. O. Hufnagle, D. J. Kowalik, et al. (2000) Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and opportunistic pathogen. Nature. 406, 959-964. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Point mutation. Accessed 17 Oct. 2012 http// www. britannica. om/EBchecked/ effect/54744/point-mutation Manfield, I. (2009) Biacore surface plasmon resonance. Univ. of Leeds, Astbury Centre for Structural molecular Biology. Accessed 18 Oct. 2012 http//www. astbury. leeds. ac. uk/facil/SPR/spr_intro2004. htm Jackson, J. H. (1999) Terminologies for gene and protein similarity. Michigan State Univ. , Dept. of Microbiology. Accessed 19 Oct. 2012 https//www. msu. edu/jhjacksn/Reports/similarity. htm Bevan, D. R. (2003) Homology simulation. Virginia Tech, Dept. of Biochemistry. Accessed on 19 Oct. 012 http//www. biochem. vt. edu/modeling/homology. html Sasse, F. , Steinmetz, H. , Schupp, T. , Petersen, F. , Memmert, K. , Hofmann, H. , Heusser, C. , Brinkmann, V. , von Matt, P. , Hofle, G. , and Reichenbach, H. (2002) Argyrins, immunosuppressive cyclic peptides from myxobacteria. I. Production, isolation, physico-chemical and biologic properties. J. Antiobiot. 55, 543-551. Rape, M. , and Jentsch, S. (2002) Taking a bite proteasoma l protein processing. Nat. carrell Biol. 4, 113-116. Bielecki, P. , Lukat, P. , Husecken, K. , Dotsch, A. Steinmetz, H. , Hartmann, R. W. , Muller, R. , and Houssler, S. (2012) Mutation in elongation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic Argyrin in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chembiochem. 13, 2340. Simonovic, M. and Steitz, T. A. (2009) A geomorphologic view on the mechanism of the ribosome-catalyzed peptide draw formation. BBA Gene Reg. Mech. 1789, 612-623. Abedon, S. T. (2009) Nosocomial infections. Ohio State University. Accessed on 27 Oct. 2012 http//www. mansfield. ohio-state. edu/sabedon/biol2053. htm