Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Critique and Development of Research Questions Essay

Critique and Development of Research Questions - Essay Example onsidered as a chief method of ensuring national security and the employment of Polygraph interviews as part of security clearance procedures in different branches of the American government has been widely criticized. Thus, in the background of ongoing debates on the utility of polygraph in national security, the scope and relevance of a profound research on the topic is categorical. In this research paper, the focal attempt has been to make a scrupulous investigation on ‘the utility of polygraph in national security’. The psycho-physiological detection of deception (PDD) including polygraph testing should be given more crucial attention in current researches. â€Å"In stark contrast to the scientific literature on forensic use of PDD, the use of FDD in employment and for screening, including screening for national security, is the subject of relatively little published research. Initial commentary on the use of polygraphs for national security screening focused on pro blems that all diagnostic tests experience when attempting to diagnose a rare condition.† (Granhag and Strà ¶mwall, 2004, p 118). In the background of serious debates on the question, it is of central implication to have a precise analysis of the matters and to come up with the most sagacious findings on the question. Therefore, the importance of this research paper is greater and the potential findings of this investigation on ‘the utility of polygraph in national security’ also justify the scope of the study. The utility of polygraph in national security has been a critical topic which has attained enormous focus and invited national interest in the modern American context. The paper attempts to undertake a profound investigation into the topic ‘The Utility of Polygraph in National Security’ and come up with the most sagacious findings on the questions which attract the current debates. Polygraph testing has been a serious technique of security assurance for a long time, in spite of the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Twilight in delhi Essay Example for Free

Twilight in delhi Essay The term Absurd is essentiallyimpregnated with various human conditionsand situations arousing absurdity and is necessarily present in the post world war generation. Life has become bitter sweet or „life in death and death in life? to the coming generation. This human predicament sprouted its spears during 1920s, developed during 1940s and perpetuated in the later world. This very notion wasenchanted, transported and sometimes devastated by the intellectualsof this world such as T. S. Eliot, W. B. Yeats, Existentialists, Expressionists, Surrealists, and Absurdists of the 20th century. And Waiting for Godot is central sun round whom all the absurdist notionsmove. Ittranscendentstime and hasthe cosmicsignificance even after 60 years ofits publication. Itinsinuates modernismand perpetuates postmodernismthatisnothing but â€Å"too much with us; late and soon, getting and spending, we lay waste our lives before it. † Really in the midsty of then terminologicalmayhem, Absurd is best identified withWaiting for Godot with its sense of nothingness in life. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal (LLILJ) 29 Key words: Absurd, Existentialism, Surrealism, and Post modernism. ThetermAbsurd is essentiallyimpregnated withvarioushumanconditions and situations arousingabsurdityand is necessarily present inthe postworld wargeneration. Lifehas become bitter sweet or„lifein death and deathinlife? to the coming generation. This human predicament sprouted itsspears during 1920s, developed during 1940s and perpetuated inthe laterworld. This verynotionwasenchanted, transported and sometimes devastated bythe intellectualsof this world. Ontheone hand T. S. Eliotbeautifully mirrored theinnerabsurdityofthemodernworld in his magnum-opus The waste land (1921), and Samuel Beckett in his master piece Waiting for Godot (1955), on the other. Superficially Abusrd means ridiculous, but literally it means „Sense having nonsense? or „having everything hath nothing?. That is considered absurd is actually anti- traditional andavant-garde,henceis ridiculed. But originally itssignificancelies in itscrude reality. WhenEliotrepents for spiritual sterility in themodernworld, which isfulloffuryand mire, Absurd dramatists were preparing a suitable platform to expose the absurdity of modern man? s life. Absurd dramatistsevenopted the absurd formto expose theabsurdityinits mosteffectiveway. Thisincludesthewriters ofbothdramaand prose fiction;and themostsignificantofthemare French Jean Genet and Eugene Ionesco, Irish Samuel Beckett, English Harold Pinter, American Edward Albee and others. Both mood and dramaturgyofabsurditywere anticipated intheir works. Theywere also supported byfewothermovementslike expressionism, and surrealism, alongwith fewotherforcefulworks ofFranz Kafka (TheTrial, Metamorphosis). Thiscurrent movementemerged inFrance after the world was second, asa rebellionagainstessentialbeliefs and values oftraditional culture and traditionalliterature, whichhad the belief that-„What a piece of work is a man? How noble in reason, how infinite in faculty! In form and moving how expressand admirable! In apprehensionhowlike a God! The beauty ofthe world! The paragon of animals?. (Hamlet: 47) Theorizing the Absurd: Waiting for Godot SixtyYears After 30 But afterthe 1940s existentialist philosophy byJean- Paul Sartre Ablert Camus opined human being as an isolated existant, cast into an alien universe, having a fruitless search for purpose and meaning and proceedingtowardsnothingness. They believe that:- Its an odd world Full of allthings absurd Most ofit obscure Unseen and unheard. (Brainy Quotes) Thisvery absurdityhas been beautifully penned byAlbert Camus in his â€Å"TheMythof Sisyphus? (1942) as â€Å"Ina universe thatis suddenly deprived ofillusions and oflight, manfeels stranger. Hisis anirremediable exile This diovrce between man and hislife, the actor and his setting; truly constitutes the feeling of absurdity. † (13) and as EugeneIonesco added fire to the fuel by statingthat- â€Å" Cut off from his religious, metaphysical, and transcendental roots, man is lost, all his actions become senseless, abusrd and useless†. (A Glossary of the Literary Terms: 1) Thisvery notionseemssimilartothefollowing lines byS. T. Coleridge,ofhisfamousballad Rime of the Ancient Mariner. â€Å"Water-water every where Not a drop to drink†. (Coleridge: 14) SamuelBeckett(1906-89), the mostcelebrated author ofthisvein, isanIrishauthor, writing inFrenchand thentranslating hisownworks into English. His beginning lies inthe breakdown of traditional values. His prominent and dominent theme, hence is man? s alienation and search forself;which is the prevailing mode of modernman? slife. His works showthe dusk ofmodernismand dawnofpost-modernismand so washonored withNobelPrize for Literature Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal (LLILJ) 31 in1969. As we bid adieuto onestar, we welcome the other ata transitionalpoint, in the same way the publication of Waiting for Godot in 1955, was the appreciated transitional presence on the stage, which bid adieu to themodernism and welcomed post-modernism. ThetermPostmodernism designates „ too muchwith us; late and soon,getting and spending, we laywaste ourlives before it.? Thefounder of this termis Charles Jencks, buthas beenbeautifully defined by Dick Hebdige in Hiding in the Light as: The collective chagrin and morbid projections of a post- War generation of babyboomers confronting disillusioned middle age, the „predicament? of reflexivity†¦ the collapse of cultural hierarchies, the dread engendered by the threat of nuclear self-destruction†¦ a sense (developing onwho youread)of„ placelessness? or theabandonmentofplacelessness(criticalregionalism). Waiting for Godot beautifully designates all these paraphernalia of postmodernism through a vague and nebulous word as well as term of terminological mayhem „absurd?. The play has proliferated at anexceptionalrate overthe lastsixtyyears becauseitdealswiththenotionof man? s existence in this futile world. The playWaiting for Godot portrays an image of man? s existence, which evenafter60 yearsofitspublications seems quite real. Todaymanhas gained material advancement but inner triviality or fragility is still lurking upon his self. The play is a modern allegory of post-war man in a godless, dimensionless and meaningless world. recently Syrian Army attacked on Damascus suburb with chemical weapons, after the Nato? s attack on Yugoslavia and the suffrage in Iraque. Here the lines of W. B. Yeats seems quite applicable, when he says that Turning and turning inthewidening gyre, The falcon can not hear the falconer? Things fall apart;the center cannot hold, Mere anarchyis loosed upon theworld, The blood dimmed tide is loosed and everywhere, The ceremony ofinnocence is drowned. (The Second Coming) Theorizing the Absurd: Waiting for Godot SixtyYears After 32 Waiting for Godot formulates a definition of man that transcends the time. The plays that follow it are also pre-occupied with the feeling typical of our times. All that Fall (1959), a radio play, describes man? s frustration and absurdity. Kropp? s Last Tape (1958) is concerned with the perfect realization of Beckett?s idea of â€Å"human isolation. † Embers (1959) is a monologue of an old man who is haunted by the memory of the past and feels used, confused, and abused. Happy Days (1961) stages the irrationality of human existence without purpose and order. Beckett? s world bears a close resemblance to Camus? s world depicted in The Myth of Sisyphus. Universe suddenly divested of illusions and lights, man feels an alien, stranger. His exile is without remedysince he isdeprived of the memoryofa losthomeor the hopeofapromised land. Camus? s book appeared in 1942, i. e. , during the World War II. The development of the feeling ofthe absurd passesthroughfour stages: (1) First one recognizes the meaninglessness oflifewhichis shocking. Second isliving inconflict between intention(innervoice) andreality. Thethirdistheassumptionofheroic dimensions through living the conflictand makingithis God. The fourthand finalstage consists inthe conscious affirmationthatnothing happens in lifein reality. The sense ofanguish at the absurdityoflife is the theme oftheplays notonlyofSamuelBeckett, but ofAdamov, Ionesco and Genetalso. Asimilarsense ofthemeaninglessness oflifeisalso thetheme ofdramatists, like Sartreand Camus. Butthereis a difference. Thetheatreofthe Absurd abandonsrational devices whereasSartre and Camus expressthenewcontentinthe old convention. MartinEsslin comments on the plays of Beckett is apt, apposite, and appropriate: Beckett? s plays lack plot even more completely than otherworks of the Theatre of the Absurd. Instead of alinear development, they present their author? s intuition of the human coordination by a method thatis essentially polyphonic, they confront their audience with an organized structure of Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal (LLILJ). 33 statements and images that interpenetrate each other and thatmust be apprehended in their totality, rather like the different themes in a symphony, whichgain meaning by their simultaneous interaction. (The Theatre of the Absurd: 44-45) Waiting for Godot is now recognized as a contemporary classic. It was written in 1948, since thenithas beentranslated into manylanguages and performed all over the world. Themost remarkable thingabouttheplayisitsunconventional design. Theplayis apparently haphazard. Butactually it isan extraordinarily powerfulplayin which form and meaning are skilfully blended. The coreofa good playis actionorhappenings, here the verypurpose oftheplayis to say that nothing happens -nothing really happens in human life. Waiting of Godot is thus a paradox. Itisa drama of inaction. Asmanisusually ignorantabout hisrealpurpose in life and he lives inhope ofsome revelationinfuture. We justhangaround waitinglike thetramps or rushmadly aboutlike Pozzo in search of some purpose. We try to get a purpose and orderinthat world whichsteadfastly refusesto evidence either. Waiting for Godot is having four characters, who are not four distinct personalities. They are rather generalized images of allâ€Å"mankind†(109) whichinLucky? s phrase, â€Å"isseento waste andpine wasteand pine† (73). Theyrepresent aview ofmanas a helpless victim of his life. Non-specific settings are a common feature of Beckett? s drama. The stage -space intheplayisabsolutelybare. â€Å"Itisindescribable. Itis likenothing. Thereis nothing. There is a tree† says Vladimir (117). Strange happenings (sudden rise of the moon, sprouting of leaves), strange characters and their irrational behaviour suggest abstract quality of this setting. The text describes itas void ornothing. Thewhole plot, whichis actuallyabsentmoves round thewaitingofthat personwhose identity, is evennotsure. Vladimirand EstragonwaitforGodot, whose arrivalissupposed butalways suspended as modernmanwhatever wishes to do or achieve, scattersinsilence. Now, united we Theorizing the Absurd: Waiting for Godot SixtyYears After 34 do notstand butfallinthisfutile world. Eventhoughtlessnesshasbecome the source oftrouble. Thefollowing discussionmade by Vladimir and Estragon beautifully designates it: We are in no danger of thinking any more†¦ Thinking is not theworst. What is terrible is to have thought. (1954: 62-63) Eventually the grace of Beckett? s Waiting for Godot pruned the modern man? s body and soul alike. Even after sixty years of its publication, we designate its significance and relevance both thematically and stylistically. Really whena manpassesthroughexcess deprivationand hopelessness, whether he commits suicide or tries to take revenge but absurdity even does not allows either. Works Cited Abrams, M. H. AGlossaryofLiteraryTerms. India:ThomsonBusinessInternationalIndiaPvt. Ltd. 2006. Print. Beckett, Samuel. WaitingforGodot. NewYork: Grave Press. 1954. Print. Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. Harmondsworth: PenguinBooks. 1975. Print. Coleridge, S. T. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. India: Anmol Publication. 2009. Print. Esslin, Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. New York:Doubleday. 1961. Print. Hebdige, Dick. Hiding inthe Light: On Images and Things. London: Routledge. 1988. Print. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. India: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. 2001. Print. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal (LLILJ) 35 Bio-note- Vijay Kumar Rai, Research Scholar,Dept. of English, DDU Gorakhpur University e-mail-Vijaykumar. [emailprotected] com.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Grandparents House Essay -- Descriptive Writing Examples

Grandparents' House The car ride to my grandparents' house seemed to take half a day even though it was only a twenty-minute drive to Cedaredge. Although the back road over Redlands Mesa was a twisty tourney road, it drug on like a boring documentary. When the car finally pulled into the driveway of the long, white house with a neatly kept green lawn, I knew it was going to be a great day of fun, relaxation, and great food. As I walked around to the back door, my eyes took in the beauty of the grass swaying in the wind and the weathered barn off to the left of the pasture. Inside the barn I could see all sorts of different odds and ends hanging from the walls. When I opened the door to my grandparent's old house, a sweet, sensational smell of cooking food filled my nostrils and made my empty stomach growl. The aroma in the air was always a tease to my stomach and made me think my stomach was starting to eat away at itself. The normal activity of everyday life sends my family in a hundred different directions. My mom and dad both go to work, and my sisters and I go to school. After school, there are practices that all of us kids attend, and when we get home, we eat, do homework and go to bed. There is no time to sit down and play a game as a family or to just hang out together and talk about how the day went. Weekends and holidays are a time that we get to go to my grandparents' house as a family and have a day of fun visiting with family that I don't get to see very often. Their old house was to the west of the small town of Cedaredge, so there was not that many houses around it. When we went to my grandparents' house, we would ride our bikes around the neighborhood. My sisters and I would race on our bikes to see who ... ...d watch. Usually we were still playing on the Nintendo when it was time to leave, so it was a struggle to get everybody to stop right away. After my whole family was piled into the car, which as my sisters and I got bigger was a harder and harder task, we would wave goodbye to my grandparents and any other relatives that had come for the day. As we would pull out of the driveway, I would think back on the day and realize that I had to go back to the hustle and bustle of my everyday life. The trip home was not as long as the way over, but I could never wait until the next time we could go back to my grandparents' house in Cedaredge, for a relaxing day of spending time with my family and forgetting about our hectic life for at least a little while. Now, with both my sisters in college, the day when we go to my grandparents' house does not seem to come often enough.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Shawshank Redemtion-Red and a Tall Drink of Water :: essays research papers

Red and a Tall Drink of Water In a darkened room two passionate lovers eagerly embrace. Outside a destraught man sits in a truck, boozing it up. The old song " If I Didn't Care " , plays from a tinny radio. The drunk man fumbles with a gun while he tries to get out of the truck. He opens the door of the truck, stumbles, drops and breaks the bottle of alcohol, and the extra bullets spill onto the ground. The next scene is in a courtoom where a lawyer is questioning a man. " I was upset. I was confused and drunk. I mostly wanted to scare them ", Andrew Dufresne tells the lawyer that was cross-examing him. " This was revenge", the lawyer shouts in his summation speech. The verdict is guilty and the sentence is two life sentences, back to back. An older black man is sitting patiently in front of his parole hearing. The five men on the panel ask him if he thinks he is rehabilitated and he answers, yes. " It's the Gods honest truth, " says Red. " I'm absolutely rehabilitated. " His friends, ask him what happened at the hearing. Red replies, " Same old shit, different day." He had been rejected and denied parole again. Outside in the exercise yard a loud siren wails. The incarcerated men all gather together to get a look at the new prisoners that have just arrived. Reds' first impression of Andy Dufresne was, " That one looks like a stiff breeze could knock him over. That tall drink of water with a silver spoon up his ass." Little did Red know, at this time, but the two men would develop a strong bond. The mutual friendship Red and Andy would cultivate, caused them both to grow an inner strength which helped them deal with prison life. The new prisoners stand linked together with chains, scared to death, in front of the Warden. He says, " I believe in two things, discipline and the Bible. Here you"ll receive both. Put your trust in the Lord, your ass belongs to me. " That was the kind of attitude Andy would have to live with from now on, and this was just the beginning. " Andy kept pretty much to himself at first...Wasn't till a month went by that he finally opened his mouth to say more than two words to somebody.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Benjamin Franklin in his Autobiography Essay

Similar to Benjamin Franklin in his Autobiography and Frederick Douglass in his Narrative, Pip in Great Expectations also demonstrates the archetypal boyhood to manhood narrative. Each story recounts a journey of growth and development, of maturation and self-discovery through experience. In addition, the protagonist of each novel has a purpose which directs his actions and decisions throughout the course of his journey. However, one significant difference exists between the two historical characters and the fictitious Pip-while Franklin and Douglass both strive for realistic and self-improving goals, Pip, like his imaginary character, entertains an idealistic dream. Pip desires to leave his former social class as a common boy and advance in life as a gentleman. This idealism quickly consumes Pip and becomes both the thematic center of the novel and the psychological mechanism that encourages much of Pip’s development. Ironically, many instances in the novel show that the symbols and figures of the wealthy class that Pip idolizes are in fact his greatest tormenters. From their unfavorable effects on Pip such as abuse, pain, and unhappiness, manifests the idea that social standing does not determine one’s happiness and well being, and most importantly, one’s self worth. Even before Pip becomes a member of the wealthy class, his mere exposure to it initiates a procession of pain brought about by physical, verbal, and emotional abuse. Miss Havisham, despite her eccentricity, represents the class, wealth, and advancement that direct Pip’s actions and emotions for a large portion of the novel. Upon hearing about Miss Havisham’s desire to see Pip, Mrs. Joe â€Å"pounced upon [Pip], like an eagle on a lamb, and my face was squeezed into wooden bowls in sinks, and my head was put under taps of water-butts, and I was thumped†¦ and rasped, until I really was quite beside myself† (52). Dickens’ clever use of violent rhetoric such as â€Å"pounced,† â€Å"squeezed,† and â€Å"rasped† and the metaphor, â€Å"like an eagle on a lamb† paints an unpleasant predator-to-victim scene in the reader’s mind. Mrs. Joe’s ecstatic reaction over the idea of Pip’s opportunity to befriend the wealthy class makes this scene the novel’s first hint of social advancement that will later consume Pip’s life. Consequently, Mrs. Joe becomes the first instrument of the upper class to inflict pain on Pip, carried out by the violent and painful bath. The physical abuse Pip endures here, so early in his childhood, also foreshadows the misery and pain he will later encounter among the upper classes. Moreover, closing the scene with â€Å"my ablutions were completed† (53) presents a resemblance between the simple bath and a ritual cleansing. The word ablution is most often associated with biblical allegories where priests were required to cleanse themselves before approaching the altar of God. Dickens’ word choice here seems to imply that Pip’s violent bath was necessary not only in cleansing him, but ridding him of the soil from his common life that might taint those in higher places. This bath scene serves as the novel’s first subtle but significant example that involvement with the upper class does not determine well being. The pain Pip endures from his first exposure to the upper class alerts the reader that an apparently positive development in his life (Miss Havisham’s invitation to her world) may have results to the contrary. Apart from physical abuse and torment, Pip’s first interactions with the wealthy class also cause him to suffer emotionally. The general magnificence and grandeur of Satis House exists not only as a symbol of the lives of the upper class, but as a symbol of Pip’s romantic perception of the upper class as well. In this aspect, it is also a source of misery for Pip and he realizes, â€Å"daylight never entered [Satis House]†¦ and under its influence I continued at heart to hate my trade and to be ashamed of home† (125). The ornate grandeur of Satis House has raised in Pip a new consciousness of his own low birth and common bearings. After his first visit, he even lies about his experience there, unwilling to sully his thoughts of it with the contrasting plainness of his every day world, for it must remain â€Å"far above the level of common doings† (72). Pip’s first visit to Satis House is a momentous event in his life. It raises in Pip an awareness of social contrast, robs him of his youthful innocence and sense of fulfillment and thus, further exemplifies the misery that is inherently linked with representations of the upper class. With the introduction of Miss Havisham and Satis House, the character Estella moves to the forefront of the novel as the ultimate symbol of Pip’s unattainable dream in Great Expectations, and the greatest cause of his sufferings. Ironically, Estella’s condescension and spite matches Pip’s feelings about himself in the world of Satis House. He accepts her condescension, â€Å"Why, he is a nothing but a common laboring-boy! † (60), without defending himself because he idealizes Estella and sorrowfully believes her to be right. This is particularly evident during times when the difference between their social classes manifest itself in the smallest things, â€Å"I had never thought of being ashamed of my hands before†¦ her contempt was so strong, that it became infectious, and I caught it† (60). Moreover, Estella consistently refers to Pip as â€Å"Mr. Pumblechook’s boy† (58), â€Å"silly boy† (266), or simply â€Å"boy†, using any word but his real name. This is a form of verbal abuse because it ultimately degrades Pip to a gender with no unique identity. Estella practices a deliberate cruelty on Pip that wins his deepest love and causes him to develop a passionate but unrequited devotion for her. This is one of the harshest examples of the pain and torment Pip must endure as he interacts with the upper class. Through these accounts, it becomes evident that social standing and wealth does not always determine well being. In fact, it may accomplish just the opposite-physical pain, emotional disturbance, and misery from the knowledge of one’s common bearings. Even when Pip becomes a gentleman and is received by society, there is a sharp decline in his confidence and happiness that accompanies this rise in social status. Pip’s unofficial entrance into the world of a wealthy gentleman can be marked as the event where he put on a real gentleman suit. Interestingly, Pip describes, â€Å"after this memorable event†¦ I felt rather like Mother Hubbard’s dog† (152). While a notable occasion such as this would have naturally allowed for happiness and celebration, Pip instead compares his elevated social standing to a common animal of a children’s poem. The demeaning effect of the suit, versus it’s intended dignifying effect, not only foreshadows the unsatisfactory life Pip will lead as a gentleman, but poses further doubt on the hopes and ideals Pip holds of the wealthy class.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Brief Outline Of The History Of Zagig Yragerne †Gaming

A Brief Outline Of The History Of Zagig Yragerne – Gaming Free Online Research Papers A Brief Outline Of The History Of Zagig Yragerne Gaming Preface: The article is a brief historical/ contemplative piece on Zagig Yragerne and his rise to being the demigod, Zagyg. It has recently, been edited to a cleaner format and has had some new material added from the existing canon that developed since its creation. CY 295 Zagig Yragerne is born in the City of Greyhawk to the Landgraf of the Selintan (Zador Yragerne, great, great grandson of Ganz Yragerne?) and the Gynarch of Hardby (Marlana Trieste?) At this time, the city of Greyhawk is the capital (in reality more like a large town) of a land extending south from the Nyr Dyv to the Whoolly Bay. The Cairn Hills and the Mist Marshes are unclaimed wilderness, as is most of the Gnarley Forest. The true regional center of power and culture is the great City of Dyvers, capital of the newly founded Kingdom of Furyondy (CY 254.) *Most of my decision to post the birthdate of Zagig as CY 295 was based on the following: WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins, which firmly establishes the date on which the construction of Castle Greyhawk begins as CY 320 (WGR1, p.3) It goes on to note that Castle Greyhawk was occupied for less than a century (WGR1, p.2) This tends to argue for the construction to have been begun as soon as possible, given Zagigs long public residence in Castle Greyhawk. The original Campaign Guide lists the height of Zagigs temporal power as c.375 CY (WGCG p. 23) All this tends to make me believe that Zagig was a relatively young man when he began the construction of the castle. Choosing his birthdate at CY 295 gives him 25 years before construction begins and over a century of public life (well above the normal human average, but not unreasonable for a wizard of his power) because I choose the date of his disappearance as CY 409. This is more than enough time to accomplish all the other things that are attribute d to him while he was still a living mage. The Campaign Guide firmly establishes Zagigs parentage (WGCG p.23) as the rulers of Greyhawk (presumably the descendants of Ganz Yragerne,) from which he is also descended. WGR1 Greyhawk Ruins, describes the final resting place of his parents (paying special attention to the fact that his father was undoubtedly a warrior.) The names of his parents, Zador and Marlana, are my own. Although it is true that King Thrommel III of Furyondy began the construction of his new capital, Chendl, in CY 283, it was many decades before the center of influence was moved from Dyvers to the new city (finished in CY 288.) The City of Dyvers goes back to the first century, CY. It was founded on the mouth of the Velverdyva, as the seat of the Viceroyalty of Ferrond, hundreds of years before Greyhawk was even heard of, and was a great city by the time of Zagigs birth with much power and influence in the entire region. The rivalry between Dyvers and Greyhawk is reknowned. CY 308-312 Zagig attends the Academy of Art and Science in the city of Greyhawk under the tutelage of The Grey Savant (a mysterious figure who was reputedly both a wizard of awesome power and a priest of Boccob.) The Academy is a school of learning founded by The Grey Savant in CY 118 by the banks of the river Selintan. The trading village of Greyhawk slowly grew around this famed place of learning, attracting many of the most learned men and women of the Flanaess. *Given that Zagig is the son of the citys lord and was born with a brilliant mind, it is not unreasonable to assume that he would have attended the best institution of higher learning in the entire region. The Grey Savant is my own invention, and provides a logical rational for why a school of learning (what later became the Grey College) would have been founded in what amounted (at the time) to a modest trading town (although the druidical circle and the magical nature of the region would have a lot to do with this.) It also allows me to connect the influence of Boccob with Zagig very in early in his life. CY 312 Following the mysterious death of The Grey Savant, Zagig ends his formal studies at the Academy. The Academy of Art and Science is renamed the Grey College in honor of the former servant of Boccob. *Given that a figure such as the Grey Savant would probably not have encouraged many of Zagigs proclivities, I thought it appropriate that this year be a significant one. The death of the Grey Savant not only allows me to establish the Grey College as we know it today, but it also allows me to provide a reason for Zagig to get out there and see the world. CY 312-319 Zagig emerges from the city of Greyhawk as a member of the Company of Seven, a free-lance mercenary group bound on making their fortune by exploring ancient Suel and Flan ruins. Zagigs prowess with sword and affinity for Oerth history, make him a natural warrior and planner in the group. Other members of the Company go on to become important personages in the Flanaess. The legendary Keoghtom is thought to have been their leader. (Zagig achieves 8th level as a Fighter during this time.) *Following my reasoning above, and adding to it my opinion that Zagig was undoubtedly a fighter before he became a mage, I created the Company of Seven in order to give Zagig membership in a famous adventuring group, and also to provide a reason for the friendship between himself and Keoghtom (as is suggested in Keoghtoms description in the Glossography.) It allows me to give Zagig the opportunity to achieve 8th level as a fighter before the seminal CY 320. Other than Keoghtom and Zagig, I have not, as of yet, detailed any of the other 5 members of the Company of Seven. All of them would have met in the City of Greyhawk before or in CY 312 and would have gone on to become successful and famous personages (maybe even villains) Perhaps Kelanen the Sword Lord was among them (doubtful), or even the formidable wizard, Daern. Other possibilities include, Johydee, Murlynd?, Nolzur, Quall or Bucknard. I wouldnt mind (in fact, I WOULD ENCOURAGE) other of you out there to design them for us. C reate a history that connects them from their membership in the Company of Seven all the way to the present day. CY 319 The Landgraf of the Selintan, father of Zagig, dies defending the village of Kuln on the Neen against one of the many raids by lizardmen. His wife, the Gynarch of Hardby, assumes the stewardship of the Land of Greyhawk. Zagig Yragerne departs the Company of Seven and returns home. *As I noted above, Zagigs father was the Landgraf of the Selintan. By including this tragic event (which is entirely my own, but weakly suggested by his fathers youthful appearance (his body is in stasis) in the tomb under Castle Greyhawk in WGR1), Zagig is free to consider the construction of Castle Greyhawk (when that becomes important in the next few months) and to reconsider his decision to be a warrior. Sounds like a great time for some celestial intervention Ahem, Boccob? CY 319-339 By all accounts, the rulership of the Gynarch of Hardby (noted for her wisdom and great caution) is among the most peaceful (even if not the most productive) periods in Greyhawks history. *Pure conjecture and speculation on my part. It allows me to move Zagig along in his life while maintaining the opportunity of rulership. One thing is certain, the Gynarchs of Hardby, the Despotrix, are able and willing rulers. It is not inconceivable that Zagigs mother would have been successful in ruling the city in his absence. CY 320 All serious historians of the life of Zagig Yragerne, number this year as among the most important in his life. He was profoundly changed by the events of this seminal year. During the chance exploration of an old Suloise cairn, Zagig Yragerne encounters an Avatar of Boccob (or some equivalent manifestation.) Based on that experience he decides to take up the practice of magecraft. Zagigs subsequent return to the city and desire to initiate the construction of Castle Greyhawk in a remote location from the city were seen as extreme eccentricities for the young warrior lord. Work on Castle Greyhawk will continue through to the end of the century. Oh my Boccob, the first concrete date! *The date upon which the construction of Castle Greyhawk begins is firmly established by WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins as CY 320. From the Ashes, is simply incorrect, when it says that the date was CY 375. That, would have made it impossible for Zagig to inhabit the place for any significant length of time before he disappeared. Given his special relationship to Boccob, which is also firmly established in the demigods description in WGCG, it is not unreasonable to assume that it was divine intervention which made Zagig decide to build Castle Greyhawk where he did. It is also not unreasonable to assume that his decision to become a mage may have also been prompted by a divine revelation from Boccob or his other servants. Needless to say, the construction would have been a massive undertaking which could not have been completed in a single year. I would argue that it probably took decades, with Zagig coming back to the City many times in order to keep the works going. CY 321-329 Zagig Yragerne becomes apprenticed to a distant cousin, the famed Mage and Bard, Heward. Under the tutelage of Heward, Zagigs prodigious powers blossom quickly. During this time, he gains a unique understanding of magic, making him one of the first wizards in the Flanaess to posit the inherently chaotic nature of magic. Zagig travels widely in Hewards company, and is exposed to many of the wonders of the Flanaess. (He achieves 9th level as a Mage while with Heward.) *Now that we have Zagig wanting to become a mage, and given that he founded both the school and the guild of wizardry (later of course) it is necessary to find him someone under whom he has apprenticed. I would argue that it was none other than the famed Mage and Bard, Heward (who also happens to be a distant relative, according to the Glossography, p.35) As a Quasi-deity, Heward is both old enough and powerful enough to have provided Zagig with the needed training in the magical arts. I have chosen the period of apprenticeship arbitrarily, but 9 years seems reasonable. By assuming that he achieves 9th level during this time, I allow him to satisfy the Dual-classed rules that allow him to use his powers as a warrior. It is also fortunate, that Heward is such an unconventional wizard. It provides a logical reason for a lot of Zagigs interest in wild magic and his interest music, humor, and puns. All in all, Id say a pretty good match. CY 329-339 Wanderings of the Mage and Warrior, Zagig Yragerne. Zagig returns to the city of Greyhawk on many occasions, most often to maintain the works at Castle Greyhawk by infusing it with new funds. Otherwise he is seen as an accomplished, if eccentric Mage, who travels the length and breadth of the Flanaess in search of the wondrous and mysterious. He is accompanied by many of the former members of the Company of Seven. (Some of the travel is even thought to have been otherworldly.) *Having left the company of Heward, this decade allows the Mage, Zagig some time to go off and see more of the world. Of course it is entirely conjecture on my part, but serves to flesh out and fill in the gaps in his story. From time to time, he is in the company of some of the members of the Company of Seven. Many interesting things would have happened to Zagig during this decade in his life. CY 339 Upon the death of the Gynarch of Hardby, Zagig Yragerne becomes titular ruler of the Land of Greyhawk, Landgraf of the Selintan, and Despot of Hardby. By all accounts, this initiates a period which historians refer to as the Greyhawk Renaissance. Not only does the city flourish from Zagigs generous rule, but many of the neighboring states of the Flanaess gain indepedence during the next few decades, making the Flanaess a brighter more hope-filled place. It is during this time, from a seemingly inexhaustible source of funds, that Zagig Yragerne begins the construction of most of what we know as modern Greyhawk. (Due to his interest in secular affairs, Zagigs progress as a mage is slow and steady.) Zagig becomes well known for putting magic to practical use. *Although the date is my conjecture, the reality of this event is not in doubt. At some point, Zagig inherited the rulership of the Land of Greyhawk. I happen to argue that it happened upon the death of his mother in CY 339. The World of Greyhawk Campaign guide, the City of Greyhawk boxed set, and WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins, all clearly establish both the rulership of Zagig and the effectiveness of that rule. The term Greyhawk Renaissance is mine, but clearly describes the period for what it was. During his rule, Zagig builds most of the city (and its walls, etc.) as we have come to know it today (via the City of Greyhawk, boxed set.) And surely, it is not naive to assume that some of this was accomplished by magic. The next few decades were probably the most fascinating in all of Greyhawk history. So rarely have so many notables been at one place at the same time. CY 351 Despite some resistance to his unorthodox methods, Zagig Yragerne becomes President of the Society of Magi in Greyhawk for the first time. He goes on to make it the dominant gathering of Wizards in the whole of the central Flanaess, surpassing the significant influence of the Conclave Arcanum in the City of Dyvers and the Sagacious Society of the Kingdom of Nyrond. Zagig is unanimously re-elected to this post for the next 29 years. *Both the date and the events are my conjecture, but are quite reasonable things to assume, given the current relative importance of the City of Greyhawks wizards. The Sagacious Society is real enough (WGR4 Marklands) while the Conclave Arcanum is my own creation. CY 356 A year notable for the establishment of the Kingdom of Nyrond, where Zagig had seemed to have played an important diplomatic role. *Although the date is real enough, Zagig Yragernes participation in these events is pure speculation. But such things would add to his reputation. CY 372 Zagig founds the University of Magical Arts in Greyhawk, one of the first establishments in the Flanaess dedicated to the instruction of Magic on an institutional basis. Over the last two centuries, many of the greatest practioners of magecraft have been credited with training at this college of Magic. *Although Zagig, undoubtedly did this (as is mentioned in the City of Greyhawk, boxed set) the year is my own conjecture. But, I thought it significant that it be founded before the Mages Guild. After all, until the practice and training of magicians is institutionalized, how can one create a guild for them? CY 375-395 During this period, Zagig Yragernes (already an Archmage) magical theories become extremely controversial and are met with laughing disregard by some and keen interest by a very select few. His theories are dubbed wild magic by his opponents in the Society of the Magi. Tension in the Society of Magi builds between the proponents of magical specialization (in the various schools) and the proponents of a more generalized scope of magical understanding. Zagigs theories are marginalized by the ensuing debate. By CY 380, Zagig withdraws his candidacy for the Presidency of the Society, never to submit it again. *I had to lay a foundation for his reputed madness, and here it is. None of this is official, of course, but it seems to be the most logical progression of events toward such an end. Zagigs interest in so-called wild magic probably dubbed him as a loon by many of the more orthodox members of the Society of Magi. We are, after all, talking about men and women who couldnt care less if your the Lord of the city or not magic is magic, and right is right. Zagigs opponents probably spread the rumor that he was mad in order to weaken his reputation. Of course, given that Zagig had such a great sense of humor, what did he care if he was dubbed the Mad Archmage. CY 393 Zagig founds the Guild of Wizardry in the City of Greyhawk. The City of Greyhawk had long fostered many societies for the practioners of magecraft (The Society of Magi is a notable and enduring example,) but in CY 393, Zagig Yragerne made available a considerable endowment for the construction of a Mages Guildhall open to all comers. He felt that a less politicized institution, separate from the Society and the Univerisity, and dedicated solely to the concerns of all mages, would be a fitting legacy to the Art. Indeed, the Mages Guildhall of Greyhawk is an architectural and magical wonder, rivaling the Sorcerers Nexus in Rel Astra, the Tower of Silence outside of Niole Dra, and even the wondrous Zashassar of Ekbir. *The City of Greyhawk boxed set (FFF) firmly establishes this date as CY 393. Following along my argument above, I tried to provide a logical reason why Zagig would found the guild and there it is. The locales mentioned above are not TSRs, but my own, so they havent been detailed anywhere. I can provide strong rationales for both their names and their locations as I have already sketched them out, but not fully detailed them. If anyone expresses an interest I could send in what I have, as these things are easy to incorporate in anyones campaign. I just threw them in from my own stuff as interesting tidbits, to make the history sound more authentic. CY 395 On the celebration of his great centennial, Zagig announces his intention to retreat from public life by relinquishing the daily rulership of the Land of Greyhawk to an appointed trusteeship, the Directing Oligarchy. One of their number is elected Lord Mayor and has the power to act in Zagigs name. Zagig spends less and less time in the city itself, preferring to remain in Castle Greyhawk, north of the city in the Cairn Hills. *Assuming that Zagig Yragerne was born on CY 295, then in CY 395, he would have been a hundred years old (although the World of Greyhawk campaign guide implies that he certainly didnt look a hundred.) The manner in which he withdraws from public life is my own idea. It allows him to cease being active ruler of the City of Greyhawk and its lands AND it gives us a pretext to site the institution of the Directing Oligarchy. Yet, the generally intent echoes that of the history, namely his progressive seclusion from society. CY 395-409 During this period, the last in his public life, the Lord of Castle Greyhawk is seen with less and less frequency. It is presumed that his seeming madness (propaganda spread by members of the Directing Oligarchy and certain opponents in the Society of the Magi) has taken him. The number of his proclamations and edicts fall to less than one a year. *This is conjecture on my part, but is strongly implied by the first campaign guide, wherein it describes the last period of his life as one is which he is seen with less frequency and is believed to be falling into madness. I, of course, assert (as is implied in WGR1 Greyhawk Ruins) that his madness was nothing of the sort, but merely the perspective of someone who had grander objectives in mind than those around him. CY 409 Death of Zagig Yragerne. In this year, the servants of Castle Greyhawk, were released from service, in connection with the disappearance of their master. When none of the missives sent by the Directing Oligarchy were responded to, Zagig Yragerne was presumed dead. It came to no ones surprise to hear of his death, for the man was believed to be well over a hundred years old already (114 to be exact.) Zagig Yragernes last testament was read before a grieving crowd of old men on the Processional. Since Zagig designated no heir, the City and Lands of Greyhawk were continued to be ruled in his name by the Directing Oligarchy of Greyhawk. In reality, Zagig Yragerne had finally decided to severe all ties with the secular world, in order to travel and pursue his arcane research without interruption. Some well placed magic, fostered the belief that Castle Greyhawk was haunted, so the city abandoned all interest in the place. Zagig allowed the keep to fall into disrepair, while he and his closest retainers moved underground to continue their work. *The World of Greyhawk Campaign Guide (p. 23-25) implies that Zagig simply vanished after many years of rulership. His motivation for doing this is implied in WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins. I have arbitrarily chosen this year to be CY 409 which agrees well with WGR1s assumption that the Castle was occupied for less than a century. It is quite reasonable to assume that the city would have thought him dead after so long and productive a life, so they would have made his death official. The fact that he moved his work underground is clearly established in WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins as is the fact that numerous friends and retainers went with him. CY 409-505 During this long period in Zagig Yragernes life, the so-called Mad Archmage, conducted tremendous amounts of magical research. He traveled extensively, including to worlds such as Krynn and Abeir-Toril, and extra-planar. He met with only a very few close friends, who kept the secret of his continuing existence. He was kept from Nerulls grasp by many rejuvenating magics, but Zagig sought a more permanent solution *This simply provides an explanation for the long gap between Zagigs disappearance, in the year I have arbitrarily chosen as CY 409 and his ascension to godhood in CY 505. WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins implies that Zagig did much traveling, particularly to other worlds, so none of this is unreasonable. Given that he was not as yet, immortal, Zagig no doubt used the conventional potions and elixirs that other powerful wizards use in order to extend their lives. Presumably, it was during this time that he discovered the method by which he would capture the nine demigods, and by which he would make himself immortal. A lot of the interesting accomplishments under Castle Greyhawk (described in WGR1) were probably also achieved during this time. CY 498 The City of Greyhawk is proclaimed a Free and Independent City. For most of the previous 80 years, power in the City was simply transferred from one power hungry insider to the next as designated by the original council who took over from Zagig, resulting in a highly insular attitude by which the city lost most of its territories and wealth. In CY 498, a group of leading citizens demanded equal representation on the council, citing the last wishes of Zagig Yragerne. In order to staunch an open rebellion, all concerned agreed to draft a new Charter. The Lord Mayor of the city is hereafter chosen by the Directing Oligarchy in a semi-democratic manner by the various members (in theory) of the trade unions, guilds, and other important societies. * The WGCG (p. 25) names CY 498 the year in which the City of Greyhawk was proclaimed Free and Independent. It also implies the ensuing decline in the city from the time of Zagigs rule. Im just providing a reasonable context under which such a proclamation would have occurred. CY 505 Year of the Ascension. It is in this year, that Zagig Yragerne,(age 210) former ruler of the city of Greyhawk, Archmage of Castle Greyhawk, and servant of Boccob, achieves immortality. Through an arcane process, and with the assistance of many notable personages, including the deity St. Cuthbert of the Cudgel, Zagig Yragerne finally achieves the object of a century long research project. He entraps nine of the most powerful demigods on Oerth, using their combined power in an apparatus of arcane manufacture by which he cuts a piece of the Obelisk (which controls something called the Earth Stone.) These artifacts, buried deep under the lowest dungeons of Castle Greyhawk, are a mystery even to most deities. Using the power of the Obelisk, Zagig opened a nexus between his spirit and the Planes of Power. And so, by the wishes of Boccob, Zagig transforms himself into a demigod. (Notably, he is the last to do so in recent Greyhawk history. Iuz accomplished this only years before him in an entirely different manner while Mayaheine has only recently appeared from another world where Pelor is worshipped.) *The year of Zagigs ascension is firmly established in Iuz the Evil, as CY 505. This year must coincide with the same year in which Iuz disappears. From the Ashes gives this year as CY 507, while WGR4, Marklands gives this year as CY 503. Given that Iuz the Evil is the primary source book about Iuz, it is safest to assume that it is the correct source, giving the year of Zagigs ascension as CY 505. Iuz the Evil also reveals that Zagig (it incorrectly refers to him as Zagyg, but that is only a trifling mistake) was assisted in this matter by the deity St. Cuthbert, his relative and mentor Heward, his old friend Keoghtom, and the two individuals Murlynd, the Paladin and Kelanen, the Prince of Swords. Murlynds presence here is paradoxical, because it is implied that he was a member of the original adventuring party that included Tenser, Bigby, and Lord Robilar. Tenser wasnt even born in CY 505 and Lord Robilar certainly wasnt. What was Murlynd doing there in Castle Greyhawk (c.505 CY), if in fact he is the same person mentioned in WG6, Isle of the Ape? Either he is not the same person, or some explanation is necessary. I am also suspicious of Kelanens presence in this matter, it seems contrary to his nature to have been so involved. The process by which Zagig achieves godhood is established in WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins, as are the existence of the Obelisk and the Earth Stone. Given that the original campaign book stated that Zagig captured nine DEMIGODS, and it is safe to assume that given Iuz was one of the captured, then he must have been a demigod BEFORE Zagyg. The From the Ashes sourcebook which introduces the demigodess, Mayaheine, explicitly indicates that Pelor brought her to Oerth (from an alternate prime where Pelor is worshipped) and that she is not a native. CY 505-585 Zagyg, the Demigod acts as the servant of Boccob. While it is true that Boccob is a largely uncaring god when it comes to the daily mundane existence of mortals, it is not true that he has no interest in any of the affairs of Oerth. When his All-Seeing Eye turns to the Prime, it is his servant, Zagyg that makes Boccobs will known. Many of the most important events of the last century have involved Zagyg, both directly and indirectly. Through Boccob, time is no barrier to Zagyg, so he has appeared, paradoxically in periods of Oerths past before he was born! (This part truly annoys the sages who try to prove a connection between he and Zagig Yragerne.) He makes his role in these matters unmemorable to say the least. He has also allowed the recent (CY 550+) exploration of Castle Greyhawk (up to a point.) Some rare and sucessful few, (Tenser is a good example) have met with his favor and know something of the secrets that lay buried beneath the place. *Given that Zagig ascended in CY 505 and that the timeline stops at CY 585, this fact is implicit. The City of Greyhawk sourcebook also implies that exploration of the Castle Greyhawk is fairly recent, which would make Tenser, Lord Robilar, and Co. among the first to do so, probably in CY 550s and 560s. CY 554 Zagyg (concealing himself as Zagig Yragerne) meets individually with Leomund, Serten, The Black One of the Valley of the Mage, and Tuerny (all notable mages of great power.) He proposes the formation of the Ring of Five, a conclave dedicated to the unlimited research of magic, concentrating on using the Obelisk to create new and as yet unheard of effects. Each member has left a representative, an apprentice, deep in the recesses of Castle Greyhawk. The results of this fairly recent union are a tale for another time *Although the date is my suggestion, this fact is established in the WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins sourcebook. It lists the membership of the Ring of Five as Zagig, Leomund, Serten, the Black One, and of all people Melf! I must ascribe this error to mild carelessness on the part of the designers of that work, but Melf is certainly not a candidate for membership to this group. Both, the From the Ashes sourcebook and the Artifact of Evil novel by Gygax, imply that Melf is an elven fighter/mage from Celene. He is neither powerful enough nor aligned properly to be a fitting member of the Ring of Five. I therefore substituted the personage, Tuerny, who would seem to have both the alignment and proper background (namely none) to be made a member of the group. Other than Zagig and the Black One, none of these personages is described officially, even though their names have been attached to certain famous spells and items. I have my own ideas and suggestions, of course, and would be glad to make thos e available. CY 570 The Prisoners of Castle Greyhawk are loosed by Lord Robilar, although some evidence exists to suggest that the demigod, Iuz may have simultaneous escaped under his own power. Apparently these events did not concern Zagyg, (despite the damage to many of his dungeons from the ensuing battle between Tenser, Bigby, Riggby, Robilar, Quij, Neb Retnar, and Iuz.) although he was undoubtedly aware of the occurrence. Apparently the Obelisk was able draw upon its own power to shield itself from the prying eyes of the loosed demigods. Fortunately, they wanted nothing more than to escape as soon as they could. It has been whispered by some in the Guild of Wizardry that one of the demigods may still be down there. Perhaps he/she/it was trapped in their chamber by the collapsing rubble, or perhaps they have remained by choice, even so it has been 15 years since the release of the prisoners, so who is to say. *The first fact (and date) is clearly established in the first campaign guide. The second (about Iuz) is implied in WGR1, Greyhawk Ruins. The battle and its participants, is described in WGR5, Iuz the Evil and is implied in many other source material. As far as the names of the demigods are concerned, other than Iuz, I only know that the demigod Wastri, was definitely among them. Im looking desperately for where I read this, since it was many years ago. I suggest that Rudd and Zuoken were also among the prisoners, but as for the others, who is to say. I have my own theories of course CY 585 The current plans and activities of Zagyg are unknown, save of course, to the All-Seeing One, Boccob. It is presumed that he is working on certain projects relating to the dissemination of otherworldly magics (particularly those of a group calling themselves the Red Wizards of Tay, Hay or something to that effect.) Conflicts between Zagyg and the servant of another power of Magic, Azuth have been noted by many of Boccobs priests. Where this may lead is anyones guess. But these, of course, are matters for those who live in the heavens Suggestions on the Ring of Five: Zagig Yragerne; CN; Human male Wiz28+ ? Leomund; NG; Human male Wiz24? The Black One; NE(N); Human male Wiz20+ Serten; LN(LE); Human male Wiz26? Tuerny; CE (CN); Human male Wiz21? *Zagig is really the demigod Zagyg who can cast any spell (LVL 1-9) at will, with magic use equivalent to a 28th Level Mage. Addendum: Return of the Eight: by Roger E Moore – Tuerny has become a Nalfashnee Demon, and retains all his previous spellcasting abilities. Crypt of Lyzandred: by Sean K Reynolds: (excerpted): In 305 CY, led by a crafty young wizard of the Landgrafdom of Selintan, they navigated his riddles and defeated many of his guardians. Intrigued by the group, Lyzandred was delighted when they actually reached the outer chamber of his inner sanctum The lich conversed with them through a projected image before dismissing all save the wizard, whom he saw as having great potential. The mage was Zagig Yragerne. Lyzandred told Zagig of his personal quest, the construction of the labyrinth, and the wonders of the demiplane. The young mage stayed with the lich for a short time and learned much, ally asking to leave and practice what he had been taught Over time, Lyzandred watched Zagig gather knowledge and power, use that power to build a small town into a bustling city, and construct a strange multi-dimensional castle on a nearby hill. Unfortunately, the demiplane had planted the seed of insanity in Zagig: his behavior became more and mo re erratic. Fearing the damage his student could cause, Lyzandred contacted Zagig, imploring him to examine what he was doing and understand how he was a threat to all that he created. As with Lyzandred so long before, Zagig’s thoughts clarified and he saw what he was becoming. He chose to leave his city and wander the planes, and that was the last day he was seen on Oerth as a mortal man. *I could see this fitting in one of two ways: One if Zagyg’s birthdate was bumped to about CY 285, at which point he’d be 20 years old upon his arrival in the crypts. Two, if we bump up the time from 305 to 315, which would work just fine as he was with the Company of Seven at that time. Either would work but I favor the latter. Research Papers on A Brief Outline Of The History Of Zagig Yragerne - GamingCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XQuebec and CanadaBringing Democracy to AfricaUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresCapital Punishment

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on All-American Girl

included are, don’t, can’t, leave, undress, and nevershe says twice. What does this style have to do with being an All-American Girl? It has a lot to do with her view, after each and every negative sentence she follows with a positive sentence, usually with humor. An example of this is â€Å"If we can’t make peace I’ll order the leather duster and swagger across the plaza in the Santa Fe, cross-dressing for the girls.† This one sentence in the Shopping poem is what an All-American Girl is all about. A girl that has the freedom to suppress her feelings by going out and doing something like thi... Free Essays on All-American Girl Free Essays on All-American Girl All-American Girl All-American Girl the title of Robin Becker’s book of poems suggests her view of what an American girl is. Becker shows through her poems that an American girl doesn’t have to be what society would call an American girl. She instead has a view of what an American girl is based on her life. She uses religion, culture, and human nature of society in most of her poems to demonstrate what an American girl is to her. Becker uses the titles of the poems as the setting, and sometimes the theme for her poems. Some of her titles are everyday events or activities. The style of doing this is very unique way to interpret an All-American girl. She controls the tone by the style she lays her poems in too. She either makes it smooth as satin or rough as sandpaper. Using different techniques causes the reader to flow through the poem, or stumble along having pauses to find your place. These ways are all very good put together for the reader to feel, and understand Becker’s view s. Becker’s first poem â€Å"Shopping† is one of the everyday events, she takes this everyday event and makes her feelings and views expressed. In this poem she uses the word â€Å"if† repeatedly, this type of style flows like the nursery rhyme mocking bird. This repetition is often followed by a negative word in the sentence. Some of these words included are, don’t, can’t, leave, undress, and nevershe says twice. What does this style have to do with being an All-American Girl? It has a lot to do with her view, after each and every negative sentence she follows with a positive sentence, usually with humor. An example of this is â€Å"If we can’t make peace I’ll order the leather duster and swagger across the plaza in the Santa Fe, cross-dressing for the girls.† This one sentence in the Shopping poem is what an All-American Girl is all about. A girl that has the freedom to suppress her feelings by going out and doing something like thi...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Adverse and Averse - Commonly Confused Words

Adverse and Averse - Commonly Confused Words The words adverse and averse are related, but they dont have the same meaning.​ The adjective  adverse means harmful, unfavorable, or antagonistic. Often it refers to conditions or things rather than people. The adjective averse means having a feeling of opposition, distaste, or repugnance. As Kenneth Wilson points out in the usage notes below, were most often averse to (rarely from) things and people we dislike. Examples It is the adverse effect of television viewing on the lives of so many people that makes it feel like a serious addiction.(Marie Winn, The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life, 2002)Your friend Mr. Caldwell has some very singular adverse notions about poor abused John Calvin.(John Updike, The Centaur, 1963)Finding that Ewell was averse to making an attack himself, averse to leaving Gettysburg; that Hill was averse to putting his crippled corps forward so soon again; and that Longstreet was averse to fighting at all on that ground, Lee may well have thought that his generals were no longer what they had been.(Samuel Adams Drake, The Battle of Gettysburg, 1891)We have become a risk-averse culture in which our anxieties dictate our decisions in a totally disproportionate way.(Julian Baggini, The Fear Factor. The Guardian, March 21, 2008) Usage Notes We’re most often adverse to actions, events, and things (which we most frequently describe as adverse or designate as adverse forms or adversities). We’re averse to (rarely from) things and people we dislike, but we almost never speak of an averse thing or person.(Kenneth G. Wilson, adverse, averse, The Columbia Guide to Standard American English, 1993)In summary, adverse and averse are only synonymous when used of persons and with to. Adverse is most often used as an attributive adjective and of things; averse is extremely rare as an attributive and is regularly used of persons. . . . Our evidence suggests averse to is more frequently used than adverse to.(Merriam-Websters Concise Dictionary of English Usage, Merriam-Webster, 2002) Practice (a) I didnt like the play, but then I saw it under _____ conditions: the curtain was up.(Groucho Marx)(b) Schuyler was a sensitive and retiring woman who had been _____ to publicity all her life.(Stuart Banner, American Property, 2011) Answers (a) I didnt like the play, but then I saw it under  adverse  conditions: the curtain was up. (Groucho Marx)(b) Schuyler was a sensitive and retiring woman who had been  averse  to publicity all her life.(Stuart Banner,  American Property, 2011)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Legal issues in cloud computing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Legal issues in cloud computing - Essay Example Such clauses usually require the customer or a supplier to test the equipment according to specified testing procedures. The supplier is also required to rectify any defects on the equipment or allow the customer to reject the equipment and get a refund (Salido 21). There is always the risk of accidental or deliberate, but unauthorized destruction or modification of data by rogue employees of the provider. Such events compromise the quality of correctness, accuracy, completeness and the integrity of the data. In its contract, the customer should consider which party is best placed to handle those risks and, therefore, whether the arrangement with the provider should require the supplier to be accountable for the losses (Salido 22). A client may have statutory obligations to keep certain information confidential. Therefore, it is necessary that these obligations are also transmitted to the provider in situations where the provider is accessing or storing the customer’s data. Normally, the customer will want the provider to meet a minimum level of discretion for the customer’s information. In cases involving sensitive information, the degree of protection will need to be stronger. All systems of protection stated in this paper may potentially be insignificant unless the customer can approve that the required information security requirements are being satisfied. Audit of providers is one way of ensuring conformity. Audit of such arrangements is, however, likely to be complicated by location of the data- which may be mysterious to the client and could be located in foreign countries (Salido 23). Data ownership is the possession of and accountability of information. It denotes power as well as management of data. The supplier may own all of the property rights in the software or the supplier may be licensed to grant the license to the customer. It is essential that the supplier give the customer a permit that it has all the entitlements to

Friday, October 18, 2019

How will I schedule time for me everyday Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

How will I schedule time for me everyday - Essay Example the next progress is to go home for my wife and kids where I have to do some relaxation activities that I have mentioned above (Dodd & Sundheim, 2005). However, there are ten ways to make the schedule better such as purchase a calendar, prioritizing my tasks, trying to complete these tasks according to priority, stick to the schedule, check the complete tasks using marks, allowing space at the bottom of the schedule for low priority items, transferring undone items to the following list, adjust the schedule as expected for personal lifestyle, selecting excellent format and filling each day with constant tasks (Newport, 2006). For me to improve my commitments, I should be realistic in order for the schedule to act as a real guide, that would help me plan time well, also I should be flexible in following the schedule because things would come up that requires me to deviate from the schedule and that I should be able to evaluate the schedule in order to observe whether it is offering go od

Justification Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Justification Report - Essay Example From among the host of publications and journals reviewed, the following three were actually evaluated: Logistics Management, Transportation Journal and Journal of Business Logistics. However, since our organization would only require one journal, I recommend the Logistics Management since it complies with the criteria set for the most appropriate journal in our profession. As a brief overview of the journal, the Logistics Management boasts of keeping â€Å"logistics and supply chain professionals up-to-date on the latest news and trends in transportation services, equipment and technologies† (EH Publishing Network, 2011). By subscribing to it, our organization would be abreast with the current news, trends and offers that are crucial in the services we offer. The detailed information that makes this journal preferential among the others are as follows: 1. Cost and frequency of publication. Its detailed subscription offer for new subscribers is detailed herein: Cover Price: $9 9.00; Sale Price: $0.00; Savings: 100% (12 issues free delivery within US and Canada). Offered and delivered once a month, new subscribers are given an introductory promotion of receiving free 12 subscribed copies for the first year to enable us to try and avail of their journal. 2. Content.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Media - Essay Example They target almost everyone. In the recent past, advertisers have tremendously shifted their focus to children. Eric Schlosser’s through his article tries to bring to our attention how today child advertising is in high note through the various tactics marketers and advertisers are using to get today children to always want and thus in that context demand for their products (Schlosser 356). Eric brings to our attention that advertisers know that if the children saw their advertisement and which are appealing to them, they will with no doubt nag their parent to get the products for them. Again, through the article, we find how advertisers have begun using catching songs and cartoon characters to attract children. Today’s young generation have changed tremendously through media especially through advertisements, as observed by Eric Schlosser’s essay, today even products that young children at their tender age, who are not allowed to access some products such as cig arettes, companies are still coming with ways of developing unique advertisements that are aimed at targeting the children. These companies intelligently achieve this by changing the packaging around these products and go a step further to ensure that they develop iconic symbols on these products so that the children will recognize them even in future. This, they do putting in mind that even though the children will not necessarily access this at young age they will with no doubt remember them from the same advertisements they saw years ago when they were still young. Clearly it is with no doubt that that media has more negatives than positives effects on today’s young people. As a matter of fact, it is in my opinion that media has a tremendously negatives effects on our young children (Johnson 2011). From the article â€Å"Television: The Plug-In Drug† by Marie Winn, we find that today, the television has invaded most family both in known and unknown territories. This is characterized with wake up, go to school, watch television and thereafter retire to bed and this is the pattern in many families today. Almost every family today has a television set on their household and this has led many families dynamic to suffer. Watching television has clearly become the norm in almost every family today and this is leading to loss of touch such the quality of sharing a meal together, going out on holiday and vacations (Winn 457). Television has unknowingly eliminated most of the individuality enjoyed aspect of families and has in turn managed to create a boring uniformity, which is experienced with all families that watches the television. Television also affects how today’s children communicate with other people in the society, it’s evident that a child who spend his/her all day indoors watching television will have difficulties in maintaining eye conducts, and even of great concern failure to maintain conversations and even trust the same people in the society. I strongly believe that in today’s world the media is changing our young people, the family as a whole and even culture and more so education. As observed from Marie Winn’s article, television is invading many families; it is interfering with our today’s culture and eroding most of the family’s rituals in a faster way. Today television denies the families an opportunity to share their daily experiences and in return build their

Material Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Material Science - Essay Example Graphene is another example of a nano-structural material that is being used in the optic and electronic industry, due to its high energy capacity and also the high rate of charge. Scanning probe microscope works through the use of a physical probe that scans specimens and then provides the recorded data that is depicted in the form of a heat map that takes either an orange or a black and white image. Shear stress refers to the force that pushes particles within a liquid, gaseous or solid material in the direction that is parallel to the surface/plane. On the other hand, tensile stress refers to the forces that push a particle on to the other from varied directions. Compressive stress refers to the forces in the materials that push the material particles against one another. A phase diagram offers information related to the structure of a material through graphic presentation, which indicates the relationship between solid, liquids and gaseous state of a material when the material is heat-treated. It offers information regarding at which heat-point the solid state of material changes to liquid, and at which heat-point the liquid changes into gas. Annealing refers to the heat treatment of a material such that it increases its ductility and becomes more workable. Quenching refers to the rapid cooling of a material through immersion into a liquid such as oil or water, to form a certain material property that is activatable in different material states. Austenitizing refers to the heat-treatment of material such that it attains certain hardening characteristic when it is cooled down through quenching. Normalizing is a heat-treatment method for materials that softens the materials without producing the uniformity of the material property. Collision occurs on the event of two signals being sent through the same channel of transmission, such that the signals collide with each other. Packet collision is a form of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Media - Essay Example They target almost everyone. In the recent past, advertisers have tremendously shifted their focus to children. Eric Schlosser’s through his article tries to bring to our attention how today child advertising is in high note through the various tactics marketers and advertisers are using to get today children to always want and thus in that context demand for their products (Schlosser 356). Eric brings to our attention that advertisers know that if the children saw their advertisement and which are appealing to them, they will with no doubt nag their parent to get the products for them. Again, through the article, we find how advertisers have begun using catching songs and cartoon characters to attract children. Today’s young generation have changed tremendously through media especially through advertisements, as observed by Eric Schlosser’s essay, today even products that young children at their tender age, who are not allowed to access some products such as cig arettes, companies are still coming with ways of developing unique advertisements that are aimed at targeting the children. These companies intelligently achieve this by changing the packaging around these products and go a step further to ensure that they develop iconic symbols on these products so that the children will recognize them even in future. This, they do putting in mind that even though the children will not necessarily access this at young age they will with no doubt remember them from the same advertisements they saw years ago when they were still young. Clearly it is with no doubt that that media has more negatives than positives effects on today’s young people. As a matter of fact, it is in my opinion that media has a tremendously negatives effects on our young children (Johnson 2011). From the article â€Å"Television: The Plug-In Drug† by Marie Winn, we find that today, the television has invaded most family both in known and unknown territories. This is characterized with wake up, go to school, watch television and thereafter retire to bed and this is the pattern in many families today. Almost every family today has a television set on their household and this has led many families dynamic to suffer. Watching television has clearly become the norm in almost every family today and this is leading to loss of touch such the quality of sharing a meal together, going out on holiday and vacations (Winn 457). Television has unknowingly eliminated most of the individuality enjoyed aspect of families and has in turn managed to create a boring uniformity, which is experienced with all families that watches the television. Television also affects how today’s children communicate with other people in the society, it’s evident that a child who spend his/her all day indoors watching television will have difficulties in maintaining eye conducts, and even of great concern failure to maintain conversations and even trust the same people in the society. I strongly believe that in today’s world the media is changing our young people, the family as a whole and even culture and more so education. As observed from Marie Winn’s article, television is invading many families; it is interfering with our today’s culture and eroding most of the family’s rituals in a faster way. Today television denies the families an opportunity to share their daily experiences and in return build their

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Thrart Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Thrart - Assignment Example Within such perspective, no other show that can effectively compete Blue Man Group’s adventurous, entertaining, and ludicrous production. Contextually, the Blue Men do not speak but rather present an innocent and infinitely curious viewpoint of the world around us. The situation allows the performers to alter the show over the years in an attempt to reflect the specific generations. Moreover, they have taken to theming the shows on the human beings’ technology addiction. Hence, it is a great experience to secure a seat amongst the audience and watch the story unfold as the performances progress. As the performers approached the stage, they passed near the audience wearing blue masks. I could feel some fear in me since they looked scary as I sat in the front seat. They also spread out their hands to reach out to the audience. I yearned to get a touch of the performers, but I could not dare stretch my hand toward the blue masked hands. In this respect, I only stared at them waiting to watch the performance live as opposed to watching a television. After a while, the Blue Men went on stage and started the long awaited ensemble acts. They seemed more of magicians and collaborative in the acting techniques they employed (Sutton 2:00). Unfortunately, I felt lost, as I could not retrieve myself from getting lost during the first scene. For instance, the Blue Men could stare to one another, and use signs to communicate leaving me in the world of wonders. I kept questioning on what the scene is all about since they could not utter a word. The case left me wondering for the rest of the first scene. In this context, I did not like the acting projected in the first scene because they do not even provide a synopsis to the audience. The performance became attractive in the proceeding scenes, as the actors seemed concerted in the drumming. The most hilarious of all was the rhythmic sound that came out of their collective effort that

Learning and Memory.An introduction to theories of learning Essay Example for Free

Learning and Memory.An introduction to theories of learning Essay Learning and Memory Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cleaning the room is the target behaviour in Bobby’s case. Mr. Kelly tries to keep on reminding his eight year old child to clean his room but it is always in vain. Since Mr. Kelly needs help in increasing the frequency of his child cleaning his room it could be assumed that bobby is trained and knows how to clean his room. The possible reason as to why he keeps on refraining from this task is however unclear.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Operant conditioning is a method of learning that incorporates acquisition of behaviour and facing the consequences of the behaviour. In this type of learning rewards are given to the learner either to encourage or discourage future repetition of the same behaviour (Olson Hergenhahn, 2013). Operant conditioning can be used to encourage Bobby in cleaning up his room. Through the various components of operant conditioning Mr. Kelly can apply to encourage Bobby clean his room. Operant conditioning has two major concepts, reinforcement and punishment, which could be used in different ways to encourage bobby to clean his room.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reinforcement involves using reward that would otherwise increase the chances of bobby cleaning his room more often. Mr. Kelly could use various rewards such as giving bobby time to watch T.V, buying little gifts that are issued each time bobby cleans his room. Such motivating factors will encourage bobby to clean up his room. Reinforcement is of two types, positive and negative reinforcement, both ways can be capitalised in changing the behaviour of bobby. In positive reinforcement for instance Mr. Kelly needs to look for items such as toys or bars of chocolate, preferably Mr. Kelly could choose some of the items bobby loves most and use them to reward bobby after cleaning the room.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Continuous use of negative reinforcement over a long period of time would lead to Bobby developing an attitude towards cleaning his room. Thus positive reinforcement could be applied. For reinforcement to be effective both method should be used concurrently. Fixed ratio schedule and variable ratio schedules can be used to implement and encourage bobby to always clean the room. Fixed ratio schedule will always reward bobby after a number of times he has cleaned the room. This method will give immediate positive responses from bobby but would be consuming for Mr. Kelly. Variable ratio schedule would award bobby after irregular intervals of response from him. This can be very effective to reinforce Bobby to clean the room because the reinforcement can come all through the first week and make the reluctance of cleaning the house an extinct behaviour.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I will apply the operant conditioning to account for Jackie’s development of the behaviour of phobia towards dogs. This is because the operant conditioning shows or explains why the organisms will acquire learned behaviour that they exhibit. The vital focus of operant conditioning is by use of reinforcements as punishments or reward so as to increase or decrease the likelihood of occurrence or repetition of certain behaviour (Staddon Cerutti, 2003). In the case of Jackie, she received a negative reinforcement from the dog bite and hence the phobia towards dogs development. Also the stitches and the time that she spent on medication made her develop the negative attitude towards dogs. This is because, in operant conditioning, it is clear that continued use of negative reinforcement will lead to the victim developing an attitude towards that object or behaviour.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some of the behaviour modification that could be designed to help Jackie to overturn the phobia that she has with dogs could be: Jackie could first of all spend time with her spouse with a company the trained dogs. This will help Jackie to see that dogs were not wild and they always do not bite any time you had an encounter with them. This will somehow help her reverse the phobia she had towards dogs and also help her see the positive side of the dogs. She should also be allowed to spend time with the trained dogs with the dogs being guided by the trainer to remain lively, obedient and helpful to Jackie. This will act as a positive reinforcement towards Jackie’s behaviour. She will slowly by slowly start liking dogs and hence they will have a happy life with her partner thereafter.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are two main principles of operant conditioning that are evident in the case of Emma. First by the parents trying to offer Emma some kind of reward, they are trying to positively reinforce the behaviour of cleaning her room and toys through the principle of positive reinforcement. Also through putting her out, they are applying the principle of positive punishment by trying to add something bad so that she cannot repeat the same mistake.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Operant conditioning theory could be applied in this case to correct Emma’s behaviour through application of the four main principles of operant conditioning. The parents could apply the principle of negative punishment which is to take something good away so as to decrease certain behaviour. Through application of this principle, they could cut away buying of toys to Emma so that she could be reinforced to clean the room. Also through negative reinforcement principle, which is taking something bad so as to reinforce behaviour could be applied by Emma’s parents. They could stop putting her in time any time that she cleans her room so that she can be reinforced to always clean her room and toys.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Extinction of behaviour in operant conditioning theory can be defined as the disappearance of previously learned behaviour if the behaviour is not reinforced (Hunt et al, 2008). As we have earlier said, reinforcement is the necessity for learning and in which certain behaviour grows. It is either a means to encourage or discourage certain behaviour (Olson Hergenhahn, 2013). For instance, the Emma is conditioned to the behaviour that when she screams hard and through the toys away, her parents will collect them and clean them up for her. If the parents stopped this behaviour, Emma could not adopt this behaviour because it will lack reinforcement and slowly it will cease and become extinct. References Hunt, Elgin F. and Colander, David C. (2008). Social Science, An Introduction to the Study of Society. Olson, M. H. Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning (9th ed.). Upper Saddle; River, NJ: Pearson. Staddon, J. E. R., Cerutti, D. T. (2003). Operant conditioning. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 115-44. Source document

Monday, October 14, 2019

Autocratic-Democratic Continuum Model

Autocratic-Democratic Continuum Model Leadership This review begins with various definitions of leadership. It then introduces different styles of leadership from a variety of authors. The issue of leadership is an important issue that has intrigued many theoreticians and practitioners over the years, leading to much research and study. There is no one accepted definition of leadership, although there are many opinions put forward. Sergiovanni, (2001) suggests a moral substance to leadership, leadership is, after all, a struggle a quest to do the right thing. Yukl describes the bigger picture regarding the leadership of one person over many Most definitions of leadership reflect the assumption that it involves a social influence process whereby intentional influence is exerted by one person [or group] over other people [or groups] to structure the activities and relationships in a group or organization. (1994, p3) The group plays an important part in leadership theory, which i will discuss in more detail later in the chapter. Bass gives leadership a positive connotation and defines it as an instrument of goal achievement where leadership is viewed as constructive behaviours pursuing group goals. (1990, p15-16) This is developed further with an autocratic perspective by (Gardner, 1990; Riches, 1994, 1997) suggesting that Leadership is the process in which a person exerts influence over individuals and groups through goal setting or activities. Smircich and Morgan develop the group thinking by highlighting the active involvement of followers in allowing leaders to take on an influencing role. They state Leadership is an obligation or perceived right on the part of certain individuals to define the reality of others. (1982, p258) In modern society organisations have become more accountable, organisational leadership has came to the forefront and is one of the most researched and analysed topics in the area of organisational development (Chapman, 1993). Research found that good leadership plays a vital role in creating the culture that enhances learning in schools (Brundrett Terrell, 2004). Successful leadership is invariably linked to school effectiveness. In the many lists produced by researchers, firm leadership (Reynolds 1991), professional leadership (Sammons et al. 1995) and outstanding leadership (Levine Lezotte 1990) are identified as major factors contributing to school effectiveness. Leadership has also been shown to have an impact upon school improvement processes (Leithwood Steinbach, 1993; Stoll Fink, 1996) and an effect upon school outcomes (Hallinger Heck, 1998; Southworth, 2001). For schools, the qualities of leadership and management are a crucial element in striving for effectiveness (Sammones, Thomas, Mortimore, Owen, Pennell and Hilman, 1994). Teddlie and Reynolds indicate that leadership is usually provided by the headteacher or principal, they found that leadership is now centrally synonymous with school effectiveness for many, including many operating within school improvement paradigm (Teddlie Reynolyds, 2000:141). As such, the ability to set clear organisational goals has been found to be a relevant variable linking leadership and school effectiveness. Leadership Theories Development through history They are many theories on leadership which have been developed over the years and surely many more to follow. Here is a brief summary of the theory behind the subject. The individual leader, they are people who have always been scrutinised throughout history, this scrutiny has brought about The great man theory, the view that leaders are born and not made, this implies that the process of selection of leaders is crucial, and that training and development in leadership has no outcome. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940[8]; Stogdill, 1948[9]; Mann, 1959[10]) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches (see alternative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. Trait Theory, this claims that certain personality traits determine success in leadership. Stogdill (1969) found that some personality traits were common to successful leaders, there has been difficulty in identifying them consistently and agreeing definitions of personality traits. Situation theory is based on the view that leadership cannot be examined away from the group over which leadership is being exercised. The view is that leadership is a group phenomenon which will vary according to situations and over time. Also, leadership is not a one way process of influence. Leaders are influenced by followers as well as vice versa. The studies that were carried out tended to be in small ad hoc groups in controlled settings (eg Lippett and White). Leadership styles, there are two ways of analysing styles of leadership: one is on the range from autocratic to democratic, which i jave chosen as my focus for my action research project, and is associated with the work of Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973). The other is based on the relative dominance in a leader of concern for people and relationships or concern for production or results; this theory is associated with Blake and Mouton (1964). They also explained that The point to be emphasised here is that managerial styles are not fixed. They are not unchanging. They are determined by a range of factors. Many are subject to modification through formal instruction or self training. (Blake and Mouton, 1964 p.13) Behaviour theory is based on ten work of Halpin who suggests that leaders do two main things: Initiate structures: establish goals, set up channels of communication, establish procedures and review processes. Consider others: create a climate of trust, respect and warmth Halpin suggests that effective leadership is associated with high performance on both points. Contingency theories are complex, they recognise the interaction of leaders and their environments. They are two models: The model developed by Hersey and Blanchard (1977) identifies both directive and supportive behaviour in a leader, which can be modified according to the level of development, experience and commitment of the subordinate. The model developed by Fiedler (1967) combines an analysis of the leaders style (people or production?) with an analysis of three variables of the situation which can be seen as favourable or unfavourable to the leader, e.g. the level of formal authority. Fiedlers research indicates that a task orientated leader is best suited to a situation that is particularly favourable or unfavourable and that a people orientated leader is more effective where the situation is not particularly favourable or unfavourable. Action Leadership was developed from Contingency Theory by Adair (1984) who suggested that there were three main dimensions to leadership. These were; a concern for task, a concern for the team or group and a concern for individuals. Effective leaders will pay attention to all three dimensions. Adair then identifies a set of key actions which all leaders must perform in respect of each of these three dimensions. Leadership and Management Leadership tends to be equated with vision and values and management with processes and structures: Leadership and management are not synonymous terms. One can be a leader without being a manager. One can, for example, fulfil many of the symbolic, inspirational educational and normative functions of a leader and thus represent what an organization stands for without carrying any of the formal burdens of management. Conversely, one can manage without leading. An individual can monitor and control organizational activities, make decisions, and allocate resources without fulfilling the symbolic, normative, inspirational, or educational functions of leadership. (Schon, 1984, p. 36) Here the differentiation is not intended to distinguish between roles. Schon goes on to say that since we generally expect managers to lead, it may be permissible to treat management and leadership as one, although he does identify the concepts of: management as science and the art of managing. This latter concept may have more in common with leadership. In the classic research of Lewin et al. (1939) at the University of Iowa, three leadership behaviours, or styles, were examined: the autocratic, the democratic, and the laissez-faire. It was found that the autocratic style tends to centralise authority and dictate work methods, while the democratic style tends to involve employees in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation, and use feedback to coach employees. Of the three, the laissez-faire style was found to be ineffective in every performance criterion. This original research of Lewins greatly influenced other studies conducted after World War II. The most significant of these studies were performed by the Ohio State Group (Shartle, 1949, 1950; Fleishman, 1953; Halpin and Winer, 1957; Hemphill and Coons, 1957), as well as took  place at the University of Michigan (Katz, Maccoby and Morse, 1950; Katz, Maccoby, Gurin and Floor, 1951; Katz and Kahn, 1952). All these studies found that leadership displaying concern for people produced better results than that displaying concern for production. The Ohio State Group formulated dimensions of consideration and initiating structure. The first of these signifies the extent that the working relationships a leader has with subordinates is characterised by mutual trust and respect for group members ideas and feelings. The latter signifies the extent that a leader is likely to define and structure her/his role and the roles of group members for the sake of seeking goal attainment. The Michigan studies spoke of employee orientation and production orientation. The former emphasises the extant that a leader values interpersonal relationships and accepts individual differences among subordinates; this is associated with high group productivity. The second emphasises the extent to which a leader values the technical or task aspects of the job and is concerned with accomplishing the groups tasks; this is associated with low group productivity and low job satisfaction. Autocratic leadership The Autocratic Leadership Style was first described by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938, along with the democratic leadership and the laissez-faire leadership styles. The autocratic leadership style is sometimes referred to as the directive leadership style. Autocratic leadership can be said to be synonymous to dictatorship where only one person has the authority over the followers or workers. Their decision has to be taken as the golden rule and should never be questioned. They plan out everything and order their subordinates to work according to their rules. For instance, if a company has an autocratic leader as the Managing Director, the employees in the company would have to work as per the rules set down by him. They would not be expected to make any contribution from their side, which may actually help in enhancing the productivity of the company. In short, the autocratic leader has full control of those around him and believes to have the complete authority to treat them as he wants. The premise of the autocratic management style is the belief that in most cases the worker cannot make a contribution to their own work, and that even if they could, they would not. According to Douglas McGregor this belief system leads to the mindset of Theory X (Dessler 37). McGregor believes Theory X workers have no interest in work in general, including the quality of their work. Professor Henry Daryanto interprets McGregors theory as mangers dealing with this theory by using carrots and sticks. The carrot is usually a monetary incentive, such as piece-rate pay schemes while the stick is docking pay for poor quality or missed production targets (Daryanto). It appears only money and threats can motivate the lazy, disinterested worker. The natural management style for a manager with this Theory X belief system would be to favour is the autocratic management style. Autocratic managers attempt to control work to the maximum extent possible. A major threat to control is complexity. Complex jobs are more difficult to learn and workers who master such jobs are scarce and possess a certain amount of control over how the job is done. An autocratic managers attempt to simplify work to gain maximum control. Autocratic managers prefer a strict top-down; chain-of-command approach to management be practiced. Management style is a term that refers to the nature of the relationship between managers and non-managerial employees. It includes not only the personal relationship between people but also the style of communication and the attitudes that managers have of employees and the attitudes they generate in employees. The term leadership is sometimes used. This refers to the ways in which managers achieve the attitudes and actions of their employees. Usually the actions desired are those which lead to the achievement of organizational objectives. A form of leadership therefore implies a style of management. One particular style of management is autocratic, which our learning team sometimes refers to it as antiquated. The autocratic style of management is based on the use of coercion as a means of control in an attempt to force employees to behave in a particular way. The response of employees to such coercion is seen to be extremely authoritative, that is they will do as they are told because the alternative may be unemployment. Another reaction by an employee to this autocratic style is they might only do the absolute minimum required of them to retain their jobs. Clearly productivity in such an organization will not be very high. Military and law enforce1ment organizations historically operate within an autocratic style of management, but this is seen as necessary in the situation in which they operate. Because of this acceptance resentment should not arise since there is an accepted of style of management in these organizational forms. Our learning team believes not only should a style of management be chosen according to the type of organization, it should be chosen to suit the particular situation in a given organization. For example the means of dealing with a disciplinary matter will differ from that used in a problem-solving situation. The style of management of routine day to day activities will differ from the management of project and design activities. Managers must therefore choose a management style to suit the situation. Our team also criticizes the autocratic style and suggests that such a style will lead to conflict, low motivation and low productivity. We all advocate a more democratic style of management. This does not mean management by committee or making decisions by democratic voting, it means involving people in organizations in some aspects of the running of the organization. The communication style of an autocratic leader is usually described as one way. They tell you exactly what they want done. The feedback you would get from this type of leader would generally be unplanned. They would simply tell you when youve made a mistake. The decision making process is usually unilateral and they accomplish goals by directing people. Now that might not sound like the type of leader youd follow, but there are actually situations when this style is effective. In the workplace, some conditions may simply call for urgent action, and in these cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best style to adopt. Surprisingly, most workers have already worked for an autocratic leader and therefore have little trouble adapting to that style. In fact, in times of stress or emergency some subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic style they prefer to be told exactly what to do. So to summarize the autocratic leadership style is very effective when times are stressful, but very stressful during those times when the pressure is off the followers or coworkers. Though autocratic leadership style is tyrannical, it has proved to be very efficient during certain situations and conditions. Autocratic leadership works positively during emergency and stressful situations. When such situations arise in a company or organization, most people are confused and are not able to reach a common solution. During such times, having an autocratic leader would be great as he would take the reins in his hand and would direct the workers or employees to move forward. For instance, there is a terrorist attack at some place and the soldiers have to rescue innocent people from there. If many people try to give solutions, it may take time and the mission may end in failure. In such situations, having one autocratic person to command the rest of the group on how to go about with the mission can lead to success. Another situation where the autocratic leadership style proves appropriate is while doing group projects. Many group projects tend to fail because group members depend on each other to make decisions. Such situations demand the need of an authoritative leader who can make decisions for the group. The leader should determine the ways in which the project would be done, divide the job among the members, and also set a deadline for completion of the project. Autocratic leadership may have its benefits, however, in most cases it is seen as something that is undesirable. Autocratic leadership style promotes a one sided conversation and due to this the creative and leadership skills of the employees become restrictive. As the leader would have all the authority, there is a chance that he would exploit his employees. There have been cases where an authoritative employer has fired employees because they showed the courage of disagreeing with him. It is also said that having an autocratic leader hinders workplace communication and socialization. It is very important to have a cordial work environment, where everyone is friendly. It can also give rise to disagreements and conflicts, if a group or company is led by an autocratic leader. In the military and other urgent circumstances, people may prefer the ability to be told what do next. According to Money Zine, In fact, in times of stress or emergency, some subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic stylethey prefer to be told exactly what to do. The autocratic leadership style is very effective when times are stressful. Lengthy debate has no place in many work environments, and this form of leadership limits arguments. It allows employees to have one task, and that is to work, which could mean that the employees master their tasks and become proficient enough to help grow the company. This method of leadership may lead to more pressure from the boss on the rest of the employees, who then push back against the management method. Theft and other issues may arise because of a lack of workplace satisfaction. According to Smart Entrepreneur, This is one of the least desirable when it comes to building trusting relationships and making friends. In this system, one person has control over all of the workers or followers. Making friends is an important part of life, and if this is destroyed, it can create an unhappy environment. This translates to the quality of work, and not being seen as human can cause more resistance to new aspects of the job. A little autonomy and social appeal can make a difference in retaining good workers. 1.3 Participatory Leadership The premise of the participatory management style is the belief that the worker can make a contribution to the design of their own work. The belief system that lead managers to this conclusion was originally put forth as a management theory by McGregor, who called it Theory Y. Theory Y advocates believe that workers are internally motivated. They take satisfaction in their work, and would like to perform at their best. Symptoms of indifference are a result of the modern workplace, which restricts what a worker can do and separates him from the final results of his efforts. It is managements job to change the workplace so that the worker can, once again, recapture his pride of workmanship. Elements of Theory Y are evident in Demings discussion of the role of a manager of people, presented earlier. Managers who practice the participatory style of management tend to engage in certain types of behaviour. To engage the workers they establish and communicate the purpose and direction of the organization. This is used to help develop a shared vision of what the organization should be, which is used to develop a set of shared plans for achieving the vision. The managers role is that of a leader. By her actions and words she shows the way to her employees. She is also a coach, evaluating the results of her peoples efforts and helping them use the results to improve their processes. She works with the leaders above her in the organization to improve the organizations systems and the organization as a whole. 1.4 Democratic Leadership The Democratic Leadership Style was first described by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938 along with the autocratic leadership and the laissez-faire leadership styles. They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Kariel (1956) argues that Lewins notion of democracy is manipulative and elitist and not democratic. The dynamics of democratic leadership, however, are not well understood. In fact, there is no clear and well-developed definition of the term within academia. In a classic review, Gibb (1969, p258) lamented the fact that the basic psychological meaning of democratic leadership had nowhere been spelled out. Twenty years later, Miriam Lewin (1987) agreed. repeating Kurt Lewins earlier call for a better understanding of the detailed nature of democratic leadership and followership through social science research (p. 138). The democratic style was also included by Daniel Goleman in 2002 as one of his six leadership styles. In Bass (1990, 19-20) handbook on leadership a definition is provided: Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the membersLeadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group. Any member of teh group can exhibit some amount of leadership Bass further argues that Leadership is behaviour, not position and this can be said of the democratic method of leadership. The democratic leader gives followers a vote in nearly every decision the team makes. The process involved with being a democratic leader is very time consuming because decisions are nearly always made together. The democratic leadership style is able to quickly build flexibility and responsibility and can help identify new ways to do things. This leadership style is best used when the followers are knowledgeable about the organizations process and change is needed. For example, this style is used when the leader needs to introduce fresh ideas into the organization to help with an old process. Lewin, Lippitt and White were one of the first to categorize leadership styles in terms of behavioral characteristics. Prior to their work, leadership traits were the focus of leadership studies. Under democratic leadership, the people have a more participatory role in the decision making process. One person retains final say over all decisions but allows others to share insight and ideas. Most of all, democratic leaders must seek to make members into leaders (Theilen Poole, 1986). This is often a highly effective form of leadership. People are more likely to excel in their positions and develop more skills when they feel empowered, and people are empowered when they are involved in the decision-making process. Although it may take some time to achieve full participation from a group, the end result will be rewarding if you can manage to establish a power-sharing environment in your group project. You will find that democratic practices often lead to a more productive and higher quality work group. Examples of democratic leadership: Asking all group members for ideas and input. Voting on the best course of action in a project. Asking group members to work with their strengths and provide input on how to divide the work. ]li]Enabling members to work at their own pace and set their own deadlines. Pitfalls of Democratic Leadership It doesnt take too much imagination to think of ways that democratic leadership could backfire during a group project. As you probably know, some members of a group will work well on their own and complete all work in a timely fashion. But there are other workers who will procrastinate-and that can lead to disaster. If you are a natural democratic leader, it might be necessary to learn some traits of the autocratic or bureaucratic leaders and tap into them as necessary. Always have a backup plan on hand! Undemocratic leadership styles can result in a variety of undesirable outcomes: dependent and apathetic followers (Barber. 1984 Heifetz Sinder. 1987; Manz Sims. 1989; White Lippitt, 1960). In addition, undemocratic leadership can undermine the pursuit of ethical ideals, such as self-determination, personal development and democratic decision making (Barber, 1984: Sashkin, 1984). 1.5 Laissez-faire leadership Laissez faire style simply means a delegate approach to leadership. Many researchers have found out that those children who grow under laissez-faire leadership establishments, happen to be the less productive in any group. This was also reinforced by these children making more demands upon their leader, as researchers have come to ascertain, amidst showing little in terms of cooperation as well as the inability to work more independently. Most laissez faire styles offer no or very little guidance to the members of the same group, amidst leaving the making of decisions to other group members. As much a it could be overtly effective in those situations where most employees or members happen to be highly qualified and skilful in their area experience and know-how, it has often led to poor roles definition plus a sheer lack in motivation. In this leadership style, the head or leader onlysets that overall priority or instruction, where then he gets out of the way so that things can be left to run on their own. With the usage of this leadership style, the leader just accepts wholesome responsibility for many of the decisions that come into fruition, though the decision-making has been left to his team. Also, the team members are also left to evaluate, analyse and transform issue and all problems just as they come. Laissez faire is very appropriate for mature and acute senior teams, which have a track record of proof and have confidence in handling lots of issues. The most pitfall and shortcoming of this type of leadership is strictly failure. In case of anything going wrong, the leader has no clout to blame his team, but a chance to see his shortcomings. But in each management style, or leadership style, the motivation towards good leadership and overall output of members or employees are held up within the management theories, that offer a dimension for all leaders to use for the realisation of their utmost goals. Leadership without goals is failure in management. Some of these theories include the Hawthorne model or experiments, which lay emphasis on human relations. In this model, the work-place lightning did improve the productivity during the experiment and after, that is, within the groups. It has thus reinforced the fact that individuals are not those rational and covert economic beings as assumed by the classical theorists, as well as the emphasis of social interaction and the improvement of peoples work once they have been valued. Other theories of management include the rule set or bureaucracy, stipulated by Max Weber and gave the world the red tape, since it lays emphasis on rules and overall regulations. Also, the scientific theory of management by Frederick Taylor brought out the notion that each task must be scientifically and also rationally optimised for overall productivity, which was perfected by the Ford Company and the monetary incentives involved brought perfect results. Lastly, the process approach theory by Henry Fayol has been clear in leadership styles and in all management levels, even in laissez faire, as it lays much emphasis on planning, organising, coordinating, commanding, controlling and even the staff and line principles. The theories are not leadership styles but they harness the existing leadership and management styles. Disadvantages of leadership styles As much as the leadership style known as paternalistic management contains some autocratic dynamism, it comes as being a bit warm and a bit fuzzy within the precincts of its approach. In its paternal aspect, it harkens in the line of a father being firm though has good intentions in the life of ones children and in the business limelight, the employees. Just like most paternal beings are, except for those dads who keep saying: I told you, the typical paternalistic manager most of the times explains the specific reason as to why he has taken certain actions in management and for his employees. He is very far from being autocratic and looks after the harmony within his or her team. A manager of this calibre tends to provide that environment that is perfectly well rounded for all within his management wing, even including a prior consideration of their personal and social aspects in their lives. In this respect, there seems to occur some kind of upward communication all the way from the tip to the high ranks, in terms of provision of feedback which could be well used for the transformation of some aspects within the organisation for the achievement of employee satisfaction and avid motivation. Those in support of paternalistic management style have related to it as providing a huge movement towards the motivation of employees more than an autocratic style, since the employees tends to fill the leadership as considering their welfare and thus do care for them more as people and not just like robots. Since the objective that comes with keeping the motivation of the employees is highly included in this leadership style, there tends to be an overt probability that is laid towards an increased loyalty of employee and also a minimal turnover. The overall disadvantage with this leadership style depicts the overall disadvantage of leadership styles, sharing such similarities with those elements of autocratic techniques of management styles, such that they have led to the dependency upon the leader thro