Thursday, August 22, 2019
Patterns of Dominance Essay Example for Free
Patterns of Dominance Essay The Jews have experienced a number of atrocities in their history. Yet, they are still bound together by their Jewish identity. Although religion plays a crucial role in the lives of Jews, they are best characterized as an ethnic group facing discrimination in a lot of ways in different places. The most extreme form of anti-Semitism had been the expulsion of the Jews from various countries such as England, Spain and Portugal in previous centuries; as well as the execution of the Jews in Germany, more commonly known as the Holocaust. Although religion plays a very important role in the lives and the culture of Jews, they can still be collectively looked at as an ethnic group experiencing discrimination and outright hatred all over the world. Because For one, they still strongly adhere to a common ancestry and lineage. Jews have also managed to protect their collective identity through the years. Other religions embrace a multiplicity of ethnicity and race while the religion of Jews seems to be an extension of their ethnicity. Converts tend to be embraced by the Jewish and integrated into their ethnicity. Patterns of anti-Semitism have changed over time. Gone are the days when governments would enable rules and legislations expressly banning Jews certain rights and privileges in society. Yet, covert discrimination is still felt by Jews, especially in Europe where graffiti and verbal attacks against them proliferate. These forms of Ã¢â¬Å"unofficialÃ¢â¬ discrimination are more difficult to deal with than the kind which is officially sanctioned by governments (Morris, 2001). Jewish Identity in the United States In the United States, Jews have relatively more freedom as a group of people than in New York. This perception led them to migrate in waves from European countries to the United States since the early nineteenth century. Ironically, there is roughly the same number of Jews in the United States and in Israel. While the Jews represent 80 percent of the population of Israel, in the United States, they only hold two percent of the total population. In addition to this, American society is greatly diverse and Jews have a tendency to be subsumed in the mainstream culture. The American society has welcomed Jews but they are not very interested with their heritage (Langman, 1999). Due in part to the secular nature of American society, more and more Jews are de-emphasizing their Jewish roots and heritage. The American society is also highly individualistic in contrast to the emphasis of Jews on the importance of community and family. As Jews are assimilated more and more by the American society, they tend to rely less on their Jewish tradition and identity. There is less observance of religious activities and less loyalty to the concept of Jewish identity. This is further confounded by an attitude of pluralism and multiculturalism in the United States. Because of these processes, the importance of family in Jewish life cannot be underestimated. As the larger society seeks to integrate and assimilate the Jewish identity, the family remains the bastion of ethnicity socializing young Jews into their identity and enables them to look at who they are and what make them unique as Jews. As they grow up, traditions and Jewish practices are drilled into young Jews so that they understand who they are in the context of a multicultural and highly pluralistic American society. If such influence of the family weakens, then the Jewish identity also weakens. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Position and Oppressed Racial and Ethnic Groups Women have been one of the oppressed and marginalized groups through history. Only recently have they been granted suffrage and equal footing with men in terms of opportunities and privileges in the society. Their situation is different from other marginalized groups in society because women oppression transcends cultures and societies all over the world. In a number of cultures and societies all over the world, women have been considered as second class citizens who cannot enjoy the same level of privileges and rights as men. These rights included access to education, freedom to choose their own lifestyle and directions in life. In addition to these, they have been subject to oppression and assault including sexual harassment and rape, pornography, illicit sex trade, and physical abuse. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is different from racial and ethnic minorities because they are oppressed for something that is fundamental to their identity and their sex. In earlier times, they have been considered as the property of men. This experience is similar to the Black slaves who did not have rights in the American society. They were sold and treated like machinery. African Americans have been granted emancipation and their rights as citizens of the United States. Women have been granted suffrage at a later time. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is a worldwide phenomenon and most governments have recognized the need to grant women equal rights with men. The difference with ethnic oppression is that they are confined to individual countries. Both of these oppressed minorities, however, still suffer from covert racism brought about by the social systems that favor one group over another. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movements in the Twentieth Century In the twentieth century, women in the English speaking world have become more active in fighting for equal rights. From issues of suffrage and equal opportunities for work, the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement or feminist movement has come to embrace added issues that affect the situation of women in society. Such issues include access to employment opportunities, promotion at work and access to various services at work to accommodate their situation. The issue of abortion and the choice of women in keeping their babies or not is another hotly debated issue in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights in the twenty first century. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s situation at work is different from men because women go through different life stages and processes that may appear to disrupt their work. They get pregnant and have to file maternity leaves. After that, they also have to nurse their babies and make sure that they grow up. Because of this reason and other systems of overt and covert discrimination, men tend to be promoted to higher positions more than women. In the United States, more women tend to work and this has also affected the American family. For one, women have to look after their work as much as men, yet they also have to be mothers and look after the babies as they grow up. With increasing work demands, it becomes more difficult for women to balance their time with their families. In addition to this, highly driven women may even put their career over their family. Such attitude clashes with the traditional view that women should be at home looking after the kids and how they grow up. In the long run, if the husband will become dissatisfied, then divorce and separation may ensue. Stereotyping of the Aged, People with Disabilities and Gays and Lesbians The tendency for the dominant group in the society is to stereotype marginalized groups in the society. Age people tend to be seen as weak and bordering on being obsolete and anachronistic. This is because they lack the usual energy and technological savvy of younger workers. As a result of this stereotype, they are being replaced by younger employees. People with disabilities on the other hand, tend to generate sympathy but at the same time discrimination. Through the special treatment that shown to them, they are in effect being told that they cannot do the activities and the things that people without disabilities could do. Gays and lesbians, on the other hand, tend to be seen from the dominant moral code in the society. As such, they are judged too often as immoral persons in the society and should therefore be despised. When people despise them, their good side is often disregarded completely. To combat unfair practices at work and in the society, the aged, people with disabilities and gays and lesbians should be mobilized so that they can protect their rights. Of these groups, however, gays and lesbians tend to be the most empowered because they are relatively braver in banding together and fighting for their rights. The aged and the persons with disabilities tend to be silent about their experiences. As such, they cannot effectively fight for their rights. Furthermore, gays and lesbians tend to be more educated in regards to their rights so they have better leverage than the aged and the persons with disabilities in fighting for their rights. The dominant group in the society can make it harder for these people to band together so that they can effectively fight for their rights.