Saturday, August 31, 2019
Lady Macbeth: In the play Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ written by Shakespeare the character Lady Macbeth is duplicitous. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦look like thÃ¢â¬â¢innocent flower, But be the serpent underÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ (I, vi, 64-65). The snake and the flower was a reference towards Macbeth although it depicts Lady Macbeth as well. Since she is under the same curse as Macbeth, because she has the same name, she is equally affected by the witches as he is. He is captured into the prophecy of the witches and so is Lady Macbeth. She might look kind and loyal to the king but above that, she is masked with greed and ambition.Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s duplicity is also shown through the black permitting from behind her body. This displays her real true self that is covered by the cracked, masked bewitched image on the top. This was created through the witchÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of fate. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦look into the seeds of timeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (I, iii, 56) Lady Macbeth is holding the bloody dagger to demo nstrate that it was because of her ambitious attitude Ã¢â¬Å"Leave all the rest to meÃ¢â¬ (I, v, 73) and confidence Ã¢â¬Å"We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place, And weÃ¢â¬â¢ll not fail. Ã¢â¬ (I, vii, 59- 61) that was the reason to DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s death.Lady Macbeth was the one with the plans and motives; Macbeth was only the man who executed what his wife had told him to do like a puppet. That is why Lady Macbeth is holding the murder weapon because she the one who is ultimately responsible for the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Lady Macbeth is holding a bloody crown to her head. This is to symbolise how she (Like Macbeth) are king and queen but have a worthless throne. The gold in the crown (riches and wealth that come with being king/queen) show that they may have had more riches/wealth if they were pronounced the heirs other than through murder.The blood wiping out the gold is to show how since they killed Duncan, they are now no longer given riches or promised the throne forever. All of this shows to us how impulsive Lady Macbeth is. Ã¢â¬Å"what cannot you and I perform upon thÃ¢â¬â¢unguarded Duncan? Ã¢â¬ (I, vii, 69-70). She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think of the consequences or the results of her actions. Of how their sacrifice will be futile until they have a son to claim and secure their throne and line of kings. Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s green clothing is to show her desire in getting to a higher position in the Great Chain of Being.First it is trying to become a man Ã¢â¬Å"Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me herÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (I, v, 39-40). Her greed then is what took her above and beyond to killing the king and reaching his high and grand status. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦our hostess keeps her stateÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (III, iv, 5). Lady Macbeth has a letter hanging from her body. This is to show how she is literate. Ã¢â¬Å" they met me in the day of successÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (I, v, 1-13). During this era, women were thought to be lower than men and were not supposed to be educated. However, the first time Lady Macbeth was introduced was through her reading a letter.It also reveals to us that she is ahead of her time. She is quite distinctive compared to other typical women during that era. Another reason why she is ahead of her time is because she finds herself to be on par with her husband. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s showing us a more dominant side to her where sheÃ¢â¬â¢s elevated herself to his status. In addition to herself, Macbeth also finds her to be an equal to him. Ã¢â¬Å"This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatnessÃ¢â¬ (I, v, 9-10). Lady Macbeth is well-dressed in rich clothes to show that she is well-respected. An example of this is through King Duncan Ã¢â¬Å"See, see, our honourÃ¢â¬â¢d hostess. (I, vi, 11). She is thought to be worthy in every aspect and is therefore fit for clothes for a queen. Yet the clothes seem too big for her. Lady Macbeth is in a position of status that she does not f it to be in. Also, the reason why her clothes are too big for her is because she has belittled herself so much in the act of killing the King that any level of the Great Chain of Being would be too high in moral ground for her. (The size of clothes would all be too big for her). Her red hair is to symbolise how she is unappreciative and unaccepting towards her husband.She is always trying to change him Ã¢â¬Å"yet do I fear they nature, it is too full oÃ¢â¬â¢thÃ¢â¬â¢milk of human kindnessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (I, v, 15-16) Lady Macbeth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see him as a man and is always pointing that out to him. She is bullying him around because she needs him to achieve her desires and goals in life. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you a man? Ã¢â¬ (III, iv, 58) Lady Macbeth has a very guilty conscious. It is symbolised through one of her eyes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s to show how Lady Macbeth feels it is alright to do any evil deed as long as it is veiled by the cover of darkness and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to see it hers elf. Come, thick night, and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, that my keen knife see not the wound it makes, nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark to cry, Ã¢â¬ËHold, hold. Ã¢â¬â¢ (I, v, 49-53) Another way to look at it is by saying that she feels itÃ¢â¬â¢s alright to commit a deed with her hands without letting her eyes (conscious) see it. This shows she has strong faith in fate and God because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be held accountable for her actions. (Predestined) Lady Macbeth isnÃ¢â¬â¢t smiling because she is insecure. She is alarmed and nervous after killing the king.Even the slightest of sounds make her go abrupt. Ã¢â¬Å"Hark, peace! It was the owl that shriekÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (II, ii, 3) She isnÃ¢â¬â¢t at peace and she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfied by her actions. Still in shock during and after the murder, Lady Macbeth is troubled and unable to remain contempt. Lady Macbeth has an unusual personality. She is two-faced, ambitious, confident, impul sive, greedy, literate, distinctive, dominant, well-respected, unappreciative, unaccepting, conscious, and insecure. She is a lady who has a rare combination of traits that together make up her villainous character.
Friday, August 30, 2019
McDonald's Corporation is the world's leading food service organization. The corporation started out as a small drive-through in 1948 by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald. Raymond Albert Kroc, a salesman, saw a great opportunity in this market and advised Dick and Mac to expand their operation and open new restaurants. In 1961 Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers. By 1967 McDonalds expanded its operations to countries outside the U.S.A. This unyielding expansion led the Corporation to open 23,000 McDonald's restaurants in 110 countries in 1994, producing $3.4 bn in annual revenues. In addition, McDonald's opens a new restaurant every three hours. Also, McDonald's has twice the market share of its closest U.S. competitor, Burger King, representing 7% of total U.S. eating-out sales. Similarly, McDonald's serves about 1% of the world's population on any given day through its 23,000 restaurants internationally. Ã¢â¬Å"Big MacÃ¢â¬ , the world's most sold hamburger was developed by Jim Delligutti in 1967 to feed construction workers. Ã¢â¬ËBig Mac' is the biggest attraction and backbone of the corporation. Moreover, McDonald's maintains its competitive advantage by constantly creating new items to add onto its menu. This shows us that McDonald's practices an analyzer type of strategy, introducing new items and defending its existing ones. Ã¢â¬Å"We serve people with good quality food, fast and at low cost.Ã¢â¬ McDonald's vision is to dominate the global food-service industry. Global dominance means setting the performance standard for customer satisfaction and increases market share and profitability through successfully implementing our convenience, value and execution strategies. To have a clear picture of McDonald's corporation we need to look at its Task Environment, which includes its: We shall also explore McDonald's Workforce Diversity and its Total Quality Management. Customers are those who pay money to acquire an organization's goods or services. For many years McDonald's mostly targeted the young people, however this has changed in this decade; McDonald's has turned towards a more general market. By doing this McDonald's concentrates on the family, targeting a diverse market which includes consumers ranging from children to elderly people, using products such as the Ã¢â¬Å"happy MealÃ¢â¬ for children and Ã¢â¬Å"Egg McMuffinÃ¢â¬ for the elderly. McDonald's also realized the changing world we live in and the need for healthier food, since there is an ever changing demographic group, who demand fast, top quality food that is low in calories. McDonald's responded to this opportunity and introduced a new and innovative product. This new product was a regular hamburger that tasted like the real thing but was made of plant material like Soya beans. This same product also targets another demographic group, vegetarians. McDonald's mostly uses psychographic segmentation targeting the working and middle classes. These are the people that are more susceptible to enter a fast food restaurant, since these are the people that lead a fast moving life and thus require a fast meal. In brief McDonald's customers are of all classes, but largely working and middle classes, and people of all ages. A competitor is an organization that competes with other organizations for resources. In our findings, McDonald's has two types of competitors in the Lebanese market: Indirect refers to firms producing one or two products that compete with McDonald's products and therefore be a threat to the company. We have identified four indirect competitors: Henry J. Beans, T.G.I. Friday, K. F. C. and Popeye's. Henry J. Beans offers hamburgers and fries on its menu, therefore competing with McDonalds for customers of these products. However, Henry J. Beans also known as Hank's is a more of a bar restaurant and therefore a hang out place, as a result charging more money for its products. Hank's targets middle to upper class customers, so where most of these customers overlap are in the middle class. T.G.I Friday is another indirect competitor reflecting the same characteristics as Henry J. Beans. Other indirect competitors are K. F. C. and Popeye's, both competing for the chicken nuggets and fries customers. In brief, Hank's and T.G.I. Friday's competes with McDonald's by offering hamburgers and fries, whereas K. F. C. and Popeye's compete with McDonald's by offering chicken nuggets and fries. Direct competitors refers to firms producing the same products or services as McDonald's does. Here we found that McDonald's has three direct competitors: Burger King, Wendy's and Hardee's. McDonald's closest rival is Burger King, which operates a total of 9644 restaurants in 110 countries. Wendy's is McDonald's second largest rival, which is also in the fast food business, where Wendy's operates 6776 restaurants in 32 countries. Hardee's, McDonald's third largest rival is also in the fast food business and is the only direct competitor apart from Juicy Burger in the Lebanese market. Hardee's operates 3080 restaurants in 20 countries. As we have illustrated McDonald's faces stiff competition from three major competitors, Burger King, Wendy's and Hardee's. Suppliers is an organization that provides resources for other organizations. McDonald's has practiced a backward vertical integration, by replacing most of its suppliers. It has done so for two reasons, 2) To ensure that its products are of top quality. These supplies include beef and milk to be used in its products, which it gets from its farms. Other suppliers include local grocery stores that supply McDonald's with fresh vegetables. Soft drinks are supplied exclusively by Coca-Cola, which is also its ally. McDonald's supplies also include raw material such as flour, sugar, yeast, etc.,. A strategic ally is an organization working together with one or more other organizations is a joint venture or a similar arrangement. McDonald's has formed a strategic alliance with: Walmart, Chevron, Amoco, Disney and Coca-Cola. Walmart, which is a large shopping mall chain in the U..S. and several neighboring countries, is allied with McDonald's, which offers great opportunities for both companies. McDonald's has restaurants in each Walmart, offering its customers conveniences and excellent fast food at a low cost ease of accessibility. McDonald's corporation describes it best in this scenario: Ã¢â¬Å"Imagine a busy shopping day at your local Walmart and having the ability to sit down with the kids and enjoy many of our McDonald's favorites, like Ã¢â¬ËBig Mac' sandwiches, world famous fries and kids favorite Ã¢â¬ËHappy Meal'. McDonald's understands your busy lifestyles and the demands on your time. That's why we are making it easier for you to do more things in less time.Ã¢â¬ McDonald's is engaged in an alliance with two petrol companies, Chevron and Amoco. This alliance represents the ultimate in convenience. At these locations, one finds a full-menu McDonald's restaurant with dining room service. Nothing can be more convenient, because one can fill up the car with gas and get a meal all in one stop. Another important alliance that McDonald's has is with Disney. Here McDonald's has the sole right to sell fast food in Disney's theme parks around the U..S. and other Disney operations in the world. Under the terms of the agreement, McDonald's will operate restaurants and Disney will promote its films through McDonald's. Regulators are groups or governmental agencies that can control and influence the organization's policies and practices. An example is Lebanon a few years ago when the U..S. government banned all U..S. citizens and organizations to come or operate in Lebanon. Another good example would be the embargo imposed on Iran where U..S. organizations were banned to operate in this country. Another group of regulators called interest groups can and have influenced McDonald's to treat its animals (cow and chickens) in a much more humane manner, which resulted in the restructuring of McDonalds' farms throughout its operations around the world. The summary of the task environment which is by definition a specific organizations or groups that affect the organization, which includes competitors, suppliers, customers, strategic allies and regulators. Here we described the task environment's importance to McDonald's, where McDonald's faces both opportunities and has threats in its environment. Diversity exists in a group or organization when its members differ from one another along one or more important dimensions such as age, gender, and ethnicity. Diversity is very important for McDonald's. Here millions of teens start out by working at McDonald's. Here some of the teenagers move on to get various jobs such as movie stars, skilled workers, famous athletes, management positions and other educated positions in society. At McDonald's two thirds of middle and upper management started out as crewmembers in a McDonald's restaurant. There are opportunities for everybody in McDonald's from teenagers to elderly workers, and from people just entering or reentering the job market. Moreover, McDonald's offers special jobs for people who have disabilities, such as people who are in wheel chairs and those who must use crutches permanently. Furthermore, McDonald's offers their workers flexible working hours. For example, hours for people seeking just a few hours of work per week and those who seek full time positions. The work force at McDonald's also have some say in their working hours, such as if they prefer the morning, mid-day, or evening shifts in the restaurant. So, McDonald's uses diversity to create a good atmosphere in their work places among workers and management. Here they offer work to all kinds of people without discrimination and the workers have flexible hours that provides customer satisfaction. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. For McDonald's, total quality management (TQM) involves that the employees are at work on time, are neatly dressed, and are clean. The employees must make sure that the customers constantly receive safe food, which implies that the employees must wash their hands often to remain clean. Moreover, the employees must follow certain Standard Operational Procedures, so the customers always receive exceptional quality and service. This includes the employees using plastic gloves when they prepare the food, that the meat and fries are properly fried, and that the vegetables are thoroughly washed when used in the food. Another TQM is that the employees rely on teamwork and high energy to get the job done, so that the customers do not have to wait long for their food. Furthermore, McDonald's management emphasizes that their restaurants should be clean. This involves that the restaurants are tidy, sparkling and spotlessly clean. As McDonald's illustrates the quality is that the employees delivers fast, accurate and friendly service with a smile.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Harvard MBA admission essays - Essay Example Although I was successful in setting standards on paper; however, creation of a practical roadmap was something that made me contemplate further. Since Saudi Arabia has neither unions nor work councils, I seized at the opportunity to mold the new Ã¢â¬ËOrganization ExcellenceÃ¢â¬â¢ department into a platform as an internal employee work council, as well as an intermediary between the company and employees. After conducting employee interviews, reading extensive P&G archives on performance management, and seeking out thought leadership resources, I designed a completely new system for mobilizing and motivating human assets. Not only did strategy of unifying workers and developing a more-positive working environment pay off; however, also my approach to Ã¢â¬ËOrganization ExcellenceÃ¢â¬â¢ touched off productivity gains throughout the P&G facility. During a short period of two years, I facilitated the department in its expansion, and it set indexed performance and rising job satisfaction standards throughout the organization. P&G sites across Saudi Arabia, the Middle East and beyond are now replicating my model, and subseq uently, the companys reputation, in terms of its human resources management, has also strengthened dramatically, and winning Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Employer of the Year Award is just an example of the accomplishment. After completion of the top-to-bottom redesigning of Ã¢â¬ËRewards and Recognition incentive systemÃ¢â¬â¢, it was an understanding that the system was transforming into a global benchmark for P&G sites worldwide. For this reason, my inspiration stemmed from identifying performance gaps, and at that time, during the training of 350 employees on P&G success drivers and another batch on Ã¢â¬ËHigh Performance Organizations OverviewsÃ¢â¬â¢, I felt strongly that everyone should be able to take ownership initiative and feel valuation of their contribution. Simultaneously, I sought to transform trainings from a passive information transfer to an interactive experience
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Unit VII Assessment#1 Gaussian Plume Models - Essay Example Screen 3 models are an air pollution dispersion method used to investigate environmental aspect and condition of the atmospheric air (Livermore, 1998).it is a model designed to estimate worst case ground level concentrations of a single source as well as that in a cavity zone and the concentrations resulting from inversion break and shoreline fumigation. Therefore, SCREEN3 is a screening version of the ISC3 modeling. Its initial modeling works towards removing the need for a complicated modeling and helps in saving time and resources (Gaujar, 2010). It was developed in 1995 following the Gaussian plume modeling to cover regional scales. (Nieuwstadt and Dop, 1975). SCREEN3 has various advantages compared to other modeling types. First, it investigates ground level concentrations over large zones saving on time consumptions and minimizing resource inputs. It also covers models over any terrain while setting up any sources and pollutants in one file, it sets thresholds concentrations quickly while identifying specified value. In addition it analyses results in different formats such as graphical, text and use of tables (Nieuwstadt and Dop,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Ways We Lie - Research Paper Example ng copywriter, and an author to Companion through the Darkness, in her writing of Ã¢â¬Å"The Ways We Lie,Ã¢â¬ tries to bring to light the numerous ways in which human beings lie to each other. The lies are justifiable by those who tell while others are not. She argues that every one of us is bound to lie and we do find excuses to get out of it when caught. There are many types of lying, which are to be discussed in this paper, and giving some examples to show how they are told. Ericsson believes that it is practically impossible to live without lying. She even tried doing that herself for a whole week, and she says that it was Ã¢â¬ËparalyzingÃ¢â¬â¢ and that Ã¢â¬Ëthere must be a merit to lyingÃ¢â¬â¢. When you lie, it puts an end to the pressing issue or the situation one is in, but others require a series of lies that could go on for a lifetime. If one is not careful, the truth comes out at some point. All they had told becomes null and they get into trouble. The white lie, we are all guilty of this. When we are with our friends, we often lie to them in their faces so that we cannot hurt their feelings (Krentz, 2007). Ã¢â¬ËYou look okay in the suitÃ¢â¬â¢ we tell this to someone getting into an interview room so that they do not panic before they get an interview for their dream job. If we were to tell them the truth at that moment, they may back out from what they were doing and try to concentrate on the not so important details, which may lead them to fail. Men lie to their women almost every morning before they go to work, Ã¢â¬ËHoney, your hair is perfectÃ¢â¬â¢, yet they have not even given the hair a look at all. Bergen Evans, an English professor said: A man who will not lie to a woman has very little consideration for her feelings. Deflection is another type of lying. It is easily visible in court when you make an accusation against someone and do not have a way to defend themselves. The only option for them is to keep quiet until the other party says something offensive about
Monday, August 26, 2019
Career develpoment plan part (iii) - Essay Example Here are three basic questions to answer: This gives the current-state analysis of skills, capabilities, and knowledge which each individual employee holds at this point in time. They are then required to jot down the strengths and weaknesses, which they think they carry. Their self assessment is then passed on to functional managers for evaluation based on their observation about each individual. This is more like a starting point for the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s career, presence of which may un-block potential growth areas. Second question which needs attention is the future-state one seeks to reach, considering the career interest, knowledge, and skills which can be enhanced. It gives a proper direction for pursuing the career one wants to stick to after gaining much experience. Mostly, career counseling or proper mentoring by experts can help in figuring out the place one desires to reach. Lastly, figuring out the gaps between the current-state and the future-state provides structured Action Plan for achieving desired goals. Over here, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very critical to have realistic goals in mind, absence of which can make the efforts go invain. The action plan created acts like a detailed map, consisting of step-by-step measures required to progress. The career map formed by the assessment acts like the initial document for carrying out the Performance Appraisal procedure, along with the Job Description and Job ResponsibilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ documents provided to employees at the time of induction. At the time of appraisal, which is the basic step for evaluating the progress, appraisal forms (refer to Appendix A) are shared. The yearly, bi-yearly, or quarterly appraisals highlight the strengths, which have been utilized the most; and the areas of improvement of each employee separately. Feedbacks of the appraisals are shared with the employees individually by calling private meeting in a closed room, where concerns can be shared and disagreements can be catered to
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Analysing the financial performace if the automotive industry in the United states - Research Proposal Example However, between 1920 and 1930, there emerged three giant car producers in the United States. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors. The American automotive industry quickly grew to be the largest in the world. A ranking it held until 1980 when it was overtaken by Japan. America regained the top position only to be passed by another Asian country, China, in 2008 (Goyal, Netessine and Randall, 2012). Currently the American automotive industry is diverse, hosting top car manufacturers from all over the world. The market is dominated by General Motors who, Toyota and Ford, who have a market, share of 18%, 14%, and 13.5% respectively. Other notable manufacturers include Chrysler with 12%, Nissan 9% and Honda 8percentage. Hyundai, Kia, Subaru and BMW also own a collective market share summing up to 15%. Manufacturers are attracted to America because it offers superior infrastructure and a conducive environment for the production of cars. The automotive industry provides direct employment to over 1.8 million Americans. Jobs indirectly linked to the automobile industry in the United States accumulate to 8 million (Goyal, Netessine, and Randall, 2012). The primary reason for me choosing this topic is that the motor industry in America currently plays a very significant role in quality transportation. Taking this account, it is clear to note the importance of the American Automotive industry to Americans and general car users in the rest of the world. The primary aim of this research is to shed light on the financial performance of the American automotive industry. This research will seek to uncover recent financial results of key car manufacturing companies in the United States. The study will also analyze and interpret relevant aspects of finance in the American automotive industry. This research will also aim to find the main reasons for improving or dropping financial results in the industry. The study will examine how companies have managed to cope with challenges
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Public vs. Private - Essay Example P 1992) It covers a great range of ideas and policies varying from the eminently reasonable to the wildly impractical.Ã¢â¬â¢ The debate the paper delves on is what are the programs or sectors that are currently under the governmental supervision that can be privatized and what are the pros and cons of such privatization. Let us first look at some positive and negative facts and opinions from two sources in order to gauge the depth of the subject. Michael Williams in his article on Public Vs private pay, states the flaws in the current pay structure of an employee working for the US Postal service. Pointing out this difference in California where the average salary of a CalPers employee in 2004 for was about $46000 and the average of salary of all average per capita income of all Californians was $35000. Since then he says,Ã¢â¬â¢ the gap has only expanded. He has proved this by stating the case of Postmaster General E Potter. Ã¢â¬Å"Congress will hold a hearing next month into why Postmaster General John E. Potter has gotten a nearly 40 percent pay raise since 2006 and was awarded a six-figure incentive bonus last year, even as the U.S. Postal Service faces a multibillion-dollar shortfall that threatens a day of mail delivery. ALLISON SHELLEY/THE WASHINGTON TIMES REWARDED: Postmaster General John E. Potter received a compensation package totalling more than $800,000 for fiscal 2008.Ã¢â¬ (Williams. M 2009) While the above information gives us a strong reason for privatization of the US postal service, the following facts will educate us on the public opinion of privatization. When privatization was at its full length and breadth under the Bush administration Congressman Jim Mc Dermott stated the following in one of the discussions Ã¢â¬Å"It has become increasingly clear that the Bush Administration cares more about big business than about the average citizen. If this trend toward privatization continues, I worry that the privacy and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Second Language Acquisition - Essay Example This enables a tutor to use the same technique either in learning or making then learn new things. Schulze (2003) points out that a tutor should understand most comfortable way in which a learner can acquire new knowledge. Additionally, acquiring a new language may be a requirement in the classroom and a tutor should be able to understand the learn preference of the learner. The concept of universal grammar may be useful in the way in which the universe shares in the same language and understanding. However, acquiring and implementing effectively universal grammar may be a difficult task due to the difficulties that might be experienced enabling all people to adapt new and common language. In the modern teaching practice learners adopt new cultures. For this reason, they have diverse languages. A tutor has a responsibility of ensuring that there are no language barriers in the classroom setting By implementing a universal grammar the teaching practice could be changed significantly. The teaching practice could permanently eradicate the language barrier in the system. Relating to the compilation of Cook (1985), a universal language may equip tutors with the opportunity to embrace a more diverse teaching environment. Education has been globalized which has made it a more language affiliated sector. For this reason, tutors should be enabled to handle learners from diverse cultures In my teaching practice, universal grammar may be an important inclusion in the system. On many occasions the practice encounters students with different first and second languages. For this reason, a tutor should be able to understand the most preferred language by students. Cook (1985) continues to argue that making a student understands a universal language at a young age may be an important possession in the future when they seek education. In the article, Vivian Cook raised issues on the will and ability of a learner to learn a second and third language. In addressing
Great Raid - Essay Example Many of the American troops that had surrendered in the course of the Bataan Battle were sent to the prison camp in Cabanatuan. This development came after the Bataan Death that took place in March of the same year. The Japanese, following this news rushed to transfer many of the prisoners to different parts of the country, leaving behind more than 500 POWs, most of whom were American but also comprised other allied civilians and POWs in the particular prison camp in Philippines. The prisoners faced a lot of hardships at the camp, with many of them dying from the hard labour and harsh conditions that they were being subjected to. Some of the brutal conditions that characterized life at the prison camp included malnourishment, severe torture and many other chronic diseases that the POWs contracted. With no one showing concern over their fate the health of most of the POWs deteriorated making them succumb to the harsh condition. In fact, after Gen, Douglas MacArthur and many of the American forces went back to Luzon, the POWs feared for the lives as they thought that they were going to be executed. Following the need to free the POWs, strategic planning was started by the leaders of the Sixth Army, who were collaborating with Filipino guerrillas. According to Alexander (2009), the initial idea was to send a sizeable army with the main responsibility of recuing and freeing the POWs. After thorough planning, a group of more than one hundred Scouts and Rangers including guerrilla fighters made a journey of more than 30 miles to the camp. It is believed that the planning and execution of the strategy in rescuing the POWs started in 1944 when Gen. Douglas MacArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s army managed to land on Leyte. This development was enough to pave the way for liberation of the POWs and other civilian prisoners. Later, the American forces idea to consolidate their army in the rescue process was realized by the camp soldiers, who responded
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Patterns of Dominance Essay The Jews have experienced a number of atrocities in their history. Yet, they are still bound together by their Jewish identity. Although religion plays a crucial role in the lives of Jews, they are best characterized as an ethnic group facing discrimination in a lot of ways in different places. The most extreme form of anti-Semitism had been the expulsion of the Jews from various countries such as England, Spain and Portugal in previous centuries; as well as the execution of the Jews in Germany, more commonly known as the Holocaust. Although religion plays a very important role in the lives and the culture of Jews, they can still be collectively looked at as an ethnic group experiencing discrimination and outright hatred all over the world. Because For one, they still strongly adhere to a common ancestry and lineage. Jews have also managed to protect their collective identity through the years. Other religions embrace a multiplicity of ethnicity and race while the religion of Jews seems to be an extension of their ethnicity. Converts tend to be embraced by the Jewish and integrated into their ethnicity. Patterns of anti-Semitism have changed over time. Gone are the days when governments would enable rules and legislations expressly banning Jews certain rights and privileges in society. Yet, covert discrimination is still felt by Jews, especially in Europe where graffiti and verbal attacks against them proliferate. These forms of Ã¢â¬Å"unofficialÃ¢â¬ discrimination are more difficult to deal with than the kind which is officially sanctioned by governments (Morris, 2001). Jewish Identity in the United States In the United States, Jews have relatively more freedom as a group of people than in New York. This perception led them to migrate in waves from European countries to the United States since the early nineteenth century. Ironically, there is roughly the same number of Jews in the United States and in Israel. While the Jews represent 80 percent of the population of Israel, in the United States, they only hold two percent of the total population. In addition to this, American society is greatly diverse and Jews have a tendency to be subsumed in the mainstream culture. The American society has welcomed Jews but they are not very interested with their heritage (Langman, 1999). Due in part to the secular nature of American society, more and more Jews are de-emphasizing their Jewish roots and heritage. The American society is also highly individualistic in contrast to the emphasis of Jews on the importance of community and family. As Jews are assimilated more and more by the American society, they tend to rely less on their Jewish tradition and identity. There is less observance of religious activities and less loyalty to the concept of Jewish identity. This is further confounded by an attitude of pluralism and multiculturalism in the United States. Because of these processes, the importance of family in Jewish life cannot be underestimated. As the larger society seeks to integrate and assimilate the Jewish identity, the family remains the bastion of ethnicity socializing young Jews into their identity and enables them to look at who they are and what make them unique as Jews. As they grow up, traditions and Jewish practices are drilled into young Jews so that they understand who they are in the context of a multicultural and highly pluralistic American society. If such influence of the family weakens, then the Jewish identity also weakens. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Position and Oppressed Racial and Ethnic Groups Women have been one of the oppressed and marginalized groups through history. Only recently have they been granted suffrage and equal footing with men in terms of opportunities and privileges in the society. Their situation is different from other marginalized groups in society because women oppression transcends cultures and societies all over the world. In a number of cultures and societies all over the world, women have been considered as second class citizens who cannot enjoy the same level of privileges and rights as men. These rights included access to education, freedom to choose their own lifestyle and directions in life. In addition to these, they have been subject to oppression and assault including sexual harassment and rape, pornography, illicit sex trade, and physical abuse. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is different from racial and ethnic minorities because they are oppressed for something that is fundamental to their identity and their sex. In earlier times, they have been considered as the property of men. This experience is similar to the Black slaves who did not have rights in the American society. They were sold and treated like machinery. African Americans have been granted emancipation and their rights as citizens of the United States. Women have been granted suffrage at a later time. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is a worldwide phenomenon and most governments have recognized the need to grant women equal rights with men. The difference with ethnic oppression is that they are confined to individual countries. Both of these oppressed minorities, however, still suffer from covert racism brought about by the social systems that favor one group over another. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movements in the Twentieth Century In the twentieth century, women in the English speaking world have become more active in fighting for equal rights. From issues of suffrage and equal opportunities for work, the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement or feminist movement has come to embrace added issues that affect the situation of women in society. Such issues include access to employment opportunities, promotion at work and access to various services at work to accommodate their situation. The issue of abortion and the choice of women in keeping their babies or not is another hotly debated issue in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights in the twenty first century. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s situation at work is different from men because women go through different life stages and processes that may appear to disrupt their work. They get pregnant and have to file maternity leaves. After that, they also have to nurse their babies and make sure that they grow up. Because of this reason and other systems of overt and covert discrimination, men tend to be promoted to higher positions more than women. In the United States, more women tend to work and this has also affected the American family. For one, women have to look after their work as much as men, yet they also have to be mothers and look after the babies as they grow up. With increasing work demands, it becomes more difficult for women to balance their time with their families. In addition to this, highly driven women may even put their career over their family. Such attitude clashes with the traditional view that women should be at home looking after the kids and how they grow up. In the long run, if the husband will become dissatisfied, then divorce and separation may ensue. Stereotyping of the Aged, People with Disabilities and Gays and Lesbians The tendency for the dominant group in the society is to stereotype marginalized groups in the society. Age people tend to be seen as weak and bordering on being obsolete and anachronistic. This is because they lack the usual energy and technological savvy of younger workers. As a result of this stereotype, they are being replaced by younger employees. People with disabilities on the other hand, tend to generate sympathy but at the same time discrimination. Through the special treatment that shown to them, they are in effect being told that they cannot do the activities and the things that people without disabilities could do. Gays and lesbians, on the other hand, tend to be seen from the dominant moral code in the society. As such, they are judged too often as immoral persons in the society and should therefore be despised. When people despise them, their good side is often disregarded completely. To combat unfair practices at work and in the society, the aged, people with disabilities and gays and lesbians should be mobilized so that they can protect their rights. Of these groups, however, gays and lesbians tend to be the most empowered because they are relatively braver in banding together and fighting for their rights. The aged and the persons with disabilities tend to be silent about their experiences. As such, they cannot effectively fight for their rights. Furthermore, gays and lesbians tend to be more educated in regards to their rights so they have better leverage than the aged and the persons with disabilities in fighting for their rights. The dominant group in the society can make it harder for these people to band together so that they can effectively fight for their rights.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
What is Serial Killer behavior and profiling What is a serial killer? Many have their own ideas as to what a serial killer is, what they look like, and what kind of job they have or how they were raised or even where they live. In order for the reader to really understand the definition of a serial killer the research must pinpoint what makes a serial. Statistical data as well as demographic data will also be discussed so that it can show accuracy between profiles and stereotypes. Past studies and the articles under consideration mostly point out two major factors that result into causing the homicidal behavior. These factors are psychological aspects and disturbed family background. The studies that we are going to review have analyzed the serial killing attitudes using different approaches. Geographical Profiling, Decision Support System, Motives, Comparison of single and serial killers, Distinction between antisocial personality disorder and psychopaths, Demographics of victims, the White trash phenomenon and a criticism ove r generalities profiling are our studied approaches and findings. The psychological aspects include abnormal kinds of satisfaction that a homicide derives from abusive attitude. This satisfaction may be either of sexual nature or revenge or both. Other abusive activities such as indulging into drugs, alcoholism and minor crimes are also considered in the psychological aspects. A disturbed background at home includes split family, abusive parent or guardian, the circumstances that lead to staying at care. A child when goes through disturbed phases within family it is a big stimulus for that child to turn into a homicide. The children who live in foster care have a potency to engage into abusive activities in future when they leave care. The reviewed studies follow logarithmic and quadratic distribution, normalization parameter, literature review, integration approach, comparative approach, cinematic approach and profiling approach. Truth behind Serial Murder Serial homicide, in its youngest form was known by the FBI as a lust murder (Egger, 1998). Still the question arises as to what is the actual definition of a serial killer. Another describes a serial killer as one that explodes in homicidal rampage (Egger, 1998). Then you look at law enforcement and what they say is serial murder is sexual attacks, the death of men, women and children committed by a male killer (Egger, 1998). Though there are many definitions to what a serial killer may be, one may have to look further in depth to really understand what the definition is. Here are some ideas to think about when defining this aspect. First, serial murder occurs when one or more individuals commit murder of three or more people over a period of time. Second, there is a cooling off period between each murder. This could be weeks, months or even years before they go after another victim. Third, there is usually no connection between the victim and assailant. Forth, Serial killings are us ually different in geographic area and can move from one location to another. Last, but not least motives are not for material reasons, but for power and control (Holmes, 1998). As one may notice researchers have been studying and trying to create an iron clad definition to go by when establishing what a serial killer is. Although as difficult as one may think this is, the above mentioned characteristics of a serial killer help Law enforcement further in their serial killer cases. In another attempt at defining a serial killer it was stated as any offenders, male or female, who kill over time with a minimum of three to four victims who have a pattern with their killing that can be associated with the types of victims selected or the method or motives (Hickey, 2002). Ideologies of Serial murder There have been numerous researches done in order to create many categories, types, and labels of murders. Some of these categories include biological, psychological, and sociological traits (Siegel, 1998). Other researchers have gone further in categorizing murders as brain disorders, passive aggressive, alcoholics, mentally retarded, and hysterical (Hickey, 2002). Other researchers in yet more categories such as the visionary type who hears voices, which tell them to act in horrible acts. Then there is the mission type who believes it is their duty to get rid of evil people in the world and example of this is Hitler. Some examples of what may be considered as evil are certain religions, ethnic groups and homosexuals. Next, is the hedonistic type which commits violent acts for fun. They kill for only the pleasure of it, there is no personal gain with this type. Last, but not least there is the power type who desires to be in control (hickey, 1997). An example of this is actually a m ovie called Saw where they get pure pleasure by setting someone up in a contraption that will kill them if they do not do something for the killer. The victim does what is expected, but in most cases they still die thinking that they were going to live. This is also where the background of bedwetting and animal cruelty begins (Douglas, 1999). Males Serial Killers The earliest documentation after the 1800s of an adult male serial killer was Edward Rulloff, also known as the educated murderer, in 1846. It wasnt until the 1900s that we saw a dramatic increase (Hickey, 2002). A study done by D.K Rossmo in 1995 stated that males were involved in over 90% of serial murders. He found that the average age for a serial killer was around the mid-20. In his study he went on to show that 73% were white males, 22% were African American, 3% were Hispanic, and 1 % Asian (Hickey, 2002). The mobility classifying gets a little difficult for it differs for each serial killer. About one-third of male killers have killed people in multiple states. Over 50% of male serial killers stayed locally when committing their murders. Over 10% of serial killers use their own home (Hickey, 2002). Most victims however, are killed by a local serial killer. The victims of these serial killers can be categorized into three different targets. First, is the stranger. Next, which i s the most targeted is the acquaintances, and last but not least is the family members. The occupation of a male serial killer is very diverse. Jobs such as a plumber to a physician are common. Many known serial killers were in jobs you would never think of them being in given their nasty habits. A good example of this is Ted Bundy who was thought to have been a law student. Another was Bianchi who was a security officer and an ambulance driver as well. He over a seven year period held over 10 jobs (Egger, 1998). It is examples like these that show the assortment of backgrounds that these men share. It does not seem to be a factor as far as education goes. Some of these men never made it through high school whereas some did, yet they did not further their education past high school and a few did. In addition to this many also had a prior criminal history. Results were astonishing as the combination of offenses such as prison, mental hospital, property offenses, sex crimes, crimes on children, drugs, fire starting, homicide, and assault was 68% (Hickey, 2002). Next, what we will talk about is the importance of the motives and methods of a serial killer, which a lot of researches see as the most important. Eric Hickeys study illustrated that 41% of serial killers uses some fire arms. 42% of serial killers in his study used a combination of methods. Such methods that were used include 37% strangulation and 34 % stabbing. 26% used some bludgeoning, and 19% used firearms only. It went on to say that 13 % stabbed only. The last 2% used other means as their way of killing (Hickey, 2002). Serial Killer Most Frequent Method Ã ´Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¾ Albert DeSalvo Strangulation Ã ´Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¾ Ed Kemper Shooting Ã ´Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¾ Carlton Gary Strangulation Ã ´Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¾ Robert Long Combination Ã ´Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¾ Kenneth Bianchi Strangulation (Hickey, 2002; Egger, 1998). Female Serial Killers Many do not think of a female as being a serial killer, but contrary to that belief they do exist. Females are more often than not dismissed as being serial killers, because of the stereotype under which they fall. Researchers provide evidence to prove that they indeed are capable of committing serial murder. When fitting women to this profile it is hard because you think of your mom who is loving and nurturing. The last think anyone wants is to think that their mother could be such a thing as a serial killer. The public just doesnt think of their mothers and sisters as having the capability of murder (Holmes, 1998). Unfortunately statistics show that 10 to 15 percent of American serial killers have been women (Jenkins, 1994). The FBI called Aileen Wuornos the first female serial killer after killing seven men by shooting them in the torso in 1989 (Egger, 1998). Females can be as cruel and uncompassionate as male serial killers (Abbot et al. 2001). Like the male serial killer there i s documentation of female serial killers going as far back as the 1800s. From 1826 to 1995 there have been a total of 59 cases of female serial killings. The number of victims killed within this time frame is over 834 (Hickey, 2002). Most of female serial killers seem to lead a normal average life. According to a study by Hickey, 32% of female serial killers have been homemakers, 18% were nurse or had been a nurse, and 15 % had a prior criminal record. Also like men the average were whit and around there early 30s. As far as female serial Killers victims it seems that according to research they fall into the same three categories as men. In most of the other aspects women are pretty close to the same in their serial killings. However motives seem to be somewhat different of that of male serial killers. These are usually based on emotions, such as being physically abused, sexually abused. The many aspect of a serial killer that were discussed in this paper show both the sides of a male and a female serial killer and the many profiling behaviors of each. Our reviewed studies have analyzed the relationship of all these factors using various techniques. It is possible that many serial murderers are apprehended before they kill three or more victims required to qualify as such. Similarly, there are some who are detained for mental institutions and not directly answer for their crimes. Others continue to kill many more people to over the years without being arrested.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Analysis and critique of Madeleine Leininger Introduction This paper is an analysis and critique of a published nursing philosophy and theory by the nurse theorist Madeleine Leininger. The analysis is based on Leiningers publications about her theory starting in the mid-1950s with her major contribution stemming from her second book, Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research, and Practice in 1978. The model used to analyze this theory is the Chinn and Kramer model. This model was developed by Peggy Chinn and Maenoa Kramer in 1983. The model utilizes a two-step process to evaluate theories called theory description and critical reflection. Theory description consists of purpose, concepts, definitions, relationships, structure, and assumptions. Critical reflection analyzes the purpose of the theory utilizing a series of questions. (McEwen Willis, 2010, p. 95) This model will be used to critique one of the oldest theories in nursing. Purpose Transcultural Nursing Theory discovers and explains the culturally based care factors that influence health, well-being, illness, and death of each individual or community. The purpose and goal of the transcultural nursing theory is to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. (Leininger, 2002, p. 190) Leininger has established a theory that studies cultures to understand their differences and similarities. Cultural competence is important within the nursing profession due to the differences in each individuals perception of illness and wellness. Congruency between culture and health care is essential to the well-being of each individual and community. An individuals health beliefs and practices are linked by his/her culture. The culture care theory focuses on cultural beliefs and practices when determining a plan of care. It continues with the belief that nurses need to consider that not all cultures are similar, and there are variations within each culture. Each individual or community should be treated differently from the rest and that personal uniqueness should always be considered. This belief stems from Leiningers personal belief in Gods creative and caring ways. (Leininger, 2002, p. 190) Concepts Definitions Transcultural theory uses the concepts of culture, race, and ethnicity to understand human behavior. When providing culturally competent care nurses should understand the meaning of these terms. Leininger also focuses on a few other concepts such as cultural competence, cultural awareness, and acculturation. Leiningers theory focuses on numerous concepts, but these were selected based on the importance of nurses integrating the most basic concepts of transcultural nursing into their well-established knowledge base. Culture influences all spheres of human life. It defines health, illness, and the search for relief from disease or distress. With increased mobilization of people across geographical and national borders, multicultural trends are emerging in many countries. (Ayonrinde, 2003, p. 233) Culture is defined as a set of beliefs, values, and assumptions about life that are widely held among a group of people and that are transmitted across generations. (Leininger McFarland, 2002 , p. 47) Burchum (2002) defines culture as a learned world viewÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦shared by a population or group and transmitted socially that influences values, beliefs, customs, and behaviors, and is reflected in the language, dress, food, materials, and social institutions of a group (Burchum, 2002, p. 7) All cultures are not alike, and all individuals within a culture are not alike. Each person should be viewed as a unique human being with differences that are respected. Individuals may be of the same race, but of different cultures. Race is defined as a social classification that relies on physical markers such as skin color to identify group membership. (Leininger McFarland, 2002, p. 75) Many nurses overlook cultural differences of individuals due to their similar racial characteristics. Race is considered one of the identifying characteristics of a culture, and this identifying characteristic represents an ethnicity. Ethnicity is defined as a cultural membership that is based on individuals sharing similar cultural patterns that, over time, create a common history that is resistant to change. (Leininger McFarland, 2002, p. 75) Cultural competence is an important factor in nursing. Culturally competent care is provided not only to individuals of racial or ethnic minority groups, but also to groups that vary by age, religion, socioeconomic status or sexual orientation. Cultural competence is defined as a combination of culturally congruent behaviors, practice attitudes, and policies that allow nurses to work effectively in cross cultural situations. (Leininger McFarland, 2002, p. 78) Religious and cultural knowledge is important in the healthcare profession. It is also important that health care professionals assess their own beliefs and ask themselves how those beliefs may affect the care given to clients. The awareness of your own beliefs is called, cultural awareness, and is defined as self-awareness of ones own cultural background, biases, and differences. (Burchum, 2002) Not only must nurses be aware of their own beliefs, but also must be willing to learn and understand an individuals beliefs. The proc ess of learning a new culture is acculturation. Adapting to a new culture requires changes in each nurses practices. Relationships Structure The relationship and structure between the concepts in the culture care theory is presented in Leiningers sunrise model. (Figure 1) This model is viewed as rising sun and should be utilized as an available tool for nurses to use when conducting cultural assessments. This model interconnects Leiningers concepts and forms a structure that is usable in practice. This model provides a systematic way to identify the beliefs, values, meanings, and behaviors of people. The dimensions of the model include technological, religious, philosophic, kinship, social, values and lifeway, political, legal, economic, and educational factors. These factors influence the environment and language, which affects the overall health of the individual. Individuals who may not feel understood may delay seeking care or may withhold key information. Environment and language affect the overall health system which consists of the folk and professional health system. The folk health system consists of the traditio nal beliefs, while the professional health system consists of our learned knowledge such as organized school and evidenced-based practice. The combination of these systems creates the nursing profession which allows us to meet the cultural, spiritual, and physical needs of each individual. These factors help nurses understand the client and recognize what is unique about the client. This model helps each nurse avoid stereotyping an individual into a culture based on the minimal factors of race or ethnicity. (Leininger, 2002, p. 191) The last dimension of the model helps nurses establish culturally congruent care through the utilization of three concepts: culture care preservation/maintenance, culture care accommodation/negotiation, or culture care repatterning/restructuring. Cultural preservation means that the nurse supports and facilitates cultural interventions. (Burchum, 2002) Cultural interventions may include the use of acupuncture or acupressure for relief before utilizing standard practices/interventions. Cultural accommodation requires the nurse to support and facilitate cultural practices, such as the burial of placentas, as long as these practices are found not to be harmful to individuals or the surrounding community. (Burchum, 2002) Cultural repatterning requires the nurse to work one-on-one with an individual or community to the help them restructure, change, or modify their cultural practice. (Burchum, 2002) Cultural repatterning should only be used when the practice is found to harmful to an indi vidual or community. All of these factors and concepts guide the nurse towards their ultimate goal of providing culturally competent care. These factors and goals allow the nurse to fulfill the individuals need of having holistic and comprehensive culturally based care. Assumptions There are a number of theoretical premises for the cultural care theory. Leininger (2002) highlighted five important assumptions. The first is Care is the essence of nursing and a distinct, dominant, central, and unifying focus. (Leininger, 2002, p. 192) Nurses provide care with sensitivity and compassion. Cultural care theory requires nurses to provide that same care, but based on the cultural uniqueness of each individual. The second is Culturally based care (caring) is essential for well-being health, growth, survival, and in facing handicaps or death. (Leininger, 2002, p. 192) Non-culturally competent care may increase the cost of health care and decrease the opportunity for positive health outcomes. The third is Culturally based care is the most comprehensive, holistic, and particularistic means to know, explain, interpret, and predict beneficial congruent care practices. (Leininger, 2002, p. 192) Culturally competent nursing care is designed for a specific client, reflects the individuals beliefs and values, and is provided with sensitivity. The fourth is Culturally based caring is essential to curing and healing, as there can be no curing without caring, although caring can occur without curing. (Leininger, 2002, p. 192) Therefore, there is an increased need to recognize the impact of culture on health care and to learn about the culture of the individuals to whom your provide care. The last assumption is Culture care concepts, meanings, expressions, patterns, processes, an d structural forms vary transculturally, with diversities (differences) and some universalities (commonalities). (Leininger, 2002, p. 192) Nurses should be aware of cultural beliefs, cultural behaviors, and cultural differences and should avoid the temptation of premature generalizations. Following these assumptions of the cultural care theory allows nurses to be less judgmental and more accepting of cultures which promote holistic care for all cultures. Critical Reflection Culture Care Theory has played a significant role in nursing practice. The theory is highlights numerous concepts in which Leininger clearly defines and consistently utilizes in numerous publishings. The concepts in Leiningers theory are the gold standard for transcultural nursing and are mentioned in the majority of literature regarding culturally based care. The theory is complex with a number of concepts and interrelationships. The complexity is important as it develops a meaningful and comprehensive view of cultural and holistic based care. Leiningers theory has a high level of generality due to its ability broad to be applied to all cultures, ethnicities, and races. The key to Leiningers theory is communication, and even crosses languages and establishes how to eliminate language barriers, through the use of interpreters. The theory consistently approaches culturally based care by requiring the nurse to use cultural knowledge as well as specific skills when deciding nursing inte rventions and practices. The theory continues to be consistent in requiring the same approach by requiring the nurse to perform a cultural assessment. The assessment provides an understanding of an individual health perception which guides culturally appropriate interventions. Culture care theory is widely accessible as it is the major and most significant contributor to transcultural nursing. (Ayonrinde, 2003) Cultural care theory played and will continue to play a significant role in nursing practice, research and education. Healthy People 2020 goal is to eliminate health disparities among different populations based upon numerous factors. Nurses are the key in moving forward with eliminating these disparities. Todays environment is multicultural and the emphasis on providing culturally competent care has increased. The Culture Care theory is well established and it has been the most significant breakthrough in nursing and the health fields in the 20th century and will be in great er demand in the 21st century. (Leininger, 2002, p. 190)
Monday, August 19, 2019
In the film Finding Forrester, their was a big conflict between Jamal and Mr. Crawford. Mr. Crawford and Jamal had their difference though out the film. Their were lots of problems that Mr. Crawford had against Jamal. The conflicts were based Jamal race, and his intelligence. First, their was a big conflict inside the class room. Mr. Crawford was asking one of the students a question, and Jamal jumped in the conversation. Jamal was trying to help him out, so he told the boy to say his name, which was the answer to his question. Mr. Crawford was very angry. Mr. Crawford then tried to preach to Jamal by quoted some sayings. Mr. Crawford never got a chance to finish his sentence, because Jamal would finish them. Mr. Crawford then got mad. He then ordered Jamal to leave the class because he was embarrassed. The second conflict between Jamal and Mr. Crawford was when Mr. Crawford didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that Jamal wrote a paper that he was assigned to write . Mr. Crawford told Jamal that he would have to write the whole paper over in his office. Even though Jamal was trying to convince Mr. Crawford that it was his paper, Mr. Crawford still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe him. Jamal did the essay anyway. The last conflict between Jamal and Mr. Crawford was when Mr. Crawford found out that Jamal had used William Forrester topic to his essay. Mr. Crawford then told Jamal that he had to write an apology letter and read it in front of the class. He also told him that he could just tell him if William Forrester gave him permission to use his title. Jamal refuse to tell them that he knew William, he also refuse to write the letter and read it out loud. Jamal told William about the two option that he was given and asked for his advice. William told him that he should apologize, but Jamal refused. Jamal then told William that he should come to the school and tell Mr. Crawford, William refused. Jamal told William that they had threaten to kick him out of school. William decided to show up to Jamal school. He read an essay that Jamal wrote. Mr. Crawford thought it was Williams writings, and begun to tell him how great the paper was. William then told Mr. Crawford that the paper was Jamal.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
September 28, 1915: Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg born March 1917: The Russian Revolution begins 1917: Espionage Act that the Rosenbergs are convicted of violating is enacted May 12, 1918: Julius Rosenberg born 1929: Communist Party of the United States is founded Early 1930's: Julius Rosenberg is member of Young Communist League; campaigns for Scottsboro Boys 1934: Julius Rosenberg enters City College of New York; is involved in radical politics Summer 1939: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg married December 7, 1941: United States enters World War II after the attack on Pearl Harbor 1942: Julius Rosenberg becomes member of U. S. Signal Corps 1943: Rosenbergs cease open activities with Communist Party; Daily Worker subscription stops 1943: Soviet spymaster Feklisov first meets with Julius Rosenberg July 1944: David Greenglass chosen to work on the Manhattan Project November 1944: Julius Rosenberg recruits aid of Greenglasses in obtaining information about the Manhattan Project December 1944: Julius Rosenberg provides Soviets with a proximity fuse January 1945: David Greenglass provides his own notes and a sketch of a high-explosive lens from the Manhattan Project June 1945: Harry Gold meets with Greenglass in Albuqurque July 16, 1945: United States explodes first Atom bomb at Alamogordo, New Mexico August 6, 1945: United States drops Atom bomb at Hiroshima September 2, 1945: World War II ends with the Japanese surrender September, 1945: Greenglass meets with Rosenberg while on forlough in New York 1945: Julius Rosenberg is dismissed from U. S. Signal Corps 1946: Feklisov meets with Julius Rosenberg for the last time Late 1946: The Verona Code is broken 1947: Rosenberg's machine shop business fails June 30, 1948: Max Elitcher and Morton Sobell drive to Catherine Slip where Sobell met with Julius Rosenberg to exchange microfilm August 28, 1949: Soviets detonate their first Atom bomb January 21, 1950: Alger Hiss convicted of perjury in denying that he passed secret documents to Communist agent Whittaker Chambers February 2, 1950: Klaus Fuchs arrested March 1950: Julius Rosenberg warns Greenglass to flee country May 1950: Rosenberg asks his physician about what kind of shots are necessary for trip to Mexico May 22, 1950: Harry Gold confesses to the FBI May or June 1950: Rosenbergs visit a photographer to obtain passport photos June 15, 1950: David Greenglass names Julius as the man who recruited him to spy for the Soviet Union June 16, 1950: Julius Rosenberg is first interviewed by FBI; Joel Barr disappears in Paris June 30, 1950: United States forces engage in the Korean War
'Timber!'; and with a crash the mighty oak hit the ground. There was never a tree too big or a job too tough for Woody. He enjoyed his job as a lumberjack and with good reason. The pay was good, he had always liked the outdoors and he was good at what he did. In fact, some say he was the best. His friends in the city however said he was crazy for moving away. They said there are so many opportunities in the city, but Woody never wanted opportunities, he just wanted to be a lumberjack. So far this job was running smoothly. They were on schedule and there was an abundance of trees in British Columbia to keep them busy for the next while. It seemed so simple at first. Woody and his crew would cut down the trees and they would be shipped to a nearby river where they would be floated downstream to the new lumber mill. At least this was what was supposed to happen. After the first couple loads, there came reports that the logs weren't reaching their destination. Some of the men started talking about how they were logging on uncharted territory and this was a bad omen. Woody just laughed and said, 'Uncharted territory or not, we have a job to do and I'm not going to let some little thing like this ruin my reputation. I'll go see what the problem is.'; And so Woody packed a bag with supplies and sailed off down the river to find the missing logs. It wasn't long before the lush green landscape of trees he saw around him became a bare region of stumps and small brush. It was almost as if another logging crew had been here before him. He was amazed at the number of trees that had been cut down. It would have taken his entire crew at least a week and yet all of the stumps looked freshly cut. Woody had to find out what was happening. A bit further down the river he found his answer. There in front of him were all of the missing logs. They had became jammed at the base of the biggest beaver dam he had ever seen. He gazed up at it in awe of it's shear size. The river itself was quite wide and this dam covered it from shore to shore.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The hitch hikerÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance was described as a small ratty faced man with grey teeth, rat like eyes, slightly pointed ears, wearing a cloth hat, greyish coloured jacket with enormous pockets. In other words, he looked like a human rat. In my opinion I think that Roald Dahl describes the hitch hiker similarly to a rat so that it makes the reader assume that the hitch hiker is probably a looney-toon, murderer or some other sort of criminal. Once the reader assume that, it will make them predict that something bad or interesting will happen involving the narrator and hitch hiker. The hitch hikerÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance as a rat also predicts his personality. When normal human beings think of ratty type people, their stereotypical reaction will be that the person is selfish, backstabbing, dirty, smelly, disloyal, violent and probably a criminal. At the beginning of the story, the narrator asks the hitch hiker why the he was going to the horse races if he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to bet, the hitch hiker acts as if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear the question and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to like it. These actions predict that something is up, otherwise why wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t he answer the question. In the story, the hitch hiker has very fast hands. He managed to roll up a cigarette in just 5 seconds. He also managed to knick off the narrators watch, wallet, shoelace, driving license, key ring with keys, coins, a letter, a diary, and an expensive sapphire and pearl ring, belonging to the narrators wife. The hitch hikers extremely talented hands make the readers assume that the hitch hikerÃ¢â¬â¢s job, that he has been hiding all along, had something to do with his hands, leading the reader to assume that he was probably a pick pocket. Yet again Roald Dahl makes the readers assume something and then surprises the reader; in this case the hitch hiker is actually a finger smith, apparently the top position in the pick pocket career. When the hitch hiker speaks, he has an accent, for example he says, Ã¢â¬ËguvÃ¢â¬â¢norÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËodÃ¢â¬â¢carrierÃ¢â¬â¢. This lets the readers know that he is probably not from London, and from the country side. The most noticeable thing about the hitch hikerÃ¢â¬â¢s speech is that he manages to criticize everything as if he looks down on every type of job out there. For example when the narrator guesses the hitch hikers job as a piano player, the hitch hiker responds saying, Ã¢â¬Å"My job, is a hundred times more difficult than a piano player, any twerp can learn how to do that.Ã¢â¬ When the narrator guesses that the hitch hiker is a card player, the hitch hiker responds saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Me! A rotten cardsharper? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a miserable racket if ever there was one.Ã¢â¬ The hitch hiker criticizing every job makes the reader think that he must be incredibly skilled and talented, and that his job is the most knowledgeable job out there. Yet again, Roald Dahl surprises the readers that the hitch hiker is in the criminal business even though all the clues add up to it. The relationship between the narrator and hitch hiker is very surprising and unpredictable. It turns out that they become friends in the end despite the fact that the hitch hiker is a criminal and the narrator is a successful writer. I think that Roald Dahl teaches a little lesson in this story that even the two most opposite type people can have something in common and become friends.
Friday, August 16, 2019
IntroductionThesis Statement: Should hate speech be censored? Yes hate speech should be censored for numerous of reasons due toff the effects it will bring to our society.Expanded Thesis Statement: Yet people might believe that hate speech should be allowed due to belief of freedom of speech, hate speech weather itÃ¢â¬â¢s allowed or not still does not make it right.It does not make it right because it most likely leads to bigger issues such as riots, physical abuse, and conflicts. I believe people are allowed to speak their mind and do have freedom of speech but to a certain point.Background: Four Teenagers were arrested in December of 2006 for insulting North Koreans. The hate speech was toward their nationality which ended up as a major conflict.ArgumentsArgument One: Hate speech leads to conflicts, riots, and disagreements in societyIt hurts individual groups, such as people religion, background, beliefs and more.Leads to moral damage. Also damages social structure in societyEve n things such as computer games or internet communication with friends can lead to international conflict and cyber bullyingArgument Two: Hate speech leads to violent crimesIf the number of hate crimes are decreased, we improve the welfare of societyBecause of hate speech society becomes more violent and leads to violent crimesTo avoid conflict, hate speech should not be allowed when it comedown down to certain things such as racism, religion, and cultureArgument Three: Hate speech through the Internet also known as cyber bullying causes many incidents of teenage suicidesAllow people might say censoring the internet for ate speech is nearly impossible due to freedom of speech it should still be overlooked because of its causes and efforts to the people around usMore and more suicides are becoming a major issue in our nation because of hate speech and violenceIt affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives regardless and should be taken notice weather itÃ¢â¬â¢s censored or not, it should not be a llowed to a certain point.ConclusionAlthough people believe of freedom of speech and speaking there mind, Hate speech should be censored due to a certain pointHate speech as many negative affect when it comes to our society and causes many incidents such as violent acts and just hatred. Such actions should be overlooked and taken into more consideration and importance
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Aim: To find the percentage by mass of hydrochloric acid present in brick cleaner by doing an acid-base titration. Theory/Hypothesis: The main ingredient in brick cleaner is HCL and must be diluted and titrated with a base to be able to analyse it. It reacts with parts of the concrete which allows it to remove the concrete from the bricks. I think there will be around 30% of HCL in brick cleaner. Materials: * 5mL brick cleaner * 100mL, 0.1M standard sodium carbonate solution * 250ml de-ionised water * Methyl orange indicator * 250mL volumetric flask * 4x100mL conical flasks * Small funnel * 10mL measuring cylinder * 20mL pipette * Pipette filter * Dropping pipette * Burette and stand * White tile * Electronic balance * Safety glasses * Gloves Method: 1) A 250 mL volumetric flask was weighed with itÃ¢â¬â¢s mass recorded 2) A 10mL measuring cylinder was used to pour 5mL brick cleaner into the volumetric flask. The flask was stoppered straight after all the brick cleaner was in the flask. 3) The flask was then reweighed 4) De-ionised water was added until the flask was about half full. The flask was stoppered and shaken carefully upside down several times. 5) More water was added to the flask about a cm below the graduation line. A dropper was used to accurately drop the right amount of water to the flask so the bottom of the meniscus was on the graduation line. 6) A 20mL pipette was used to put 20mL of sodium carbonate solution into each of the four 100mL conical flask. 3 drops of methyl orange indicator was added to each. 7) The burette was filled with the solution of brick cleaner. 8) The sodium carbonate solution was titrated with the solution of brick cleaner until there was a clear permanent colour change. 9) Steps 7 and 8 were repeated until 3 concordant results were Results: Weight Volumetric flask 78.968g Brick cleaner 6.00g Titre 1 2 3 Initial vol 2.3 23.4 3.0 Final vol 23.4 44.5 24.0 Vol added 21.1 21.1 21.0 Calculations: On page attached. Discussion: The weight for the brick cleaner may not be 6.00g as the volumetric flask was not weighed again with the brick cleaner in it because that step was forgotten. So the result above was taken from another student that did the prac. This will affect the results as the mass of the brick cleaner is used to determine the percentage by mass of HCL in brick cleaner. All 3 titres show that they are only within 0.1 of each other. The hypothesis has been disproved because it was suggested the 30% of HCL would be in brick cleaner and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s only 2.4% although itÃ¢â¬â¢s not certain that those steps were done correctly. There were no problems encountered during this prac. Focus Questions: 8)a) the manufacturer says that brick cleaner is made up of around 35% HCL, which is a massive difference to the answer that was got in this prac but again question 7 was not done correctly. b) differences in class results occur because not everybody would have done the exact volume of brick cleaner, sodium carbonate etc as each other therefore the difference in results obtained. 9) To correctly clean up a spill of 20mL brick cleaner you would mop it up immediately, washing it away with massive amounts of water 10)a) volumetric flask= once with water twice with brick cleaner b) Burette= once with water twice with diluted solution of brick cleaner c) pipette= once with water twice with diluted brick cleaner d) conical flask=once with water twice with sodium carbonate solution Conclusion: To conclude, there should be 35% HCL in brick cleaner although it was found that there was only 2.4%
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
1.0 introduction In the study of development, nurture is defined as the environmental conditions that influence a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development (T. M McDevitt and J. E. Ormrod , 2010). A childÃ¢â¬â¢s home environment, friends with whom he spends time with, the food that he eats and the types of movies he watches Ã¢â¬â not to mention the content and or education background Ã¢â¬â are all the factors that influence his physical, social and cognitive development in both positive and negative perspective. In this paper, I will be focusing on nurture factors and how do these factors have influenced the development of the prominent figures that I have chosen which are Tun Dr. Mahathir, our very own 4th Prime Minister from Malaysia and Bill Gates, the billionaire, from United States of America. The development that I will be touching on is regarding the physical development, cognitive development as well as the language development. Read more:Ã Explain how children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s development is influenced by a range of external factors essay 2.0 Tun Dr. Mahathir Tun Dr. Mahathir was the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He is fondly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Modern MalaysiaÃ¢â¬ . He was born on the 10th July 1925 in Seberang Perak, Alor Setar, Malaysia, but his father, Mr Mohamed B. Iskandar, only registered his date of birth on 20th December 1925. His motherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Wan Mas Tempawan Bt Wan Hanafi. He is the youngest in the family and is very close to his five brothers and sisters. He got married with Tun Dr Siti Hasmah Bt Haji Mohamed Ali on 5th August 1956 and were given seven children. After I went through TunÃ¢â¬â¢s background, there are two nurture factors that contributed to his development. The nurture factors are as follow: 2 2.1 Nurture factors 2.1.1 Family Family has always become the priority in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. In my humble opinion, every success of a man lies on their family supports and values. This statement is agreed by Tun Dr. Mahathir himself whereby he believes inÃ family values and close family relationship (Fam, Lee, Nawarmani Balakrishnan and R. Rajendran, 2006). During his childhood, Tun and his siblings were taught to behave with discipline in everything that they do (Mahathir, 2011). His father, Mr Mohamad B. Iskandar, is the first Malay Headmaster of the Government English School in Alor Setar. Whenever Tun Dr Mahathir and his siblings came back from school, their father would go through their homework with them. Even during the holidays, their father would sit down with them, patiently tutoring them and setting a timetable for them to do reading, school work etc. He would teach them the way that he taught his students in school. Apart from that, Tun and his siblings lived in awe of their father even though he never laid a hand on them. This is because the sound of their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s cough was enough to send them scurrying back to their books and homework (Mahathir, 2011). They all studied at the big table in the front room and will only stop for dinner. It is such discipline that Tun Dr Mahathir grew up to be a well-mannered and educated man with good values. Thus, I would say that family plays a very important role to develop a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development. In fact, family is the biggest influence during childhood, as the children view their parents as their role models. 3 2.1.2 Education Besides family, education also plays a vital role in the development of Tun Dr. Mahathir. Despite the informal education that he got from his own family, he also went to school to get his early education. He started schooling when he was 5 years old in a Malay School in Jalan Seberang Perak. He has the determination of wanted to have a better education than what most Malays had at that time. For that, he went to English School and passed his examination. At school, the students were not allowed to speak any languages other than English language. So with such practice, Tun Dr Mahathir developed his language development and is able to converse English language fluently. All these happened during his primary school days. After he finished his primary school, he then went to Sultan Abdul Hamid College to do his secondary education. However, during that time, the Second World War started. As a result, it was difficult for him to study and he decided toÃ seek for a job. So, he started his business mind and thought of something to sell. Together with his two friends, he set up a stall selling coffee and Ã¢â¬ËKuihÃ¢â¬â¢ (Malaysian cakes). He made a good business with the stall and soon was able to sell the stall for a good sum of money. This matter showed he has a good acute business sense. After selling the stall, he moved to a better location at a small complex. He then thought of selling fried bananas. He made money selling the fried bananas and also made many friends. This incident proves that, at a very young age, he is able to think, strategize, and find solution for any problems that occur. 4 Indirectly saying, Tun was exposed to cognitive skills through his own experiences not only from education but also from the business perspective. In 1945, after the Second World War ended, Tun Dr Mahathir resumed his education at Sultan Abdul Hamid College where he sat for and passed his Cambridge Examination. He did a lot of reading on political issues in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s huge library in school. He gained a lot of information from his reading. From here, it is proven that Tun also developed his cognitive skills by reading books especially in political issues. In school, joining extra-curricular activities was part of the system. Therefore, Tun joined the rugby club although he was not very interested in games and sports but then he found out that he quite enjoyed playing rugby (Fam, Lee, Nawarmani Balakrishnan and R. Rajendran, 2006). From here, I would say that school activities play a significant role in shaping Tun physical development such as grass motor skills, which includes running. Finally, in the year 1947, after he had gone through much experience in working, he then continued his tertiary education in medical field at the King Edward VII Medical College, Singapore. With all the skills that he got from early of his primary school up to secondary school and working experiences, I do not think Tun will face a problem in his studies especially when it comes to speaking skills and finding solution to any problems. 5 3.0 Bill Gates The way Bill Gates was brought up is different from Tun Dr. Mahathir. UnlikeÃ Tun, his education plays a significant role in shaping his development. In contrast, after I went through Bill GatesÃ¢â¬â¢s biography, I found out that it is his peers that have influenced his success. He and his partner, Paul Allen, built the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest software business called Microsoft. In the process, Gates became one of the richest men in the world (The Biography Channel Website, 2004). There are two nurture factors that contributed to his development. The nurture factors are as follow: 6 3.1 Nurture Factors 3.1.1 Family Bill Gates was born on 28th October 1955, in Seattle, Washington, United States of America. His real name is William Henry Gates III. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is William Henry II who works as an attorney and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Mary Maxwell, who works as a teacher. Bill gates grew up in an upper middle-class family with two sisters: Kristianne and Lubby (The Biography Channel Website, 2004). The Gates family atmosphere was warm and close and all three children were encouraged to be competitive and strive for excellence. It is such discipline that made him a very competitive person. For example, Bill showed early signs of competitiveness when he coordinated family athletic games at their summer house on Puget Sound (The Biography Channel Website, 2004). Bill Gates was a voracious reader when he was a child (The Biography Channel Website, 2004). He would spend most of his time by looking for information in reference books such as encyclopaedia. Gates weird behaviour made his parents more concerned of his academic achievement. Thus, he was sent to SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s Lakeside School. As a result, at age 13, he blossomed in nearly all the subjects and also doing very well in drama. At a very young age, his cognitive development was trained by his family. Thus, by that kind of environment Ã¢â¬â competitive among his siblings, excel in academic field Ã¢â¬â has made him become one of the most influential persons in the globe. 7 3.1.2 Peers As I mentioned earlier, Bill Gates and his business partner, Paul Allen, both shared the same interest over computers. It is through peers that GatesÃ slowly developed his cognitive skills in computer field. It all started when both of them eventually met in high school when their school offered computer class for the students. Although the two were very different in their personality Ã¢â¬â Bill was feisty and combative, in contrast, Allen was more reserved and shy (The Biography Channel Website, 2004). But all in all, I believe, with such differences that have made them a good companion. At the age of 15, Bill and Allen went into business by creating Ã¢â¬Å"Traf-o-DataÃ¢â¬ , a computer program that monitored traffic patterns in Seattle. Believe it or not, their efforts had made a total profit of $20,000. Another big project that they had worked together was with Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS). Both of them worked days and nights until they got hired by the company. Until in the year 1975, Gates and Allen formed a partnership. This partnership was called Micro-Soft, a blend of Ã¢â¬Å"micro-computerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"softwareÃ¢â¬ . In a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, peers play a vital role in shaping any abilities or talents that a child has (Barnes. S, 2014). As for Bill Gates case, he enjoyed making friend with Paul Allen because both of them shared the same interest over computer. Plus, their interest does not even affect their achievement in academic. In fact, Bill Gates excelled in his studies. 8 4.0 Conclusion In brief, after I went through both the prominent figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ biography, I found out that the nurture factors of a child comes hand in hand with physical development, cognitive development as well as language development . Due to the fact that both the prominent figures differ from the way they have been brought up, it is clearly evident that nurture factors do play a vital role in their development. One of the biggest nurture factors in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, I would say, is family. In social studies, family is one and the most important agents of socialization (Macionis, J.J., 2012). Through the teaching, support, surroundings and values that the family have, it will somehow and eventually determine a child development. If the family have a good background Ã¢â¬â despite the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic achievement, enough nutrition being given by the parents, etc Ã¢â¬â indirectly, a child will face zero problems in any aspects of their development. 9 REFERENCES Barnes. S. (2014). Peer Relationships, Protective Factors, and Social Skill Development in Low- Income Children. Retrieved from, http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/opus/issues/2013/fall/barnes, on April, 2014. Bill Gates (2014). The Biography Channel website. Retrieved 06:35, Apr 1, 2014, from http://www.biography.com/people/bill-gates-9307520. Joan Fam L. H, Lee, Nawarmani Balakrishnan & R. Rajendran (2006). Tun Dr. MahathirÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy: An inspirational learning experience. Kuala Lumpur: Krista Education Sdn Bhd. Macionis. J. J. (2012). Sociology. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc. Mahathir Bin Mohamad (2011). A Doctor in the House: The Memoirs of Tun Mahathir Muhamad. Selangor : MPH Group Publishing Sdn.Bhd. T. M McDevitt &J. E. Ormrod (2010). Nature and nurture. Retrieved, April 3, 2014, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/nature-nurture/
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
American Military Bands up to the Civil War Era - Essay Example Both the Union and Confederate soldiers often engaged in recreation with songs and musical instruments. Indeed whereas songs and music that were played on the battlefields were usually intended to boost the morale of the soldiers, those that were played at night or at leisure were meant for recreation. Music as the Embodiments of Cultures and Political Ideals Both the Union and the Confederate soldiers had their own favorite music and tunes that were harmonious with their political and cultural ideals. Yet some music was enjoyed by both parties alike. One of these commonly cherished music and songs was the "I Wish I Was in Dixie" or "Dixie's Land". Though during the Civil War the song was the unofficial anthem of the Confederacy, it became commonly popular across the United States because of its unique dealings with the black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s slavery in the country. The music won the heart of the pro-slavery southerners by its pictorial quality of presenting the black people as lazy, ignorant, superstitious, buffoonish, joyous, and musical; but for the same reason for the NorthernersÃ¢â¬â¢ the Ã¢â¬Å"DixieÃ¢â¬ was a marvelous example of proslavery culture of the Old South, offensive to a free American Identity (Silber 97). Official Approval of Military Bands Appreciating the inspirational value of music in wars, the War Department of the United States officially allocated a brass band of 24 members for every infantry and artillery regiment, and a band of 16 members for the cavalry regiments. The Confederate Army also had at least two musicians for each regiment. A survey shows that during the Civil War, about seventy five percent of the Union Army regiments had a band group and the total number of the musicians in the army was about 28,000 musicians in 618 bands. Musicians were not only meant for the entertainment of the soldiers but also for maintaining discipline and orderliness among them. Military musicians especially the buglers and drummers had to lea rn about forty nine different calls including the battle commands as well as the call for the meal. Like the buglers the drummers needed to learn about Ã¢â¬Å"39 different beats: fourteen for general use and 24 for marching cadenceÃ¢â¬ (Miller 58). Music as an Inspiration for Soldiers in the Battlefield Though in July 1861 the role of the musicians in war was ignored and dismantled under the crushing pressure of war-situation, both music and musicians played a great part in determining the fate of the war. In a letter to George F. Root Lincoln wrote a letter, "You have done more than a hundred generals and a thousand orators" (Branham 97). Union general Phillip Sheridan believed that Ã¢â¬Å"Music has done its share, and more than its share, in winning this warÃ¢â¬ (Lanning 46). Both in the battlefield and camp, musiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ influence were enormous. The surviving soldiers of bloody battlefield of PickettÃ¢â¬â¢s Charge returned singing the song Ã¢â¬Å"Nearer My God to The eÃ¢â¬ that served a spiritual compensation for the exhausted and heavily-suffering the soldiers. At the battlefield of Five Forks, Union musicians sacrificed their lives while playing Ã¢â¬Å"Nelly BlyÃ¢â¬ as a peace message at the front line of the battle under General SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s order. Seeing the agents of peace being shot at the front line infuriated the union soldiers and helped them to become morally revamped. At the Battle of Williamsburg, Commander Samuel P. Heintzman ordered the military band to play anything that could boost
Monday, August 12, 2019
Transformation in the US Military - Essay Example Transformation of US military Introduction Since the 9/11 attacks, the US military has taken an active part in the political and global military activities for the US and for the international community. Inasmuch as it is considered one of the most powerful and advanced military units in the world, its vulnerabilities have been manifest in recent years. With the trends in globalization taking the spotlight, the need to introduce changes and to transform the military has been a growing concern. Efforts to transform the military have been seen in the past years and these efforts have had various effects in the way that the US military has implemented these changes. This paper shall now consider two of these efforts to transform the US military. One of these efforts is the effort to improve diversity and multiculturalism in the military. Another effort is on improvements in the coordination and cooperation with other countries in terms of military operations and issues of unrest. This a nalysis will compare and contrast these efforts and will identify two or three key factors that led to the perceived or actual need to transform, two of three key policies enacted to effect desired transformation, and the leading forces that shaped policies pursued in order to achieve the transformation. Discussion Efforts to increase diversity and multiculturalism in the US military have been implemented by the government.... This segregation created different issues, including racial confrontations within the military between 1942 and 1945 (Canaday, 2001). Despite passage of policies against segregation after WWII, this practice was still seen during the Korean War; however gradual integration was seen towards the end of the Korean War. Through this practice, the US army saw that combat effectiveness became more effective when racial integration was applied. The Secretary of War in 1963 set forth command responsibility for civil rights issues and in order to address racial tension, the military conceptualized the Defense Race Relations Institute (Canaday, 2001). This institute performed educational, training, and research functions. This institute was renamed Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute and it broadened the readiness of military readiness in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, and religion (Canaday, 2001). Colin PowellÃ¢â¬â¢s rise as the premier first African-American Secretary of Stat e and his rise to his current status is a testament to effective solid efforts towards diversity within the military. A major factor affecting transformation of the US military in terms of diversity is the fact that the US military has made an effort towards integrating racial, ethnic, religious, and national groups into the military practice (Canaday, 2001). Many leaders recognized the fact that with more contact between whites and blacks, the better it was for racial integration. Moreover, the military has Ã¢â¬Å"a bureaucratic ethos and formalityÃ¢â¬ ¦that mitigated tensions arising from individual or personal feelingsÃ¢â¬ (Canaday, 2001). The military was also able to hold the commanders responsible for equal