Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Negative and Positive Effects of Peer Relationships

Possessing a functional or dysfunctional family is of much importance to a healthy development, helping children through peer pressure, acceptance, and the anxiety of belonging. Yet how important is the environment that a child is raised on, this being shared or non-shared? How difficult or easy can peer pressure be? Will peer pressure help or deter a child from being functional. How much do these factors affect development from childhood to adolescence? This paper will explain the different stages of childhood to adolescence, and how a child and adolescence copes with nature and nurture .Family is of great importance to having a functional or dysfunctional development; it will help or impede the child to have a support system in place. The key areas are the family structure, function, shared and non-shared environment. A functional family is a family bonds and works together toward achieving needs. In a difference, the dysfunctional family is the opposite; non-shared environment. In a shared environment, the children are by same parents in the same home and have a crucial role to the development of the Middle childhood and Adolescence period.Children raised by a functional family have some standard to behavior. Parents are first role model. In a functional family, the words that come out from the young child mouth are very selective. The parents built them with such image of respect for both in and out of their environment. Other than behavioral factors, there are conditions that impair the development of the middle childhood. Children living in a non-shares environment maybe malnourished poorly guided, as a result of dysfunctional family. The attitude of such children will most likely be very raw, and disrespectful.Regardless of the family structure, there are stress factors that affect the middle childhood and adolescence development such as separation from both parents if they are divorced, delayed puberty because of malnutrition, adaptation to new environm ent and peer pressure . Positive impacts of peers and peer groups could be moral development, close friendships, and stability. Negative impacts of peers and peer groups could range from rejection, to bullying, and to no sense of belonging. During the Middle Childhood stage, children tend to look for a sense of belonging.As changes occur within and around them, they develop somewhat of their own culture. This culture allows the child to involve himself with others and create a bond that can compromise, share, and defend one another as an equal (Burger, 2010). As these bonds develop, moral growth is also developed. The morals that a child develops during these stages, sets a foundation for his or her morals to continue throughout adulthood. This childhood culture many times allows the children to develop close friendships. Close friendships become like an extended family to some of these children.These friendships can also hold another positive effect on the child, by providing stabi lity. Many children are affected by family disasters, such as divorce, and single parents. The stability of a close friend developing during this time continues to impact the child positively in to Adolescence and adulthood. It is always easier to discuss the positive impacts that peers can and may have on children in the Middle Childhood age, but negative impacts play a large role in a person’s life. One of the largest negative impacts that peers and peer groups can have on a child between the ages of 7-11, is rejection.Rejection impacts the child from the time it begins and continues all throughout the development stages. Bullying is known to impact the child deeply through words and physical actions. Upon peers and peer groups, bullying and rejection can lead to of place. The negative impact of bullying and rejection can lead a child and adolescence into depression or even no sense of belonging. The effects that peers have on a young adolescent can determine how that child behaves and also how the child views the world around them. During adolescent years children often find themselves in scenarios that could harm their future wellbeing.More than ever in this society as children find the need to belong or fit in to the popular crowd in school for acceptance they often tend to mimic their friends behaviors. This is often a result of the individual child trying to find him or herself. The results however, are not always negative. In fact, there are some positive results that may occur as a result of copying their peers. Simply stated, â€Å"When teens surround themselves with people who make good decisions and who are involved with positive activities and choices, it makes the adolescent child want to be better† (Stock, 2010 pg. 2).Positive peers influence adolescents and can drive the child toward improved confidence, and improved grades in school. Inversely, the same can be said for the adolescent child who decides that he or she wants to be l ike his or her friends who have a negative influence. Children who fall into this category are those that are of the bandwagon philosophy. Those negatively impacted by peers often show signs of lower grades in school, increased distance from family. In fact, â€Å"peer pressure can lead to experimentation with drugs and alcohol, and various high risks behaviors† (Fact Sheets, 2009 pg. ). The changes in the adolescent child can have lasting effects depending on which type of peer influences that child may be surrounded by. The negative impact of peer pressure can be strong; however there are also positive influences. Healthy influences are important to have in our lives from birth until death. Additional pressures that adolescents face compared to middle childhood are mostly from the bodily maturation process. Puberty has an enormous impact on the attitude and character that an adolescent presents.In addition, adolescents face a period of identity confusion. According to Inter national Child and Youth Care Network (2001), â€Å"Identity formation arises from repudiation of childhood identifications and the assumption of new configuration with both internal and societal recognitions. † Understanding the effects of puberty and its effects on the child’s identity, for boys, growing facial hair, voice changes, and the onslaught of acne can impede the need to find the identity of his ego. Girls will face breast growth, menstrual cycles, and acne as well during adolescence.The pressures that arise out of coping with these changes are very different, important, and upsetting for an adolescent compared to a nine-year-old. Stages in a child’s life are diverse and will be expressed in the child’s behavior. When a child reaches middle childhood, he or she will be in what is called the latency stage. Latency stage is the time the child starts to make friends of the same sex, is subjective to specific sexual behaviors, and thinks in terms o f morality, intellectual, and social skills start to develop.As an adolescent, they would be in their final phase of the developmental stage which the child focuses more on a heterosexual relationship outside of the family. Given that adequate or appropriate adjustment to the environment or situations, a child can pass through preceding the preceding stages with the most favorable gratification. If not behaviors that inhibit a person's ability to adjust to particular situation can produce unfavorable results. Oswalt, (2008). Moral reasoning will portray the outcome of a child’s behavior in society .There are three levels to moral reasoning and they develop in stages. First is pre-conventional reasoning which there is no integral part of values and external rewards and punishments force reasoning. Second is conventional reasoning that can be characterized by various integral parts of values, usually these values are put in place by parents. The third level is post conventional reasoning, this is when morals are altogether incorporated and is not contingent on non-essential sources. The media's impact and communal outlook with the development with adolescent has been far-reaching.Today's children are pummeled with unachievable values on what is considered beautiful, exposed to violent images of sex and violence. Exposure to such expectations and combined with the physical and emotional changes, children are more likely to struggle with sexuality, be subjected to violence at school, and incur eating disorders. These early years in childhood development are times when children are most vulnerable and when psychological disorders like depression and other temperamental disorders start to appear during this stage of life.Having a functional or dysfunctional family is of great importance to a healthy development. The environment and peer pressure are also of great importance, helping or deterring a child’s function in society. Children must believe they are safe, protected helping the child through key stages of development .

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

A Reflection in Learning Essay

Introduction I am a registered nurse of twenty years of experience. After graduated from my three-year training in a nursing school, I had been worked in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a pulmonary unit of a public hospital. Now I am working in a non-government organization serving the mentally disabled. No matter which specialty I am working in or how senior I am, I found learning being crucial for professional competence, job satisfaction and personal growth. In this paper, I would like to reflect critically on my experience of learning in nursing with reference to relevant learning theories. Learning in workplace At the time when I started to work as a registered nurse in a new workplace after graduation from nursing school there was no structured orientation program like nowadays. As an enthusiastic beginner with an imminent need, my motivation to learn was very high. I clutched every opportunity to observe how other colleagues perform, to ask questions proactively and to study references from ward manuals and books by myself. In addition, the colleagues were willing to teach and finally I was able to meet the requirement of my new role quickly and smoothly. Formal learning With about a year of experience, I started attending formal in-service training courses. I was assigned to attend trainings of the specialty I was working with and some core management skills. Nevertheless, I got little satisfaction but I did not know the reasons at that time until I was studying my bachelor’s degree program and was promoted to Nursing Officer later on. As a new Nursing Officer I had to deal with a lot of problems which I had not come across before but some issues were the topics that I was studying at that time. I then tried to apply the knowledge and theories into practice. Not only could the knowledge solve my problems, but also the application of theories had enhanced my learning. I realized that putting theories into practice make the learning and working effective and interesting and vice versa. I felt the sense of satisfaction of learning by then. Advanced academic learning I started to pursue a master’s degree program last September. My motivation for advanced academic learning is both extrinsic and intrinsic. The academic requirement for professional nurse is increasing now and I need to upgrade myself so as to be synchronized with the pace of professional development. Academic study has made me more knowledgeable, more critical and more assertive. Moreover, the qualification enhanced my self-confidence directly. The program is actually imposing great pressure on me that I need to struggle for a balanced life between work, family and study. In order to up keep my motivation in learning, I tried hard to make the study more interesting and pragmatic by integrating theories into practice, sharing and discussing with colleagues as much as possible. Social learning My learning experience in the workplace when I was newly qualified was a kind of social learning which Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, Bern, and Hilgard (1990) described as learning by watching the behaviors and the consequences of others. Social learning is a human instinct and we learn by it consciously or unconsciously. When I was a newly qualified nurse, the need to learn was immediate. I consciously went into the learning process of attention, retention, reproduction, and also motivation. If the displayed behavior was perceived favorable to me, my motivation was particularly high. It was because of my active participation and my self-directed learning, I had a good learning outcome at that stage. Quinn (2001) believed that the quality of the model influence the result of learning. I am always aware of my behavior when I become a senior nurse, need to act as a preceptor or a mentor and especially when I have become the ward-in-charge which Fretwell and Melia (as cited in Hand, 2006) f ound to have an exceptional strong influence on colleagues in their studies. The reinforcement of the displayed behaviors has influence on individual’s motivation to reproduce the behavior. To ensure a favorable learning outcome, I intentionally give positive reinforcement for favorable behavior and negative reinforcement for unfavorable behavior. I value social learning because it is much safer than trial and error in clinical practice and it is a natural way to learn. Reflection and critical reflection From time to time, malpractices happen in every workplace. It is important for persistent reflections to improve nursing qualities. Reflection being described by Raelin (2002) is the practice of standing back to examine the meanings of things happen around us. Reflection helps to identify malpractice and makes improvement accordingly. By reflection, nurses identify areas for improvement and improve their â€Å"quality† as models. Besides, reflection makes us more receptive to the alternatives of reasoning and behaving (Raelin,2001). There is critical reflection which is a deeper and broader type of reflection and is a collective action to enhance organizational learning and change (Gray, 2007). Furthermore, it encourages learning at a more profound and transformative level (Mezirow, 1990). Now I have established the habit of periodical reflection and I am striving to achieve appropriate critical reflection. Critical reflection involves questioning long-established believes and attitudes but may lead to resentment of the staffs. It has to be carried out skillfully at appropriate time. I discovered that the practice of critical reflection would be more receptive if it is done immediately after a critical incidence. Andragogy A part of my learning journey had contradicted to andragogy. Knowles (1990) recognized that adults learn best when they are self-directed and assume responsibility for their learning. He also expounded the following six assumptions of andragogy: 1. Adults need to know the reason to learn. 2. Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions and need to have a self-directed learning. 3. Adults come to learn with rich experiences which are the foundation and resources for learning. 4. Adults are more ready to learn if there is a need to learn. 5. Adults’ orientation to learn is problem-centered. 6. Adults are responsive to external motivators and respond better to internal motivators. When going to formal professional trainings, I was assigned to attend some management workshops and lectures when I had only two or three years of experience. At that stage my job duty and responsibility did not include management and I was not interested in it either. So I did not know why I had to learn management. The knowledge I had learnt could not be applied into practice. Actually I was not ready to learn management at that time. It was not self-directed. I am sure that these learning would have been more fruitful if they were arranged when I needed to assist in ward management or if I had at that time a long term perspective of seeing the need to take up a management role one day. Then when I attended the ICU courses, many of the course contents could not be practiced in my hospital which was a rehabilitation hospital that the ICU was small and did not provide care as â€Å"intensive† as other large acute hospitals. A point I had to admit is that my attitude of learning at that time was passive and dependent. After attending a course or a lecture, I could actually discuss with the ward in-charge and give new ideas but I had not done so. My learning at that stage had several points contradicted to andragogy and was the reason why I did not feel satisfied with all that learning. Having got such experience, now when I do training and development plan for my staffs, I usually discuss with them about their needs and preferences. If they need to take some mandatory sessions as required by the hospital, I must make sure they know the reasons. When I coach or mentor new staffs or clinical placement students in my workplace, I would emphasis why they need to learn those things I showed to them. After my colleagues attending a course or a lecture, I usually ask them what they have learnt and encourage them to put theory into practice. Learning style Honey and Mumford (as cited in Penger and Tekavcic, 2009) categorized learning styles into four types as pragmatist, activist, reflector and theorist. My learning style can be described as pragmatist or activist. I enjoy trying new ways and test their practicability in work. I appreciate knowledge and theories that can be put into practice and solve problems. I understand that the characteristics of a reflector being favorable to listen, think and evaluate thoroughly and the characteristics of a theorist loves to see things globally are as valuable as other styles. Now I am trying to further develop my learning style because as remarked by Astin, Closs and Hughes (2006), no one learning style is regarded as the best and it is beneficial to use all four learning styles. From my point of view, different learning style is advantageous to different focus or context of learning. If the focus of learning is to acquire a hands-on skill, activist and pragmatist are more advantageous. If the focus of learning is to understand a phenomenon or a theory, reflector and theorist are more advantageous. Therefore, developing learning styles beyond our dominant types can strengthen our ability to learn. Conclusions This article reviews my learning experience in nursing. Starting with informal learning in workplace, then proceeding to formal in-service education and academic learning, I was being highly pragmatic and my orientation to learn can be explained by andragogy. I value social learning, reflection and critical reflection. My experience has impacted on my style of mentoring and coaching in clinical practice. I am striving to further develop myself to think more proactively and globally which is essential for on-going learning. References Astin, F., Closs, S.J. & Hughes, N. (2006). The self-reported learning style preferences of female Macmillan clinical nurse specialists. Nurse Education Today, 26, 475-483. Atkinson, R., Atkinson, C., Smith E., Bern D., & Hilgard, E. (1990). Introduction to psychology (10th ed.). San Diego, California: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Gray, D. E. (2007). Facilitating management learning: Developing critical reflection through reflective tools. Management Learning, 38 (5), 495-517. Hand, H. (2006). Promoting effective teaching and learning in the clinical setting. Nursing Standard, 20 (39), 55-63. Knowles, M.S. (1990). The adult learner: A neglected species (4th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing. Mezirow, J.(1990). How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning (pp.1-20). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. Penger, S. & Tekavcic, M. (2009). Testing Dunn & Dunn’s and Honey & Mumford’s learning style: The case of the Slovenian higher education system. Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 4 (2), 1-20. Quinn, F.M. (2001). Principles and practice of nurse education (4th ed.). Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Raelin, J.A. (2001). Public reflection as the basis of learning. Management Learning, 32 (1): 11-30. Raelin, J.A. (2002). â€Å"I don’t have time to think† versus the art of reflective practice. Reflections, 4 (1): 66-75.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Nitrogen removal from wastewater using anaerobic ammonium oxidation Term Paper

Nitrogen removal from wastewater using anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process - Term Paper Example Generally, this bacterial can be found almost everywhere. Findings have shown that the contribution of this bacterium on the removal of nitrogen in the environment can be immense. The process, said to be chemolithrophic, is a very new loop in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle hitherto unknown to engineering (Dong & Sun, 2007). While there is very little, that is known about the ecology, genetics, or even the physiology of the bacteria, this research project will be very important in shedding some light on the community structure of the Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation bacterial and all their involvement in environmental parameters that include nitrate, ammonium, and the salinity levels. This project discusses the effects of pH and salinity on the anammox process with results showing that the salinity is among the few factors that are really affecting the effectiveness of the whole process. My thanks go to Mr. XXXX through whose guidance I have learned molecular techniques used for the investigation of bacteria. It is due to his patient and undying support that pushed this study through. A good and encouraging attitude and his excitement about this work encouraged me to explore deeper into learning as much as possible in the process. I wish to also thank Ms. YYYY who also made this research a success through teaching me about the most fundamental and traditional microbiology techniques. Mr. QQQQ introduced the isotope ratio mass spectrometer to me. He was also very encouraging and it was through his words of wisdom that the concept behind stable isotope geochemistry became one that I can handle well, and with ease. This research owes its completion to WWWW who collected the sediment samples from XXX Estuary. All the other members of the microbiology laboratory were very helpful throughout my visits to the lab. It was their long, well-informed discussions that made the research a success, and I will forever cherish such

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Court Case Scenario Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Court Scenario - Case Study Example Even when Walt concurs that the fault may have occurred due to improper pre-testing of the machine before being installed at the customer's work site, he (Norm) is not willing to implicate that his company is at fault, obviously to save its reputation and market standing especially, because it is now passing through a very difficult phase. Walt Winters is guilty of not having assessed the technical facts thoroughly, before advising Norm to arrange to replace the machinery. He should have conducted necessary tests and overhauled the machine before passing judgment about it. There seems to be a clear case of communication gap between the Technical Department and Customer Servicing Department, and lack of clarity about where the realm of technical responsibility ends, and decision making management begins. All along Walt Winters was under the opinion that the matter was a management decision, whereas Norm felt it was a technical one. However under NSPE Code III I A, Engineers Code is violated when: "Engineer does not admit and accept his own errors related to the action, or Engineer distorts or alters the facts in an attempt to justify his errors related to the action." (NSPE Code of ethics. 2007). So, if the mistake was on the part of R & M Machinery, the company should not have kept silent and it was obligatory on their part to inform their long-standing customer about the deficiency in their service. Their silence, on a crucial aspect of acceptance of fault for defective machinery, has implicated them in this case. Defense: The deficiency of service on the part of the seller regarding the defective machine has not been conclusively proved, but has just been inferred by the prosecution on circumstantial evidence. It is quite possible that a perfect machine delivered by R & M Machinery may have been mishandled, or wrongly used by Exes. The fault may have occurred, not due to the inherent defect in the machine, but due to wrong handling or mal-operational techniques, which could have led to the parts being damaged or rendered unsuitable, thus making the machine inoperative. However, the seller has agreed to replace the machine on good faith and it has been done to the full satisfaction of the buyer. Here the economic factor is absent, since no losses or damages have accrued to the plaintiff. Since no real losses have occurred and the matter has now been amicably settled, the question of any further queries on this issue shall not arise in future. JUDGE: There has been a breach of trust on the part of the seller in not informing the buyer, regarding the actual fault of the machine and the reason for its failure, despite the fact that, with the exercise of due reasonableness and diligence on its part, this could have been done. Prima facie, there seems to be no evidence to suggest that a deviation of Professional Code of Conduct of Engineers has not taken place in this instance. "In addition to being able to use one's mastery of a professional body of knowledge, this knowledge must be applied consistently, reliably and according to a legal and ethical framework." (Nicole Radziwill.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Accountability of Registered Nurses in Delegating Care Essay - 1

Accountability of Registered Nurses in Delegating Care - Essay Example Furthermore, errors committed in giving health care will be minimized if not avoided because of mastery of the skill to the tasks that has been designated to the assistants. In everything that has been done, it is the patient’s best interest that is taken into account. A patient has put the trust in our hands for us to deal and treat his disease, thus it is just necessary to return the trust and be their advocates in promoting their well-being. In this text, support workers are team members whom tasks are delegated to by the registered practitioners. Support workers may represent health care assistant, rehabilitation assistant or technician, therapy assistant, assistant practitioner or technical instructors. Registered practitioner on the other hand pertains to a registered professional who usually delegates the task i.e. the Health Professions Council (HPC) or the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (CSP, 2006). The health care practitioners are bound within the scope of both the criminal and civil courts so as to assure that what they are doing are within the limits of legal requirements especially since they are dealing with human life. Registered health care providers are responsible to their acts of health practice and patient care thus must conform to the conditions and terms set by the regulatory and professional bodies. Currently, heath support workers do not have professional registrations (Department of Health, 2004; Scottish Executive Health Department, 2004).

Friday, July 26, 2019

Bankability Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Bankability Law - Essay Example One of the major aspects of project financing is understanding the reason for project financing, preparing the financial plan, determining the risks of the project, designing the project, and sourcing the required finance for the completion of the project. The last aspect of project financing, sourcing the funds, requires a broad knowledge for designing contractual agreements, to support the bid or finances. In many cases, the financiers of the project will include government agencies, private partnerships, financing structures, and major financial institutions. The financing institutions will usually require an analysis of the project so that the credit requirements of the borrower can be ascertained, the borrowing capacity of the project be ascertained, and the project analyzed in terms of cash flows, expected return and the repayment of the cost. The financing institutions will take into account the tax and accounting issues of the project and the risk factors to determine the fea sibility of completion and the chances of repayment. In this case, the concept of bankability refers to the consideration taken by a lender to determine whether a project is feasible and will repay the loan provided for its implementation2. A project in finance is usually considered bankable if the major providers of funds are willing to lend to finance the project. Many projects are funded on a project finance consideration, where a special procedure is set to determine the estimated cash flows and determine whether the project is feasible. In terms of bankability, the project financier will assess the expected cash flows and duration of the project; assess the risks associated with the project to determine whether the project is a credible choice for financing. The financing for a project is usually repaid through the cash flows earned from a project, and a financier will always look to the assets and revenues of the project before extending a loan. In traditional forms of finance , the financier will consider the past credit performance of the borrower and determine the ability to repay a loan, but in project financing, the lender considers the ability of the project to repay its financing. The subject of risk of the project is also important since the lender usually has no recourse to the project assets; therefore, the expected cash flows are used to repay the loan3. This means that the credit risk associated with the borrower is of no consequence, instead, the risk associated with the project determines the amount and duration of the loan being extended. However, before the lender decides whether to lend to the project controllers, some risk issues have to be assessed and the project itself analyzed. According to Vinter4, bankability differs in terms of the deal itself, the market for the project, and the risks associated with the project. This means that different projects have different associations for bankability, depending on the lender’s view of the feasibility of the project. This paper will analyze the risks that lenders will analyze when considering the bankability of a project, the steps taken to mitigate these risks, and the decisions regarding the bankability of projects. The paper will then exemplify the issue of bankability using already completed projects in the global market. Risk minimization process The consideration of the bankability o

The Lemon Tree Dilemma Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Lemon Tree Dilemma - Assignment Example Mary accuses Jackie of the leak of the formula solely because she thinks that Jackie is questionable ethically due to her sex change and therefore can easily double cross. Jackie’s remarks about Mary would make her credibility questionable. She makes personal comments aimed at Mary and even accuses her of having an affair with Paul. That demonstrates that she has hard feelings against Mary and could possibly do anything to get back at her. On his part, Peter has drug issues. He has failed two drug tests and that would jeopardize his credibility. The use of drugs would easily affect Peter’s performance and he is likely to be careless while under the influence of the drugs. That would be a major concern to the employer as it may lead to a bigger problem for the company. Jackie’s sex change should not form part of the reasons to question her credibility. That is because it was a personal choice and is in no way related to her work. Using it would amount to discrimination. Her complaint against Mary to the company’s compliance department should also not influence her treatment as it would also amount to discrimination. On the other hand, missing work for three months without notice would constitute a possible reason for

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Managerial Functions in a Commercial Bank Assignment

The Managerial Functions in a Commercial Bank - Assignment Example This ensures that issues of money laundering do not occur in the bank. The capital adequacy management refers to the bank’s managerial function that ensures that a bank has sufficient capital to carry out all its operations. It involves a number of activities and process. First, the bank through its manager must decide the amount of capital the bank must keep. This is done by identifying the needs of the bank and the central bank regulation policy on bank reserves. Second, once bank capital needs are identified, adequate policies are formulated to ensure that the capital adequacy level is not exceeded. Third, the bank through it managers mobilize the necessary capital and manage it to conform to policies that ensure that it is sufficient and quality bank assets at any given time. The asset-risk management refers to protecting banks assets from all risks associated with the asset and ensuring that they are performing appropriately. Asset-risk management involves keeping complete records of all the assets. The information that needs to be included in the asset register includes asset type, date and purchase price at acquisition, warranty information, spare parts, repair facilities and dates as well as service contracts (Collier 146). Banks management must ensure that all preventive maintenance is carried out and all planned inspection must be carried to ensure that the asset is functioning appropriately. In addition, all assets must conform to the industry regulatory standards. The above functions would ensure that banks assets are reliable and performing as required. Risk structure of interest rates is comprised of all risks associated with changes in interest rates as well as defaults that may occur when a client take a loan and fail to honour his or her financial obligations. Bonds duration is usually used to measure the interest rate risk. On the other hand, Term structure of interest rates is defined as a way in which interest rates on bonds with varying maturity terms are related. It has been estimated that interest rates on bonds of varying term maturities move together with time.  Ã‚  

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Short Story Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Short Story Analysis - Essay Example The basic assumption of the current report is that through a combination of tone and setting, Hawthorne sets up a theme of growing unreality and sin in the work, in which Goodman Brown goes from a lucid, sane person, to a forever-changed witness of evil and sin. This response can be applied to the Hawthorne short-story quite easily, as it seems that Goodman Brown is also undergoing a sort of intuitive emotional struggle throughout much of his walk in the forbidding and unnatural woods. The story focuses more on the immediacy of these impressions than it does on the later evaluation and interpretation of them by its protagonist, who is seen to be effectively closed-off after his dream/experience. hides his intentions from both Faith and the reader, so it is effectively a mystery as to where he is going. This effectively draws the reader further into the story because their curiosity is piqued as to Brown’s destination. â€Å"What a wretch am I to leave her on such an errand!† Brown cries internally and mysteriously, â€Å"Methought as she spoke there was trouble in her face, as if a dream had warned her what work is to be don tonight. But no, no; twould kill her to think of it† (Hawthorne, p. 375). The protagonist heads off into the wilderness. through, and closed immediately behind† (Hawthorne). The narrator is also increasingly closed-off and isolated from the good of society as he walks. â€Å"It was all as lonely as could be; and there is this peculiarity in such a solitude, that the traveller knows not who may be concealed by the innumerable trunks and the thick boughs overhead; so that, with lonely footsteps, he may yet be passing through an unseen multitude† (Hawthorne). As noted, it seems that Goodman Brown is undergoing a sort of emotional struggle of resistance throughout much of his walk in the unnatural woods and wilderness. The story focuses more on his impressions of resisting evil in the woods than it does on interpretation of these

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Module 3 SLP Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Module 3 SLP - Coursework Example As of December 2012, The Kraft Food owns 34 manufacturing plants in the US and two plants in Canada. The plants are capable of accommodating multiple product lines. They manufacture Cheese products in 12 locations, Beverage products in eight locations, Grocery products in 15 locations, Refrigerated Meals products in nine places. Apart from this they also outsource the production of products, if found advantageous (Kraft Foods Annual Report, 2013). The company garnered net revenues of $18.2 billion while earnings before tax stood at $4.1 billion in 2013. The companys balance sheet as on December 28, 2013 shows assets of $23.1 billion. The companys market capitalization is close to USD 39 billion. The companys operating profit margin is 22.67%. Operating cash flow is $1.8 billion. The companys return on assets is 11% while return on equity is 45.45%. The company stocks are traded on NASDAQ Stock Market (Balance Sheet, 2014). Human resource is considered an important and vital resource at Kraft Foods for companys sustainable development. Based on 2013 data, the company employs 20,400 employees in the US alone and around 2100 people in Canada (Kraft Foods Annual Report, 2013). The company employs rigorous development plans to retain this important resource. The company puts a special emphasis on employee engagement for their overall development and growth. Kraft Foods has mastered the basic science of food processing and the art. They have developed savory flavors, cheese solutions, and enhancers for developing distinct taste of their products. The company has developed cost-reduction technologies for its numerous processes to benefit consumers. The technical resources help them to compete in the market. They are considered a leader in flavor technology and capable of identifying and developing the best solution for their food products. They have pilot plant facilities to developing ingredients for

Monday, July 22, 2019

Katherine Mansfield Essay Example for Free

Katherine Mansfield Essay Her feelings of disjuncture were accentuated when she arrived in Britain in 1903 to attend Queen’s College. In many respects, Mansfield remained a lifelong outsider, a traveler between two seemingly similar yet profoundly different worlds. After briefly returning to New Zealand in 1906, she moved back to Europe in 1908, living and writing in England and parts of continental Europe. Until her premature death from tuberculosis at the age of 34, Mansfield remained in Europe, leading a Bohemian, unconventional way of life. The Domestic Picturesque Mansfield’s short story â€Å"Prelude† is set in New Zealand and dramatizes the disjunctures of colonial life through an account of the Burnell family’s move from Wellington to a country village. The story takes its title from Wordsworth’s seminal poem, â€Å"The Prelude,† the first version of which was completed in 1805, which casts the poet as a traveler and chronicles the â€Å"growth of a poet’s mind. †[4] Although the Burnell family moves a mere â€Å"six miles† from town, the move is not inconsequential; it enacts a break with their previous way of life and alerts the family members to the various discontinuities in their lives. Beneath the veneer of the Burnells’ harmonious domestic life are faint undercurrents of aggression and unhappiness. The haunting specter of a mysterious aloe plant and a slaughtered duck in their well-manicured yard suggests that the family’s awfully nice new home conceals moments of brutality and ignorance toward another way of life that was suppressed and denied. [5] As I will propose, these two incidents echo the aesthetic concept of the sublime, as they encapsulate a mysterious power that awes its beholders and cannot be fully contained within their picturesque home. Through her subtle, dream-like prose, Mansfield deploys traditional aesthetic conventions like the picturesque while simultaneously transfiguring, subverting, and reinventing them in a modernist context. The concept of the picturesque was first defined by its originator, William Gilpin, an 18th century artist and clergyman, as â€Å"that kind of beauty which is agreeable in a picture. †[6] Thus, a scene or representation is beautiful when it echoes an already-established, artistic conception of beauty, revealing the self-reinforcing way in which art creates the standard of beauty for both art and life. Mansfield presents these picturesque moments in order to demystify them and reveal the suppression and violence they contain. In addition to â€Å"Prelude,† her stories â€Å"Garden Party† and â€Å"Bliss† dramatize the transformation and inversion of picturesque moments of bourgeois life and domestic harmony. While she seems to exhibit a certain attachment to these standard aesthetic forms, Mansfield subtly interrogates many of these conventions in a strikingly modernist way. Through her childhood in a colony, Mansfield also became attuned to the violence and inequalities of colonialism. As Angela Smith suggests, her early writings demonstrate a keen sensitivity towards a repressed history of brutality and duplicity. [7] In her 1912 short story â€Å"How Pearl Button Was Kidnapped,† she questions and overturns the perspective of the colonialist, whose vantage point historically trumps that of the native. The deliberate ambivalence of the word â€Å"kidnapping† dramatizes the conflict between the colonist’s perspective and Pearl’s joyful, eye-opening experiences during her abduction. In a similar way, empire dramatized for Mansfield the way that a picturesque, bourgeois household could suppress alternative perspectives. The Sublime In â€Å"Prelude,† the mysterious, sublime aloe plant disrupts the pleasant domesticity of the Burnell household. Their well-manicured yard with its tennis lawn, garden, and orchard also contains a wild, unseemly side—â€Å"this was the frightening side, and no garden at all. †[8] This â€Å"side† contains the aloe plant, which exerts a mysterious, enthralling power over its awed beholders. In its resemblance to the ocean, the aloe assumes the characteristics of the sublime: â€Å"the high grassy bank on which the aloe rested rose up like a wave, and the aloe seemed to ride upon it like a shop with the oars lifted. Bright moonlight hung upon the lifted oars like water, and on the green wave glittered the dew. †[9] For many writers and poets, the ocean was a manifestation of the sublime because of its unfathomable power and scale that awed and humbled its observers. The aloe’s strikingly physiological effect on its viewers recalls Edmund Burke’s sublime, which overpowers its observer and reinforces the limitations of human reason and control. In his famous treatise on the sublime, Burke writes: â€Å"greatness of dimension, vastness of extent or quantity† is a powerful cause of the sublime, as it embodies the violent and overpowering forces of nature. [10] In a similar vein, the child, Kezia Burnell’s first impression upon seeing the â€Å"fat swelling plant with its cruel leaves and fleshy stem† is one of awe and wonder. [11] In this case, the sublimity of the aloe plant disrupts and challenges the domestic picturesque as it defies mastery, categorization, and traditional notions of beauty. In its resistance to categorization and control, the sublime embodies the part of the ungovernable landscape that the Burnell family cannot domesticate and the picturesque cannot frame. As a result, in â€Å"Prelude,† the magnitude of the sublime interrupts and fractures the tranquil surface of the picturesque by exposing the unfathomable depths beneath it. The colonial backdrop of the Burnells’ yard also contributes to the mysterious, occult power of the aloe. This unruly part of their property hints toward a landscape that eludes domestication and serves as a constant reminder that the Burnell family is living in a land that is not quite theirs and cannot be fully tamed. [12] At the age of 19, Mansfield wrote that the New Zealand bush outside of the cities is â€Å"all so gigantic and tragic—and even in the bright sunlight it is so passionately secret. †[13] For Mansfield, the bush embodies the history of a people whose lives have been interrupted and displaced by European settlers. [14] After wars, brutal colonial practices, and European diseases had devastated the local Maori population, the bush became a haunting monument to their presence. As the Burnell family settles down to sleep on the first night in their new home, â€Å"far away in the bush there sounded a harsh rapid chatter: â€Å"Ha-ha-ha†¦ Ha-ha-ha. †[15] In her subtle way, Mansfield unveils the voices of those whose perspectives are excluded from this portrait of nocturnal domestic harmony. In a similar way, the aloe plant exudes an unfathomable history that is beyond the time and place of the Burnells. Even its age—implied by the fact that it flowers â€Å"once every hundred years†Ã¢â‚¬â€suggests that the aloe exists on a different scale than its human beholders. [16] In its ancient, superhuman scale, the aloe gestures towards the â€Å"gigantic,† indicating a subtle, but implicitly threatening power within, or in proximity of the home. The aloe is a kind of lacuna in the imperial landscape of New Zealand, whose power threatens the colonial household and its control over the landscape. [17] By disrupting and encroaching upon the ostensibly safe domestic sphere, the aloe also echoes the â€Å"unheimlich,† or uncanny, an aesthetic concept explored by Sigmund Freud in his 1919 essay, â€Å"The Uncanny. † The uncanny becomes, in part, an invasive force violating the sacred, domestic sphere and hearkens back to a previously repressed or hidden impulse: â€Å"The uncanny is something which ought to have remained hidden but has come to light. †[18] In â€Å"Prelude,† the aloe is initially depicted as a threatening force that â€Å"might have had claws instead of roots. The curving leaves seemed to be hiding something. †[19] Positioned within the safe space of their property, the aloe is a menacing, ungovernable force that seems to encroach upon it. The plant becomes part of the repressed history of the landscape—a history that is only apparent to Kezia, her mother Linda Burnell, and her grandmother Mrs. Fairfield, who are attuned to the forces below the surface of the picturesque exterior. Violent Underpinnings Beneath many of Mansfield’s picturesque domestic scenes are moments of violence and rupture. In â€Å"Garden Party,† for instance, a poor man falls to his death during the preparations for a much-anticipated social gathering of the wealthy Sheridan family, undermining the convivial spirit of the occasion. In â€Å"Prelude,† Pat, the handyman, slaughters a duck while the children watch with grotesque enthrallment as it waddles for a few steps after being decapitated. â€Å"The crowning wonder† of the dead duck walking hearkens back to Burke’s sublime, which is experienced in â€Å"Prelude† within the confines of the private residence. [20] The sublimity of this apparent defiance of the properties of death acts as a dramatic external force imposing on the observers’ intellect and reason in a profoundly Burkian way. But later that night, when the duck is placed in front of the patriarch, Stanley Burnell, â€Å"it did not look as if it had ever had a head. †[21] The duck’s picturesque dressing—â€Å"its legs tied together with a piece of string and a wreath of little balls of stuffing round it†Ã¢â‚¬â€conceals its violent death. [22] In a similar way, the â€Å"awfully nice† picturesque house is imposed upon the landscape, as if it had never been any other way. [23] Through reconfiguration and transformation, a new imperial order conceals the fact that an older order once lay beneath it. In both cases, the picturesque functions as a way of naturalizing the violent order of domination. As Pat’s golden earrings distract Kezia from her grief over the duck’s death, the duck’s pretty garnish conceals its â€Å"basted resignation. †[24] There is no such thing as a pure aesthetics, Mansfield seems to suggest, as each serene moment is implicated in some act of violence, brutality, or suppression. In â€Å"Prelude,† the good-natured Pat disrupts a pre-existing picturesque scene in which ducks â€Å"preen their dazzling breasts† amidst the pools and â€Å"bushes of yellow flowers and blackberries. †[25] Tellingly, the duck pond contains a bridge, a typical feature of the picturesque that reconciles or bridges the gap between different aspects of the scenery. In this way, the Burnell family’s cultivation of the land by planting and slaughtering ducks disrupts another underlying order. Their unquestioning appropriation of this pre-existing order mirrors the way colonial life disrupted and undermined the indigenous Maori life. Juxtaposing two picturesque scenes that interrupt and conflict with one another, Mansfield questions and unravels the conventional image of the picturesque. This interplay of various conflicting aesthetic orders constitutes part of Mansfield’s modernist style, in which aesthetic forms are ruptured, fragmented, and overturned. As the yard’s landscape bears traces of the Maori past, so the quiet harmony of the Burnells’ domesticity is underscored by deep, unspoken tensions and an animosity that hints at the uncanny. In fact, the only character who expresses any contentment is Stanley, who reflects, â€Å"By God, he was a perfect fool to feel as happy as this! †[26] Yet even he shudders upon entering his new driveway, as â€Å"a sort of panic overtook Burnell whenever he approached near home. †[27] Beneath this veneer of marital bliss and familial harmony, his wife Linda occasionally ignores her children and expresses hatred towards her husband and his aggressive sexuality: â€Å"there were times when he was frightening—really frightening. When she screamed at the top of her voice, ‘You are killing me. ’†[28] Meanwhile Stanley and Beryl, Linda’s sister, seem to have a flirtatious, indecent relationship: â€Å"Only last night when he was reading the paper her false self had stood beside him and leaned against his shoulder on purpose. Hadn’t she put her hand over his†¦ so that he should see how white her hand was beside his brown one. †[29] Dramatizing these dynamics, Mansfield suggests that a â€Å"happy† household outside of town is not as â€Å"dirt cheap† as Stanley boasts; it comes at the cost of servitude, sexual aggression, and a ravaged Maori landscape. [30] Through these layers, which Mansfield subtly strips off one at a time, she artfully exposes the way that an existing political and aesthetic order is not what it seems to be or how it has always been. Her short stories are fraught with their own tensions; while exposing the picturesque as false and absurd, she nevertheless draws on its conventional associations. Similarly, her subtle attempts to question colonial power are embedded in a seemingly idealized portrait of colonial life. Mansfield creates a seemingly beautiful or normal image, such as the happy family in â€Å"Prelude,† â€Å"Bliss,† or â€Å"Garden Party,† and then slowly challenges it through a subtle counter-narrative. In this way, her deployment of modernist techniques is less pronounced than that of James Joyce and her other modernist contemporaries. Just as she challenges aesthetic conventions, Mansfield unravels the reader’s ideas about her own stories by presenting a seemingly beautiful, transparent narrative that is haunted by tensions, lacunae, and opacity. Like the headless walking duck, these fictions of transparency and harmony quickly collapse upon closer inspection.

Strategic Management Accounting Essay Example for Free

Strategic Management Accounting Essay This is an individual assignment of 3,000 words (+/-10%), excluding appendices and bibliography. The word count MUST be shown on the front of the assignment. There are TWO questions to be answered in this assignment. Each question carries a maximum mark of 50%. All of the learning outcomes for the module are being assessed in this assignment. The learning outcomes are shown in the section entitled â€Å"Marking Guide†, which is further on in this document. The University’s policy on cheating collusion and plagiarism will be applied to this piece of work. You are required to produce a report which answers the following TWO questions: Question 1 XYZ Limited is a medium sized manufacturing business which makes and sells products to a range of industrial customers who use XYZ’s products in their own products. The working capital of XYZ is typical of a manufacturing organisation in that at any point in time they have cash, trade receivables, inventories of raw materials, work in progress and finished goods and trade payables. The Managing Director of XYZ Limited believes that all parts of the working capital cycle could be improved and has asked you to produce a report which discusses how each part of the working capital cycle could be improved and which critically evaluates the implications of the improvements on XYZ and other connected parties (for example trade receivables and trade payables). Question 2 Many organisations use transfer pricing when transferring products between different divisions of the same organisation. You are required to discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following four methods: 1) Market based transfer prices; 2) Full cost transfer prices; 3) Cost-plus a mark-up transfer prices; and 4) Negotiated transfer prices. Guidance: Students are encouraged to be inquisitive and innovative in their approach as to what should be included in this report. The following may be of some use in providing guidance as to what could possibly be included, although this is in no way meant to be prescriptive. The aim of the assignment is to help you understand how key areas of strategic management accounting are applied in practice. This will include investigating topics from throughout the course linked to the above issues. Some of the principles, concepts and models will be more relevant to your chosen approach than others and so it is likely that different students will formulate different approaches to the problems. This is normal it is not expected that all of the course content will be used in the analysis concentrate on that which you feel is most important. As part of your work you might find it helpful to briefly explore the underlying theory behind the key areas of investigation that you identify before applying them to report. With a total of 3,000 words you do not have a lot of room for long introductions so assume you are writing to a sophisticated audience who has a working knowledge of strategic management accounting and is well versed in business theory. Numerical example for illustrative purposes may be of use  but should not be the main thrust of the work. If used they should be to provide evidence to support your findings from your other analysis of position and policies. If other sources are used remember to reference everything! Please avoid relying too heavily on descriptive sections reproducing information available from course material or the set text. It is your own logical, evaluation of the situation, the interpretation of course material and presentation, with critical analysis, of a coherent strategic plan that will attract high marks. Marking Guide The learning outcomes for this module assessed by this piece of work are Knowledge 1. Critically evaluate a range of key strategic management accounting models and concepts. 2. Critically understand of specific analytical skills in key areas within management accounting at local and international level 3. Critically understand of the role and limitations of management accounting theory. Skills 4. Applied the key management accounting concepts and methodologies in order to contribute to successful decision making in an organisation. In light of this the assessment criteria in the grid below will be used when assessing your work.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Perception of Body Image Among Adolescents

Perception of Body Image Among Adolescents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of study Obesity is a state where the natural energy preserve, accumulate in the fatty tissue of humans and it is increased to a level where it is connect with certain health state or increased mortality (Sidik Rampal, 2009). Obesity is a vital public health problem especially in developed countries like United States where half of the adolescents are afflicted (Sidik Rampal). Today’s adolescents in most parts of the world emphasis on the value of physical attractiveness. They focus more on physical appearance. Hence, body image has become an issue among adolescents who strive fully to obtain the shape they wish for. Body image can be defined as a person’s perception, attitude and feeling about his or her body. There are two types of body image. Firstly, perceptual body image. According to (Lee, Yee, 2013), perceptual body image is associated to the precision of self- estimation from body size to actual size, meanwhile attitudinal body image is evaluated through four components: satisfaction (evaluation of the body), affect (feelings associated with the body), cognitions (investment in appearance, beliefs about the body), and behaviors (avoidance where the body will be exposed). Adolescence is a transitional stage and many changes take place at physiological and behavioral level. In the West, body image is perceived as an important issue as they emphasis more on elegant body. The concerns about body image have been critized that it is a female problem, however that fact is certainly not true anymore. (Wagner, 2008). Just like females, males also wish to have excellent body image of muscul ar men through media, athletics and magazines such as sport magazines. Stout Frame’s study (2004), as cited in Wagner (2008), points out people has a bold awareness of the consequences of body image on females compared to males. This awareness allows for a developed sensitivity towards females; however that sensitivity tends to neglect males emotions and thoughts. According to Ricciardelli, McCabe, Lillis, Thomas’s study (2006), as cited in Wagner (2008), the development of muscularity has arose over the last decade and the concern towards body image by males are of sudden interest. As we know, poor body image can affect a particular individual confidence to achieve their goals and subsequently impacts the happiness of that particular individual. Poor body image occurs due to unhealthy eating habits which include dietary supplements, binge- eating and so on. (Lee,Yee,2013). Due to this phenomenon, adolescents are struggling every single day in order to achieve the ideal body image they wanted. Malaysian adolescents are increasingly eating foods which are high in fat and calories thus leading inactive lives. According to Ismail Tan’s study (2004), as cited in Pon, Kandiah, Taib (2004), more adolescents are obese than ever before. Statement Problem In this new era of globalization, the flawless body image is affecting almost every males and females, peoples from different cultural background, different group of ages and many more. It is harmful to have body image dissatisfaction as it always leads to eating disorder and psychological distress. This is because they tend to use harmful weight- control behaviors such as skipping meals, consuming slimming pills or applying cream on their body as to slim down in order to have the same body image as the model characterized in media. Therefore it is important to take prevention action and intervention in order to inhibit and treat body image since this issue can affect both individuals and society. Last but not least, exploring this research problem also allows us to focus more on body image issue especially among adolescents in Malaysia. Significance of Study Body image is a very important issue to most of the adolescents especially when they grow into adulthood. Many studies that focused on the body image have been conducted over the decade. However, while body image has been the focus of study in many countries such as United States and Korea, it is not immensely studied in Malaysia. This is because the studies on body image are restricted in Malaysia (EssayUk, 2013). Therefore, the current research proposed additional information on the difference in the perception of body image among adolescents. More importantly, the difference in the perception of body image between adolescents and pre adolescence has not been studied (Wagner, 2008) as been cited in McCabe Ricciardelli (2006). Thus this study will focus on the perception of body image among ethnicity group, gender as well age group. It is important to know the differences in perception of body image in these groups because the result can produce understanding in order to further discussions and this can help on how the development could change perceptions on body image. Purpose of the study The purpose of the study is to evaluate on the differences in the perception of body image among Malaysian adolescents in the aspects of gender, age and ethnicity. The differences been evaluated between adolescents and pre adolescents, males and females and ethnicity which involved three races Chinese, Indian and Malays. Analyzing these differences could produce insight on creating with a better prevention and intervention program for adolescents who have problem with their body image. Research Question The research question has been presented below as follow: RQ 1: Is there any significance differences in the perception of body image between male and female. RQ 2: Is there any significance differences in the perception of body image between pre adolescence and adolescence. RQ 3: Is there any significance differences in the perception of body image among Malays, Chinese and Indian. Operational definitions Body Image. As mention earlier, body image can be defined as a person perception, attitude and feeling about his or her body. Body image plays an important role for both the genders male and female (Pon, Kandiah, Taib, 2004). When adolescents focus too much on their body image, they will skip their meals and this subsequently leads to eating disorder. Gender. Gender refers to the characteristics of people as males and females. Gender also bears a special mention which is the gender role (Santrock, 2011). Gender role describes on how females and males should think, act and feel. For example, should males be more dominant than females and should females be more emotional than males to others’ feelings? Although individuals are aware of their gender in early childhood, a new stage been added to gender with the onset of puberty and the sexual maturation. Race. It refers to all humans belonging to the group of Homo sapiens, biological differences of human due to the interactions between hereditary and environmental factors and the non-existence of homogenous population. Genetic element of a population was subject to change as a result of diverse factors, history of migration in the past prevented the used of domination of certain geographical area to serve as basis for race and no national, religious, linguistic, cultural group or economic class that constitutes a race (American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1996). The examples of dominant racial groups in this study consisted of Malay, Chinese, and Indian. This is the main races in Malaysia. Adolescent. According to Cardwell’s study (2003), as been cited in Jennifer,(2011), adolescence is known as the stage of development arise between puberty and adulthood. This is the stage where the adolescence entered imprecisely 10-12 years and ends at 18-21 years old. There is little view about this period of development by different psychologists. For example, Erik Erikson clarifies the period of adolescence through the Identity versus Identity Confusion stage in his psychological stages (Berk, 2009). Utar. Utar is known as University Tunku Abdul Rahman. Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), established under the UTAR Education Foundation, a not-for-profit organization. It was launched on 13 August 2002. UTAR is a dynamic University with four thriving Campuses- three in Klang Valley and one in Kampar, Perak. The Campuses in Klang Valley are located in Petaling Jaya, Kuala Lumpur, and Bandar Sungai Long. The largest campus is the Kampar campus. We are focusing adolescents from Perak Campus between eighteen to twenty four groups of ages. SMK Sentosa Kampar. SMK Sentosa Kampar is located at Taman University. This school is near to Utar hostels. They have students from form one to form five. It’s a multiracial school consists of Malays, Chinese and Indians. In our research, we are focusing on pre adolescents among these races and age range of thirteenth to fifteenth. Pre adolescence. Is a stage of human developmentfollowingearly childhoodand prior toadolescence.It subsequently ends with the beginning ofpuberty, but may also be defined as ending with the start of the teenage years.For example 10–13 years.It can also be defined as the period from 9–14 years.It can also distinguish middle childhood and preadolescence middle childhood from approximately 5–8 years, as opposed to the time children are generally considered to reach preadolescence (age 9–14 years). Reference Dittmar H. (2009). How do body perfect ideals in the media have a negative impact on body image and behavior?. Journal of Social Clinical Psychology, 28(1), pp. 1-8. Wagner,R.R. (2008).Body Image Perceptions of Adolescents Males, pp. 44 . Wan,P.L., Kandiah,M., Mohd Taib,M.N. (2004).Body Image Perception, Dietary Practices and Physical Activity of Overweight and Normal Weight Malaysian Females Adolescents,10(2), 137-147. Wong,L.M., Say,Y.H. (2013). Gender Differences in Body Image Perception among Northern Malaysian Tertiary Students. British Journal of Medicine Medical Research, 3(3), pp. 727-747. Sidik,S.M., Rampal,L. (2009). The Prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia. doi:10.1186/1447-056X-8-2 Yau,J.P. (2011).Perception of Body- Esteem Among Adolescents And Adults. Santrock, J.W. (2009). Life-span development (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill American Association of Physical Anthropologists.(1996). AAPA statement on biological aspects of race. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 101, 569-570. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.virginia.edu/woodson/courses /aas102%20%28spring%2001%29/articles/AAPA_race.pdf Berk, L.E. (2009). Child development (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Aware of Surroundings, Unaware of Self Essay --

In Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Tell Tale Heart, both protagonists are stricken with hypersensitivity. And ultimately, the acute senses of Roderick Usher from FHU and of the narrator from TTH prevent them from recognizing their own culpability. One would expect that through their acute awareness, Roderick Usher and the narrator would acquire a greater recognition of their own faults. Yet, strangely, both characters are unable to recognize their own culpability in the deaths of those around them. Once readers analyze the distracted behaviors of both characters as well as the parallel language of Poe, they will realize that Usher and the narrator accuse their peers of their own flaws because they are truly unaware of their own weaknesses. It becomes clear that both character’s hypersensitivities cause them to be overly distracted by their surroundings; and they are therefore too distracted to recognize their own faults. Ush er’s inability to perform basic human functions gives evidence to the magnitude with which his hypersensitivity disrupts his daily life. Similarly, the narrator in TTH’s obsession with the old man’s eye distracts him from thinking rationally. The narrator’s distracted state causes him to rationalize his crime, rather than recognizing his responsible for the murder. Ultimately, the hypersensitivity of both characters is a hindrance to their self-awareness, as it causes them to be in a perpetual state of distraction, and consequently both characters are unable to recognize responsibility for their own missteps. Before analyzing Poe’s stories, it is essential to recognize that both Usher and the Narrator suffer from hypersensitivity as demonstrated by their... ...eart!" (TTH). Usher and the narrator project different personas, Usher calls his friend â€Å"mad† while the narrator calls the police villains, yet they both exude their own personal flaws onto their counterparts. Usher’s rant attests to the confused state his mind was in. His inability to perceive his own madness is manifest when he declares his friend â€Å"madman†, rather than recognizing his own irrational behavior. Likewise, the narrator in TTH calls the police â€Å"villains†, at the moment when evidence of the extent of his own villainous is revealed. Although he willfully murders an old man, the narrator calls the police villains. The fact that both characters chose to project their flaws onto others, rather acknowledging their own faults gives testimony to the fact that both of Poe’s characters lacked the self awareness necessary to recognize their own shortcomings.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Russian Bank Scandal :: essays research papers

On October 6, 1999 the news hour with Jim Lehrer air a focus topic called â€Å"Following the Money†. This focus discussion dealt with the Russian Bank Scandal. This scandal deals with the transfer of about seven billions dollars out of the Bank of New York to companies with Russian associations. Robert O’Harrow , a banking expert for the Washington Post, believes that this scandal will become a serious policy issue. Base on his conclusion of this becoming a serious problem, one may see that there are problems in the banking structure of the United States. In fact there has to be a problem when seven billion dollars of transions are made to foreign soils and no one throws up a red flag. One may also conclude that this scandal reaches further that the banking structure. The question must be ask, â€Å"Where is all this money coming from†? This money could be money that was given by the International Monetary Fund to help rebuild the fallen Russian economy. That mo ney could now be being used to support criminal activities. As we see now this could be not only an international problem, but a domestic problem also. In today’s warfare the victor is left in rebuilding the fallen enemy. In this case the United States won the cold war and is now left to pay the bill for rebuilding Russia. The money that is being use comes directly from taxpayers. I believe that this is the reason why Mr. O’Harrow believes this will have a serious effect on policy decision. If the money that is supposed to help the Russian people is being for wrongdoing and the Russians are behind this, the scandal could have a serious effect on U.S. and Russian relations. Policy makers will be force to make changes in the methods it helps Russian during this time of need.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This scandal can be serious external triggering mechanism. With the scandal dealing largely with belief that international money is being used to support illegal activities could cause a major shift in decision making. At the moment the Intensity of this problem has not reach a level of alert. Mainly become most American do not see the potential backlash of this scandal. Once the facts come out and taxpayers are forced to tote the bill of paying back the lost funds then the matter will intensify. Also American can grow tired of given money to a country that does no use money for reasons the money was given to them.

Drinking Water Shortage and Water Conservation Essay -- Drinking Water

Human beings and ecological systems depend on water for survival (Kenneth). No human, animal or plant can survive for long without this essential commodity. For us humans, water is the driving engine of most of our economic and recreational activities. For instance, we depend on water for the production of energy in industries, transportation and outdoor recreation. Most of us equally depend on water for the provision of amenity and cultural values. Barlow and Clarke state that one cannot simply whisk away the crisis of fresh water we have in the world today (25). For us, fresh water is very essential for direct consumption. A huge majority of plants and animals also depend on fresh water for survival. Experts predict that if we do not take good care of our water resources, a huge water crisis is in the offing. Since life generally depends on water, it is imperative upon us to adopt solutions that will foster water conservation. Fresh water is a fixed natural resource (Gleick 3). This implies that the supply of fresh water we have in our hydrological cycle cannot go up. According to Barlow and Clarke, almost everything that is being done in the industrialized world has the potential of worsening the already existing fresh water crisis (206). By failing to conserve the water we use, we stand the risk of exhausting all the fresh water we depend on. Studies have already shown that we are quickly running out of fresh water supply world over. This is as a result of dwindling water levels in rivers, lakes and underground aquifers. The consequences of lack of fresh water for consumption are far reaching. For instance, there would be increased cases of waterborne diseases, decreased economic output, reduced agricultural productivity ... ...A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 3. Print. Jackson, S. Ron. Conserve Water, Drink Wine: Recollections of a Vinous Voyage of Discovery. New York: Routledge, 1997. 34. Print. Kenneth, Frederick. "America's Water Supply: Status and Prospects for the Future." U.S. Global Change Research Information Office. N.p., 11 Nov 2004. Web. 7 Apr 2015. . McCarthy, John. "The Problem of Fresh Water." Stanford University. N.p., 16 Jan. 1996. Web. 7 Apr 2015. . McGovern, Cheryl, and Bastian Robert. "Water Recycling and Reuse: The Environmental Benefits." United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Pacific Southwest, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 7 Apr 2015. .

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Conducting a management project Essay

Introduction The project, as requested by the manager; is to come up with the ways that my team can make more savings in the company for the company and for their own growth. This was because the company has not been making savings as they had targeted in the beginning of their business year and the savings are even less as compared to the other financial years yet the company still appears to be run under the same principals. The project is aimed at coming up with the research and recommendations for actions to be taken to manage and change the situation at the company and write a suitable report on this. The report written at the end of this research is going to benefit the company in generating more profits and the employees in self-development. It is also going to cultivate the culture of team work, innovation and entrepreneurial culture among the employees. Simply put, the benefits derived from project management increase in proportion to how well project management processes are used. A well -executed project will be completed on time, within its approved budget. A well-executed project will deliver higher product quality by managing the time to design and test the new product. It will provide great satisfaction to its team, and it will meet (or exceed) the customers’ expectations. In today’s business environment, it is critical that each project is run in the most efficient manner possible. For a project-oriented business, it is equally imperative that all projects are managed consistently, so that the benefits of well -executed projects extend corporate wide. The data that was used in this research was collected from the employees, customers and other stakeholders in the company. In preparation for the data collection, it is important to note that a diverse sample of the host company’s employees is required in order to address the breadth of the organizational structure and the full range of roles and responsibilities of participants. Input to the list of interview participants should be secured from the company sponsor, but it   is the assessor’s function to challenge the sample to ensure it meets the needs of a balanced assessment. The assessor should recognize a tendency of most sponsors to provide participants who already are highly rated and can demonstrate high performance.   The participant pool needs to include these participants, but not be limited to them. All divisions of the corporate structure should be represented, including functional and supporting departments. In selecting the interview sample, the assessor should consider the population density of the host company’s divisions, revenue generated by the divisions, project count or cost, or several other attributes. The total number of interviews to be conducted must be limited to a number that is appropriate for the size of the host company; it is organizational structure and the time period in which the study is required. These factors also drive the composition and size of the assessment team. The methods used in the collection of data and information include; use of questionnaires, observation, collecting samples, taking pictures, oral interviews, reading on recorded materials. The process was not that easy since it was hard to get some confidential information especially on the accounts records of the company and some of the employees felt like they were being spied on and did not give the precisely correct information. Also collecting information from my seniors proved to be a bit hard, but all in all the information and data required for the research was successfully corrected. In all the methods used face to face conversation proved to be the best way to obtain information. Some of it advantages include; A people -to-people tool within a people – oriented business Project management is ultimately a people -oriented business that requires personal interactions by and between all of the project team members. Face-to-face interviewing extends this principle to maturity assessments. Not only does the interview provide an interpersonal connection between the interviewer and the interview participant, it allows the interviewer to begin to assess the â€Å"people skills† of the personnel assigned to manage projects at the subject company. Interview participants who display grace and condor during the interview are more likely to carry those traits into their project teams, and are more likely to be open to the recommendations for change or improvement that will flow from the assessment study. Conversely, interview subjects who are less cooperative or more belligerent during the interviews are less likely to readily adopt new suggestions. Reveals actual, as well as intended behaviours conducting face-to-face interviews allows the interviewer/assessor to discover how the project team members at the subject company conduct their project business on a day-to-day basis. It is the only tool in the assessor’s toolbox that provides a means to evaluate the validity of several of the other tools, such as a review of policy manuals, or a project document search. Policy statements and procedures manuals provide guidance into how the subject company believes it should or wants to do work. By engaging project team members in open conversations, the interviewer can elicit comments that reveal, â€Å"What we really do† vs. â€Å"what we think we do† or â€Å"what we are supposed to do?† Additionally, by discussing different types of project reports with the people who write them, or use them, the assessor can gain insight into the value placed on each report. A simple document review, while important, can only indicate that a report exists, not that it is a valued tool, used by the project team to help control their projects, or by management to monitor progress. Provides opportunity to observe the corporate culture of the subject company. Corporate culture creates different patterns of behaviour at different companies that can have a significant impact on the outcomes of projects. The degree of openness to hearing and dealing with project issues, demonstrating appreciation for project successes, and the amount of information sharing between functional groups working on a project all contribute to the ultimate success of a project. All companies probably would respond affirmatively to possessing these traits; not all companies truly demonstrate these traits positively. During one-on-one conversations with working- level project team members, the assessor can learn how well the subject company responds to project information, or how often it â€Å"shoots the messenger. Difficulties associated with face-to-face interviews Need to establish credibility of assessors As an outsider, the assessment team will often encounter a â€Å"Who-are -you-and-why-should -I-give-you-any-of- my time?† reluctance to participate amongst the project management community at the subject company. This attitude can stem from two general sources: a general distrust of consultants and management’s motives for hiring them; or insufficient information about the assessors’ credentials. Neither of these difficulties is insurmountable, but neither can be ignored. And both can be addressed initially by a carefully worded introduction from the assessment’s sponsor within the host company. The sponsor for the assessment necessarily must possess sufficient status within his/her own organization to approve, or be able to solicit approval for the funding needed to conduct the assessment study. This status can be leveraged to convey the credentials of the assessment team to the host organization. The assessors must be introduced to the project management community in terms that readily establish the expertise and experience of the assessment team with this type of work. This also implies that the assessment team must be comprised of, or, at the least, be led by experienced, senior project managers, whose personal credentials will inspire confidence in the interview participants. Need to secure cooperation of interview participants. The assessor also needs to recognize that many people within the host company’s project management organization(s) will not view the assessment in an entirely positive light. Although the study is intended to be a continuous-improvement effort, it may still be perceived to stem from something being wrong, or judged to be not good enough. The outside assessor could be viewed as Management’s vigilante enforcer, coming in to identify and punish the under-achievers in project management. The assessor must defuse this impression, a task that can best be done if the assessor knows where the host company’s â€Å"sore spots† exist and why the host company has elected to conduct the assessment. Here again, the status of the assessment sponsor can be of great help in overcoming the reluctance of the interview participants. The sponsor’s introduction of the assessment team can be used to share the rationale for the study and remove much of the apprehension that could surround it. Need to prepare thoroughly. During each interview, it will be beneficial to allow conversation to flow in a freewheeling manner, rather than following a rigid, checklist question and answer. For this to work, the assessor/interviewer must be adequately prepared to conduct the interview. The assessor must know the assessment model in great detail, and be able to detect different levels of maturity for each knowledge area, regard less of whether or not the interview respondent uses catch phrases and key words from the model in his/her comments. It is the assessor’s responsibility to be able to take appropriate notes during the interview without disrupting the flow of the interview by having to shuffle papers or stumble from one topic to the next. The assessment team can help prepare for the interviews by constructing an easy -to-use interview form that guides them through the different areas, and offers reminders of key phrases to listen for. By creating the form, the team members will increase their familiarity with it, and find it more beneficial as a guide. Additionally, by constructing their own form, the assessment team members will afford themselves the opportunity to reacquaint themselves with the details of the assessment model. Compiling, synthesizing, and evaluating the information from all interviews. Specific data from individual interviews can be compiled if a set of common questions, with a short range of possible answers, is used for all interviews. In this circumstance, it is recommended that a set of standard analytical measures are identified prior to the interview phase, but it should not be assumed that these standard measures will adequately address the entire information content collected. The synthesis of the information is a process that requires the individual assessors to subjectively analyse the comments they heard and recorded during the interviews and identify common themes and touch-points along the maturity continuum. The assessors must then collaborate to yield consistent interpretation of the interview and confirm that the data gathered is appropriate for further evaluation. The assessors must collectively review the compiled data, interrogate it for trends and errors, and determine whether trends identified warrant further analysis. From the information gathered in data collection, many things can be realised; there is no transparent audit of the books of accounts in the company, the employees are taking bribes from the customers in return for unauthorised favours, the employees are very relaxed in their work and lack motivation, the board members are conduction the staffing process in a questionable manner, the employees were taking unnecessary and expensive trips at the expense of the company, the directors have very high unwarranted allowances, the taxes due to the government are not fully settled and the overall running of the firm is questionable. The things that need to be done urgently to make sure that the company is saved from being bankrupt and that it gives some profits are; there should be an immediate external audit of all the books of accounts in the firm, the recruitment and staffing in the firm should be done on the basis of qualification and therefore there should be a vetting process to eliminate all those who are there illegally, all the directors should be vetted and those found to be corrupt should be retrenched, the company should have a new board of directors, all the employees should sign a performance contract which should be followed strictly. Conclusions; the use of face-to-face interviews in Project Management Maturity Assessments has proven to contribute most and convey the project management actualities within any host organization. If executed correctly, the face-to- face interview will yield most insight into the host organization’s current maturity and point to pockets of excellence as well as areas requiring correction. Although it is not recommended that an assessment be conducted using only face-to-face interviews, it is strongly recommended that a face-to-face interview always be included in an assessment. References Dove, K. E. (2002).  Conducting a successful development services program: A comprehensive guide and resource. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Fernald Environmental Management Project (U.S.), United States., United States., United States., Lippitt, J. M., & Kolthoff, K. (1995).  Successful completion of a RCRA closure for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Washington, D.C: United States. Dept. of Energy. Thomsett, M. C. (2002).  The little black book of project management. New York: AMACOM. Tjahjana, L., Dwyer, P., & Habib, M. (2009).  The program management office advantage: A powerful and centralized way for organizations to manage projects. New York: American Management Association. Weir, J. R. (2009).  Conducting prescribed fires: A comprehensive manual. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. Wysocki, R. K., Beck, R., & Crane, D. B. (2000).  Effective project management. New York: Wiley.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Discuss the writers use of the supernatural Essay

The cardinal stories gibe each separate with the idea they go along with the reader, that people should respect the transcendental. In the f solely Arm, Thomas Hardy develops why we should reverence and respect the supernatural by dooming that by mocking Gertrude about her medicines and forbid curses, granger file cease up with a dead word of honor and a dead wife. He also mop uped up selling all his bring in because he could not endure staying in the village with everyone gossiping about him. as well by keeping the tempo of the stratum fast and building up to all the supernatural events keeps us tense.In the pixies Paw, police sergeant Major Morris warns the ashen family about the emergences of the worryes the scrape grants. However the tweed family do not build hear of the warning and take advantage of the paw and in doing so, they end up with their male child dead, Mrs. unobjectionable acting senselessly to hand over and bring back her son and Mr. Whi te having to wish his son back to the grave. The author is trying to tell us that if you do not respect the supernatural and take advantage of it, you lead feel its wrath. The ii stories ar alike in other ways. Both stories involve young innocent people suffering.In the Monkeys Paw Herbert died for his familys foolishness. Whilst in the shriveled Arm it was Rhodas and sodbuster Lodges son that was innocently direct to the gallows. Another similarity is that people that were egocentrism earlier on in the stories are punished in the end. Mr. White is self-seeking at the start of the Monkeys Paw and does not take Sergeant Major Morris advice and his son dies as a result. In the Withered Arm farmer Lodge is punished for his negligence shown to his son and his failure to accept the responsibility for his son. The consequence for this is the eventual hanging of his further son. excessively both stories have ironic expressions. In the Monkeys Paw the family wishes for two hundre d pounds and after the notes doesnt appear straight away, Herbert says Well I dont see the money, and I bet I never shall. The wish eventually does come true and the money is handed over to the family however only as an insurance payout for Herberts closing at the factory. So the irony is that Herbert will never actually see the money. In the Withered Arm the ironic twist is that when Gertrude was waiting for a hanging she got so desperate that she used to pray for a hanging O Lord, hang well-nigh guilty or innocent person soon It turned out her prayers were answered but the man seen to be in the treat turned out to be Farmer Lodges and Rhoda Brooks son but it seemed the male child was wrongfully charged with arson. At the hanging, Farmer Lodge and Rhoda were present in the advertise and once Gertrude had realized the hung man must be their son, she entered a sense of shock. This prove too much for her and she died. The irony is that she prayed for a man to be hung, so th at she could mend herself but the man in the end was her husbands son and this did the paired of curing her and the shock of it all stop her life.In conclusion, the writers use the supernatural to show the reader that if you ridicule the supernatural, it will reverberate on you and you will feel the consequences greatly. to a fault they try and make you scared of the supernatural by making the paranormal events ascertain to normal people. Meaning it could have been you instead.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Goa Tourism

Goa Tourism

Goa isnt about shores.Goa lies in Western Coast of India and is 594 Kms (by road) away from Mumbai city. Goa, for the purpose of revenue administration is divided into district viz. North and South Goa with headquarters at Panaji and Margao respectively. The entire State comprises 11 talukas.It is a tourist attraction site.and South Goa comprising five talukas with an area of 1966 sq. ilometers. In all there are 383 villages of which 233 are in North Goa district and 150 in South Goa district. As per the 2001 census, there are 44 towns of which 14 are Municipalities and remaining are census towns.

North Goa provides a number of accommodations.Goa is Indias richest state start with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the early Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National new Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.Panaji is the states capital, while Vasco da Gama is the largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter.Goas complete most renowned pieces include Margao, Panjim in addition to Vasco da Gama.It lies between the latitudes 14Â °53? 54? N and 15Â °40? 00? N and longitudes 73Â °40? 33? E and 74Â °20? 13? E. Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it f rom the Deccan Plateau. The highest important point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 meters (3,827 feet).Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi).

Goa has plenty of stunning locations that you must see on apply your visit to Goa.Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goas rivers is 253 km (157 mi).Goa has few more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs. Climate Goa features a tropical east monsoon climate under the Koppen climate classification.Our tour packages cover a wide selection of vacations.Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These several months are marked by nights of around 21 Â °C (68 Â °F) and days of around 28 Â °C (84 Â °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the many nights are a few degrees cooler. During March 2008 Goa was lashed with heavy rain and strong winds.

A Goa trips cost is based on the rainy season youre travelling.Goa has scheduled international connections to Doha, Dubai, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East and from the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands and Russia during the charter flight tourist season. Dabolim Airport is serviced by the following carriers: Air Arabia, Air India, Kingfisher Airlines, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Qatar Airways.Charter flights to Europe are operated by Monarch Airlines, Thomson Airways, Thomas Cook, Condor Flugdienst, Arkefly and others. Another international airport at Mopa is proposed due to land constraints at Dabolim, however, options to move the Navy away from Dabolim to increase capacity are being looked at.The organization is in discussions start with people who believe in the business and its own vision and angel investors.Goa has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17) runs along Indias west coast and links Goa to Mumbai in the north and Mangalore to the south. NH-4A day running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaum in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A) connects NH-66 to Mormugao important Port from Cortalim.

Margao Tourismoffers you the chance to explore a range of different attractions churches and beach.Another form of transportation in Goa is the motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally called â€Å"pilots†.These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. Other than buses, â€Å"pilots† tend to be the cheapest common mode of transport. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation department.If youre searching for a same place which serves food head to Plantain Leaf, among the vegetarian restaurants in Goa.Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goas hinterland. Panjim, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was see also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.Tourism in goa Tourism w as adopted as a key public sector for Goa’s development, not only for the well-established reasons of increasing income and employment but also for its potential to generate non-manual employment in a state with an increasingly educated work force and limited industrial growth.

Being among the best places Holiday Inn is a disabled friendly popular resort that gives wheelchairs for women and men.Over 90 percent of domestic tourists and over 99 percent of the international tourists frequent these areas.Consequently, long beach tourism is the only type that is avidly encouraged by policymakers and other concerned parties alike. Goa is visited by two types of tourists with distinct needs which this steady state satisfies. The first is the domestic tourists, who comprise 80 percent of all tourists.Yes, food is a celebration here.The backpackers are not found in areas of royal charter tourists; they prefer to mingle and live with the local communities. Whereas, the charter tourists tend to stay in the luxury starred hotels. Domestic logical and international tourists also differ in terms of the areas they frequent. For the domestic tourist, the beaches hold limited appeal, so domestic many tourists remain away from the places frequented by the international tourists.

It also cannot be cooked in the open.million of whom were from abroad. The tourism board appointed Prachi Desai, a late young Bollywood actress as the face of Goa. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the long winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate.Responsible tourism is what were promoting, states Samarth.In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style modern architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Goa also has a few museums, the two important only ones being Goa State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. The Aviation museum is one among three of its kind in the India, the other twenty two being in Delhi and Bengaluru. Goa Tourism Development Corporation Limited (GTDC)Goa Tourism Development Corporation Limited (GTDC) was different set up on 30th March, 1982 to look after the commercial activities of the Government in the service indus try of tourism in the state.

Travelling in old Goa is quite easy.The Board of Directors consists of 12 members. The shareholders consist of 7 members, all of whom are Government nominees. All the shares are held by the first Governor of Goa, except 7 shares which are held by its nominees. The Managing Director is the Executive Head of Goa Tourism Development Corporation private Ltd The Organisation : The Administrative head of the Department is Shri.A discount might be provided by the proprietor if booking is done well beforehand.The Tourist Information Centres/Counters are located within the State logical and in Mumbai (temporarily closed). The Zonal Officers are primarily responsible for monitoring the Registration of Tourist Trade under the Tourist Trade Act, 1982. The Director of Tourism: The direct current Director of Tourism is Shri. Nikhil Desai.

Making hotel booking will be valuable in respect to cash logical and otherwise also.Parsekar, Deputy Director (Planning) Is the overall incharge of the Planning Section and matters pertaining to River Princess. Shri. Arvind B. Khutkar (Revenue) Is the overall incharge of the Revenue Section.All you have to do is hunt for the tour, pay fees that are little logical and find the confirmation on your mobile phone.Shri. Jose Roque Gracias Flor, Asstt. Director (Trade) Shri. Rajesh A.

Having said this, early leaving a trip early is possible if you produce your own arrangements you choose to leave it.Ganesh R. Teli, Assistant Planning Officer (Planning) Shri. young Subhash K. Kavlekar, Assistant Planning Officer Shri.Activities of the Department : Policy Formulation. Development of Infrastructure. Goa Tourist Places (Protection and Maintainance) Act, 2001 old Goa Land (Prohibition of Construction) Act, 1995Administration of Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act. It is mandatory for all Hotels, Travel Agents, Tour Operators, Tourist Guides, Tourist Taxi Operators and Dealers of notified articles and other persons engaged in tourist activities to register themselves under the Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act, Registration is to be annually renewed.To create & project a customer friendly & professional image. To comply start with quality management systems. To periodically review established quality objectives. To continually improves and enhance effectiven ess of quality management systems.

Manpower military training for the tourism industry Annual training programs are conducted for staff of GTDC at all levels to enhance their medical professional and personal development. Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Grievances to be addressed to the Executive Head i. e.Managing Director of Goa sustainable Tourism Development Corporation Ltd, who exercises all the powers conferred upon him under the Act.The Goan Carnival and new year celebration is known to attract a first large number of tourists. Dance and music Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni, Fugdi, Corridinho, Mando, Dulpod and Fado. Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, devotional Bhajan and Kirtan. Many famous Indian Classical singers hail from Goa, including Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar.Coconut and desiccated coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spices and vinegar giving the food a unique flavour. non Goan food can be divided int o Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu cuisine with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics and cooking styles. Pork dishes such as Vindaloo, Xacuti, chorisa and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics.An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike.The state also has a rich wine culture. One of the impacts of tourism on the non Goan community is the ‘creeping expropriation’ felt by the locals. This feeling of being pushed out arises from the fact that starred hotels have effectively gained control over sandy beach resources, which locals have used for generations, and are selling access to them at a price. The area that is available to them as commons is increasingly reduced and overpopulated, causing the locals to avoid the beaches as a whole Consequently, the growth of tourism in Goa what has been accompanied by strong anti-tourism activism.

Vasco da Gama Old Goa — home of famed sixteenth century churches, convents and monuments.Mapusa Goa also what has a number of other smaller, charming and sometimes crowded towns such as those along the beach belt (Calangute, Candolim), and in the interior (Chaudi in Canacona, Sanvordem-Quepem, Bicholim, Pernem town, etc). Some of these are gateways to the nearby touristic areas. In addition, Goa has some nearly 350 villages, often scenic and each having a character of its own.Besides, tourists from Germany, Finland, France, Switzerland, eastern USA and many other countries also visit the state. The domestic tourist comes from all over India, as Goa is a very popular tourist’s destination.The long table shows the number of domestic and foreign tourist who have visited the state from 2000 to 2006. Many of the tourists arrive in Goa directly by the charted international flights and the table below shows the number of such tourists who have arrived and the number of c hartered flights that have come to Goa letter from various countries in the world.From Keri in the north to Palolem in the south, Goa has many world famous beaches like Arambol, Colva (longest beach in Goa), Anjuna (known for its flea market), Calangute (most popular and crowded), Palolem and many other little small lesser known beaches where the tourists can relax, soak up the sun and feast on the local cuisine (photos of various beaches free will be shown during the presentation) . Adventure Tourism: It has recently become very popular in India. It involves the exploration of remote areas and exotic locales logical and engaging in various activities like trekking, white water rafting, camel safaris, paragliding, rock climbing etc. Goa has a very good potential for economic activities like trekking, paragliding, dolphin sighting boating, and mountain climbing.Almost 60% of the Goan area is protected area. Around 1. 25 lakhs tourist visit these sanctuaries every year. Goa has a vari ety of flora and fauna which could be used to attract tourists to these places.

Foreigners from many developed countries prefer to come to Goa for a variety of treatment ranging from dental surgery, hearing problems, knee replacements to even heart surgery. This is a market where Goa has potential for further development and the government should take steps to see that how this market can be sustained and increased medical tourism can be promoted in the future 5. Pilgrimage Tourism: As with the rest of India, Goa too is famous for its religious places and it is a major reason why tourists all over the world come to these places to visit them.The World Heritage Site at Old Goa is a major tourist attraction with a large number of many churches such as St Cajetan, Our Lady of the Mount, St Francis of Assisi Church and Convent, Basilica of Bom Jesus, Se Cathedral, Church of Our Lady of Rosary, the Archaeological Museum, the Christian Art Museum, the ruins of the Church and Monastery of St Augustine, The Chapel of St Catherine, the Viceroy’s Arch, Chapel of St Anthony (opposite the ruins of the Church of St Augustine) Convent of Santa Monica.Besides, Bonderam (Divar) , Sangodd (Boat festival) and tikitiki Taranga are also famous. Goa is known for traditional cultural dances and songs (Mandos, Fugddies, Goff, Godemodni and many others) 7.Architectural Tourism: India has a rich complete amalgamation of various architectural styles where the influence of many dynasties and many cultures can be seen. Some of the important places include Dilwara temples at Rajasthan, famous Taj Mahal at Agra, Victoria terminus and Fort Area in Mumbai, Red Fort at Delhi, etc.The hinterlands of Goa, far from the noise of the city, are perfect for yoga and meditations. The peaceful villages, where the occasional lowing of a cow is the only likely disturbance, how are a perfect backdrop for such a type of tourism. Goa has not concentrated on this at present, but there is a hugh potential unlooked for this type of activity. 9.Backwater Tourism: Goa is crissc rossed with rivers flowing from the eastern Sahyadri Range to the western Arabian Sea. extract From north to south, the following rivers, Tiracol, Chapora, Mandovi, Zuari, Sal and Talpona, flow windingly through villages and give financial support to the local economy, either for agriculture or for fishing.Sight seeing can be done from the water instead of the road. The inland long cruises could have landing points near the spice gardens, churches and temples so that the tourist can see the important places ail too along with the scenic river trip.

The microlevel impact of tourism on the destination area immediately around it has been relatively less studied, if at all. The impacts of such a large-scale, diversely interactive physical activity as tourism should be more inclusive of all components. Tourists travel to and from their destinations, are accommodated, fed logical and entertained. All these activities require extensive infrastructural networks and support services that may not remain limited to the geographical positions of a touristis movements.Improving environmental management and planning. 3. Increasing the environmental awareness. 4.For the purpose of this discussion, coastal waters, bays, backwaters, creeks, tidal inlets, and estuaries are considered as components of the marine part of the coastal zone. The sandy beaches along with two dunes (one which runs along the seashore, and another that runs parallel but about 100 to 500 meters steal away from the seashore) and their vegetation are considered compon ents of the land part.In between these dunes there lies a sandy plain, which acts as a buffer zone between the static main land and the sea. The following impacts on the marine part of the coastal zone have been observed while surveying the ecosensitive coastal areas of Goa.†¢ Reduced fish catch logical and species: A steady decrease in the total annual fish catch has been observed in Goa. The catch has declined from 105. 44 thousand pure tones in 1993-94 to 101. 90 in 1994-95 and in 1995-96, to 87.

b) Loss of spawning grounds: Reasons for this could be mangrove deforestation, land reclamations and siltation. Short-term economic gains from the development of these areas is obviously preferred over the long-term benefits of the conservation of ecology. c) Introduction of anthropogenic material: Any disturbance at any step in the marine food web may inadvertently affect other species. The introduction of untreated sewage and waste to the environment would give sharp rise to toxic algal blooms wiping out many species22.Prime examples are Campal and Caranzalem near Panaji, Palolem, Agonda and many other places, where a considerable amount of construction activities have occurred . 2. Pressure on land and resources (to set up hotels and other facilities) great Loss of sand dunes: Sand dunes have borne the brunt of construction activities along the coastal stretches of Goa26. Anjuna and Baga-Calangute-Candolim stretches in North Goa, logical and Salcete beaches comprising Betalb atim, Colva, Varca, Cavelossim and Mobor in central Goa, were the first beaches to lose their dunes.Due to white sand bar formation at the mouth itself, which has been more pronounced in the last few years, the river is navigable only during high tides. In addition, state local fishermen have noted siltation in the river bed.All these observations suggest disturbances in the natural sediment load dispersion patterns in the River Talpona. 4.Both the last mentioned problems could be solved through improved enforcement of regulations and infrastructual improvements. Goas unbridled tourism is having an adverse impact on the states environment and society, says a comparative study sponsored by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Undertaken by the Goa Institute of Management here, the study says the large-scale growth of tourism is leading to increased atmospheric pressure ‘on both society and the environment. Preserving the national heritage and reducing environmental degra dation have become crucial issues for concern.

Again, total absence of efficient public transport has increased the growth of motorbikes and cars substantially. This in turn has aggravated environmental pollution. ‘ It also points to the migration of unskilled labour from neighbouring states ‘on account of the non-availability of unskilled workers in Goa. Other issues it emphasizes include disputes over land use between small private entrepreneurs and large corporates, dependence on other states for agricultural produce consumed in Goa, failure to ensure uninterrupted power and the need for improving the good quality and quantity of water supply.Growth of tourism might have also adversely affected the poor and downtrodden, especially during peak season when prices usually go up. A proper accurate assessment needs to be done, the study states. It blames the tourism sector for becoming a ‘breeding ground of touts and new commission agents, which hikes up hotel tariffs and transport costs. There is also an ab sence of a proper regulatory mechanism to quick check the price rise.It is estimated that tourism contributes to around 13. 7 percent of Net State Domestic Product; 7 percent of employment and 7 percent to state tax revenues.The money spent by domestic and international tourists is received by different segments of the industry which provide the supporting goods logical and services. Tourist receipts can be classified into five categories: accommodation and food, shopping, internal travel, entertainment and miscellaneous items.Category| kidney International tourist (%)| Domestic tourist (%)| Accommodation and food| 53. 95| 58. 20| Shopping| 24. 84| 26.

80| Miscellaneous expenses| 4. 97| 2. 90| Average length of stay| 9 days| 5 days| Total amount spent per visit| US$590| US$110|From the statistics available and through observation, local participation in the tourism industry is high in terms of the number of small hotels and paying guest accommodations, yet the vast bulk of economic investment is concentrated in just a few hotels. Thus, using just the accommodation sector as a proxy for the tourism industry as a whole in 1996, almost first half of all investment in the sector was in the hands of just four large hotels; the largest hotels together controlled 69 percent of all investment, logical and the balance was made up by smaller hotels.Often large tourism development projects require the displacement of some of the original inhabitants of the area. Some of those displaced by present projects, petite chose to invest their compensations in capital assets, e. g. , taxis, and have become to a degree upwardly mobile in an econo mic sense.Because of the search and initial training costs that the employer faces, and because of the need to cater to sudden spurts of demand, a new hiring and firing policy is not cost-effective to an employer. The first reaction of employers is to keep labor, but reduce the work hours, a situation akin to holding inventories of labor in excess of demand.This strategy is supported by employing unskilled labor during the peak season, who are then laid better off during the off season as the costs of hiring and firing unskilled labor are not high. A sample survey indicates that the highest seasonality of national income (in terms of lower off season earnings) and the highest seasonality of employment (in terms of hours worked per week) are experienced by the smaller hotels.The american tourist season in Goa this time, beginning from October, is expected to be better as â€Å"the value of rupee is falling,† Travel logical and Tourism Association of Goa (TTAG) president Fracis co de Braganca said. Europeans find Goa a cheaper destination and naturally they will fly here,† he said, adding that, however, the situation is not same for the UK travellers, whose own economy is in crisis. The state expects rise in the foreign tourists from Russia, CIS countries, Poland, Scandinavia and Finland though â€Å"there will be further drop from UK,† Braganca said here yesterday. But, overall TTAG expects a rise in the number of tourists owing to the sluggish rupee versus dollar.

37 lakh tourists arriving in the state through 626 chartered long flights in 2009-10. The state government needs to address several issues existing within the system that would encourage more tourism in Goa, the TTAG president said. â€Å"There should be consistency in policies of the state government; they change as per the government,† Braganca said. Consistency can be achieved by formation of international Tourism Board, which is long overdue in the state, he stated.Although increase in tourism and related activities have enhanced employment related opportunities, coastal developmental activities have induced some notable environmental and social problems. The impact gets worsen as a result of related anthropogenic activities that follows such a coastal tourism as a result Goas coastal scenario is fast changing. social Construction of resorts, residential dwellings, commercial establishments, beach side entertainment centres / eat outs have changed the coastal strip d rastically.Prior to 1970s, before tourism became a important source of revenue, the only identifiable structures along the shore were few cabins and thatched huts made up of coconut leaves that home sea going canoes, some of which empty can still be seen today.Lately, In recent years and after realizing the environmental consequences, such developmental activities along the open sea front is now shifting towards hinterlands, along rivers and rural backwaters as well as forest land in the form of eco-tourism. -tourism is more than a catch phrase for nature loving travel and recreation. Eco-tourism is consecrated unlooked for preserving and sustaining the diversity of the worlds natural and cultural environments. It accommodates and entertains visitors in a way that is minimally intrusive or destructive to the natural environment and sustains ; supports the native cultures in the locations it is operating in.Saving the environment around you and preserving the natural luxuries and for est life, thats what eco-tourism is all about.Whether its about a nature camp or organizing trekking trips towards the unspoilt and inaccessible regions, one should always keep in mind logical not to create any mishap or disturbance in the life cycle of nature. Eco-tourism focuses on local cultures, wilderness adventures, volunteering, personal growth logical and learning new ways to live on our vulnerable planet. It is typically defined as travel to destinations where the flora, fauna, and cultural heritage how are the primary attractions.

Many professionals have been involved in formulating and developing eco-tourism policies. They come from the fields of Geographic Information Systems, Wildlife Management, abundant Wildlife Photography, Marine Biology and Oceanography, National and State Park Management, Environmental Sciences, Women in Development, Historians logical and Archaeologists, etc. Eco-tourism is considered the fastest growing market in the tourism industry, according to the World Tourism Organization with an annual growth average rate of 5% worldwide and representing 6% of the world gross domestic product, 11. % of all consumer spending – not a market to be taken lightly.The oceans how are not behind in any manner as well. The vast and deep expanse of water provide tremendous opportunity for adventure sports in form of diving and snorkelling. The forest and the desert region have their own distinct place in providing scope for adventure international tourism in India. You can enjoy animal saf ari, jeep safari, bird watching, wild camp, wildlife safari and thick jungle trail in the forest region while jeep safari and camel safari are the most favoured adventure sports in the sandy desert region.Sustainable tourism thus attempts to make minimal impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income and employment unlooked for locals, as well as to promote the conservation of local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism which is both ecologically and culturally sensitive.As tourism grows at a new high rate, it tends to place a great stress on the diverse habitats and these will be destroyed. Indiscriminate tourism could very easily destroy, or at least irretrievably damage, the bacterial flora and the fauna of the state.The stake holders in sustainable tourism i. e.Community-based management, nongovernmental organizations, tourists and locals all should be trained to see that the fragile Goan ecosystem does not suffer as a result of excessive tourism. Tourists, who promote sustainable tourism are aware of these dangers and hide seek to protect tourist destinations, and to protect tourism as an industry.