Thursday, November 28, 2019

Tom Buchanan And Arrogance Essays - The Great Gatsby

Tom Buchanan And Arrogance The 1920's, ten years of thriving life in America. People living the good life and people living in the slumps. East Egg, the prominent community of the old rich. People who have known money all their lives. West Egg, the up and coming community of the newly rich. Manhattan, the city of life. The Valley of Ashes, separating the Eggs from the city. Symbolizing the poor. An aftermath of the industrial revolution. Four regions making up Long Island. In between them, the Long Island Sound. A stretch of water cutting through the land, separating the East from the West. All peoples living inside having the same American dream. All wanting to become successful and well loved, but most of all having money was a top priority for all of them. In F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, the character Tom Buchanan believes that just because he has lots of money, it enables him to look down on others as inferior. Tom Buchanan is married to Daisy Baker, cousin of Nick Carraway. In his first meeting with Nick, who he knew from collage at New Haven, Nick sees Tom's arrogance. To Nick, it seems that Tom uses his money mostly as an excuse to make himself seem higher than other people around him. Even to Nick. He applies this opinion of himself on many occasions, maybe not directly, but non the less his subliminal point gets across. Like saying ?just because I'm stronger and more of a man than you are?(pg.11) implies that his arrogance is there. To Tom, his money justifies his actions towards others no matter what they are. He believes that his money lets him justify his racial slurs. His biggest prejudice is that the white race is superior and this is evident when he tells Nick of the book, The Rise of the Coloured Empires. Tom's ?idea is that if they don't look out, the white race will be utterly submerged?(pg. 17). The reason he can say these things, he feels, is that because he is so rich nobody can touch him. Even with people closest to him. Such as Daisy, his wife. Even with her, he feels that he can get away with anything and insult her with his arrogance. Take his relationship with Myrtle. Right under Daisy's nose he has the audacity cheat on her. He even takes Nick to go see Myrtle. ?We're getting off!' he insisted ?I want you to meet my girl.?(pg. 28) He said this to Nick. Nick, Daisy's second cousin once removed. He also finds the time to disrespect Myrtle when she mentions Daisy. By yelling at her and even beating her. He make ?a short deft movement and broke her nose with his open hand.?(pg. 41) By doing this, he shows that looks down on even Myrtle and Daisy. When things are the worst for him, Tom Buchanan runs to his money and hides behind it. Same with Daisy. ?They were careless people, Tom and Daisy- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever kept them together.?(pg. 184) It was their money that kept them together. They used their money as shields. Used it also as an excuse and a reason to look down on others.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Hero Diary Entry Essays

The Hero Diary Entry Essays The Hero Diary Entry Paper The Hero Diary Entry Paper The old woman suddenly started to shed tears because she noticed that I was going to inform her about his sons death and I didnt know what to do so I decided to continue my well prepared speech louder than I was telling it before. But her weeping also got louder and with a higher intensity. I finally decided to stop but I didnt have enough bravery and confidence with her to get nearer and say that I was very sorry so I got up. She didnt even notice I was walking towards the door but when I opened it she stopped crying. I looked towards her and I noticed she was whispering something very softly with her neck bent. I stayed at the door mat until she said directly to me that she wanted me to stay and tell her about the last time I was with Jack and what he told me about her. I stood quietly besides her and she asked me if all that I had said was true. The problem in my mind started again because I wasnt brave enough to tell the truth about the cowardly attitude of her son. I gave her Jacks badge and the uniform he used in war. She smiled directly to me but I felt bad about myself because I knew that telling the truth would affect her feelings a lot. I stayed with her just a little longer because my real work was in the front line and when I went out the weather was much colder and sad; just the same as the womans feelings. There are a lot of these situations in war daily but this was an exceptional case which I am sure I will remember all my life. Im so sure because every night in my dreams since that day, I can see the old lady in her living room, in the same couch I was sitting when I went there, crying for her son because she was proud of him, because he died for her and for her country.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Financial reporting problem Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Financial reporting problem - Assignment Example If the individual components of Total Current Liabilities are taken into account, it can be noticed that short term borrowing has been reduced to nil in 2011 which $26 last year. Accounts payable have increased by $597 in the current year. There was no current portion of long-term debt last year however this year the amount in respect of this account has jumped to $900. Considerable amount of increase can also be observed in respect of other current liabilities which include Accrued Salaries and Benefits by $187, Accrued sales and other taxes by $13, other current liabilities by $212 and, Deferred membership fees by $869. On a concluding note, it can be analyzed that the increase in the Total Current Liabilities by around 20% is a heavy increase. The company is advised to ensure that the current liabilities should be kept under the range of 10%, otherwise the company may be pushed into sever working capital

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Case10 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Case10 - Assignment Example Various marketing concepts such as the 4 P’s i.e. pricing, products, place and promotion shall be discussed in this report: It shall focus on how these concepts are presented in the article and how other external sources dwell with this issue. Consequently, the analysis shall focus on provision of a conclusion that basically describes the writer’s understanding of the lessons learned from the article as well as other external sources that delve on issues ascribed to the information indicated in the article. Additionally, the conclusion section will explicate various recommendations; specifically indicating way forward on challenges faced in marketing activities. The article begins by describing a scenario of a certain client, Mr. Richard Garber relates with car higher company, Hertz Car Hire Company. He is described as a loyal customer to the company for over a long period of time. However, he is currently re-thinking on whether to divert his loyalty to another company owing to the current challenges he is facing with Hertz. In addition, the article provides various reasons why the company is currently experiencing challenges with its clients. It asserts that many companies are currently facing operational challenges due to the economic recession that has affected many large business enterprises; hence reducing their overall level of profitability. It is apparent that the article is an economic situational analysis; providing various issues that may affect the overall performance of companies for instance: In the article, economic recession that has affected the success of many companies, is identified as the reason that has affected the relationship between Hertz Company and Mr. Garber. The article attributes this issue to the fact that the Hertz Company has laid-off many of its workers even those who facilitate

Monday, November 18, 2019

Globalization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Globalization - Research Paper Example Therefore, the paper will focus on developing an argument, which is supporting globalization and against it, through identifying both advantages and disadvantages. Arguments Supporting Globalization One of the benefits related to globalization is the reduction of the cultural barriers in order to increase the effects of the global village, hence enhancing the development and different nations across the world (Held & McGrew, 2000; Crafts, 2004). Therefore, through breaking the cultural barriers, numerous nations are able to adapt to the global market and behave in a similar way with the rest of the world (Gilpin, 2000). In this case, globalization facilitates enlargement of the global market, since many nations are able to join the market at their ease. Moreover, it also creates consistency in brand image, via a process of choosing to market products or commercial operations in the global market (Germaine, 2000). The other merit of globalization relates to the new means of transport and techniques of communication that facilitates participation of customers in immediate information level of globalization (Held, McGrew, Goldblatt & Perraton, 1999). In fact, this stage of globalization is also contributing to people’s participation in international trade form anywhere in the world, hence leading to a direct influence on the world economy, which is higher than the beginning of the century (Perraton, 2001; Mussa, 2000). Moreover, the level of political and economic globalization is associated with the process of denationalization of the market, politics and legal system, thus allowing the understanding of core sense of globalization, which relates to economics (Woods, 2000; Baylis & Steve, 1997). The other advantage of globalization relates to improvement in the political status of various countries, due to the creation of opportunities for governments to compare the leadership skills with those of the other nations, or imitate the unique skills (Went, 2000) . It also facilitates delocalization of businesses and activities, thus enabling the improvement of the performance. On the other hand, globalization contributes to spread of technology form one nation to the other leading to enhancement in activities of the less developed countries (Hirst & Thompson, 1999). Therefore, globalization enables nations to compare the activities and positive moves in their competitors, in areas related to adverse technological skills with an aim of improving their performance (Lechner & Boli, 2000). Arguments against Globalization Globalization has been associated with negative effects in the development of nations across the world, whereby the economic crisis affecting a country like America affects other countries (Mohammadi, 2000; Clark, 1997; Scott, 1997). This is due to changes in the process in the world since it becomes a large market; hence, a disruption on the economic status of one country, especially the most influential ones as America affect s the other countries that have connections in their economic activities (Rupert, 2000; Jones, 1995). On the other hand, globalization has also contributed to an increased flow of skilled and non-skilled labor for the developed nations such as America, since the corporate in these nations seek out for cheap labor, thus causing a rise in the level of unemployment (Scheve & Slaughter, 2001). Globalization also

Friday, November 15, 2019

Impact of Advertising of Toilet Soaps

Impact of Advertising of Toilet Soaps Rationale of Study 70 % of India Population Lives in 627000 Villages in rural Areas.90% of the Rural Population is concentrated in villages with a Population of less than 2000, with agriculture being the main Business. This shows the Potential India and has to bring the much -needed Volume Driven Growth. The Saturation limit in the Urban Market has reached and now marketers are moving Rural. They are following go GO RURAL Strategy. There is a increase in Income of Rural People, growth in rural demand is expected to increase double fold every Quarter because consumers are moving up towards premium products. However, in the recent past there has not been much change in the volume of premium soaps in proportion to economy soaps, because increase in prices has led some consumers to look for cheaper substitutes. The Maximum Advertisement is Personal Care Category comes from Toiletry Soaps .It will be also good to understand some ground realities about rural marketing before marketers venture into rural markets with their brands. Like in urban areas, People who watch TV in rural areas, also influence the choice of many personal care products. INTRODUCTION Background of study The toilet soaps market is estimated at 530,000 TPA including small imports. Hindustan UniLever is, of course, the market leader. The market is littered over with several, leading national and global brands and a large number of small brands, which have limited markets. The popular Brands in the rural areas include Lifebuoy, Lux, Cinthol, Liril, and Nirma, Santoor. Toilet soaps, despite their divergent brands, are not well differentiated by the consumers. It is, therefore, not clear if it is the brand loyalty or experimentation lured by high volume media campaign, which sustain them. A consequence is that the market is fragmented. It is obvious that this must lead to a highly competitive market. Toilet soap, once only an urban phenomenon, has now penetrated practically all areas including remote rural areas. The incremental demand flows from population increase and rise in usage norm impacted as it is by a greater concern for hygiene. Increased sales revenues would also expand from up gradation of quality or per unit value. As the market is constituted now, it can be divided into four price segments: premium, popular, discount and economy soaps. Premium soaps are estimated to have a market volume of about 80,000 tonnes. This translates into a share of about 14 to 15%. However, by value it is as much as 30%. Market Segmentation Soaps are also categorized into mens soaps, ladies soaps and common soaps. There are a few specialty soaps as transparent Glycerin soaps, sandal soaps, specially flavored soaps, medicated soaps and baby soaps. Specialty soaps are high valued but enjoy only a small share of the market in value terms. The market is growing at 7% a year. This means that the incremental demand generation is 5% over and above the population growth. With increasing awareness of hygienic standards, the market could grow at a rate higher than 8% annually. Interestingly, 60% of the market is now sourced from the rural sector. This means that the variance between the two segments is not very large. Since upper-end market focus is the urban areas, margins come from the urban sector. Factors affecting buying behavior Price is the most important factor which effects the buying behavior of consumer, by which a consumer goes for the various segment of soap like premium, popular, sub-popular and carbolic which are basically decided by the cost factor and fat content in the soap. The buying frequency is either monthly that is done by the families or in case of bachelors it is more than once in a month. The occasions when premium soaps are purchased are usually when there are festivals and ceremonies. Moti Soaps are usually presented during festivals and occasions for presents and gifts. The promotional techniques help to boost sales. Various tactics like the price offs, buy one get two free, free gifts and other schemes help boost sales in short run and also help in clearing stocks. One of the important points a soap marketer should note is that the soaps are usually purchased by women in urban areas as most of the day to day consumption of personal care products are made by women. A point to note is that women use more personal care product than men do and hence premium soaps are mostly targeted at them. Men normally make purchase decisions in rural areas. Hence the marketer has to adopt different strategy for such a market. Benefits sought by various customers from various brands are Beauty Lux Freshness Liril, Cinthol Natural Medimix, Margo Baby Johnson Johnson, Doy Cream Dove, Doy Care (moisturizing) Medicated Dettol, Savlon, Glycerin Pears, Emami Penetration One of the factors, which affect the demand of soaps, is the penetration, which the products have in market. In case of soaps this has not been a major issue as the penetration in the rural area is as high as 97% and that for urban area is around 99%. Thus the approximately the penetration is around 99% for overall India. Hindustan UniLever is the largest contributor to the toilet soaps market of India. It enjoys almost a two-thirds share, with the second ranked Nirma Soaps placed at a distantly low share of 16.8%. Lux and Lifebuoy have held the sway of the market for almost fifty years. While the former brand remained the preserve of the high-end rich consumers, Lifebuoy ruled the roost with health-conscious users as a hygienic soap. The products underwent up-gradations with the introduction of versions like International Lux and Lifebuoy Personal. In between came brands like Nirma Rose, Nirma Beauty Soap, Breeze, Caress, and LeSancy. In 1993 came Dove. Earlier, Liril made waves with its lemon touch and bathing acrobatics. At the medium and lower rungs, brands like Hamam, Moti, Jai, Rexona (third largest brand) were well supported by OK and later by OK NSD Bar. The brands have undergone a full foray of launches and relaunches, making each occasion to give a more vigorous thrust to the marketing effort. Quite a few of the brands have been acquired: Hamam from TOMCO and Baby Toilet soap from Johnson Johnson, for example. While Pears has dominated as high profile specialty soap, HUL undertook, in 1992, a project to manufacture the product for the world market at Khamgaon in Maharashtra. Commercial production commenced in 1993. To provide a sound base to its toilet soaps operations, HUL has also branched out into other toiletries like shampoos and related products like glycerin, fatty acids. Godrej Soaps had a disappointing experience in forging an alliance with Procter Gamble (PG). Infact PG is withdrawing itself from the premium soap segment like Camay. P G has now a fully-owned subsidiary in India and now it is concentrating more on personal care products. Godrej retained all soap brands and transferred detergent brands to PG in 1993. Godrej found it convenient to shed the detergent brands Ezee, Key, Biz and Trilo as they represented a losing portfolio. Godrej is promoting a number of brands, Cinthol, Ganga, Shikakai, Fairglow, No.1 and Crowning Glory, while it has others to bother about such as Vigil and Fresca. Cinthol ranks third and accounts for 60% of all Godrej Soaps brands. It is an old brand launched about five decades ago in early 1950s. New Cinthol Lime and Cologne gave it a new look in 1985. Two variants were introduced in 1989 placing an added emphasis on their brand of soaps. Its deodorant and complexion soap is styled as Cinthol Spice. Cinthol is perceived largely as a male soap, as Lux is a ladys soap. The company expects a very high growth for Cinthol in 1997-98. Ganga did well and a new version Doodh Ganga has been introduced. Ganga had notched up a 5% market share but declined to 2% later with sales at Rs 350 mn. Godrej wants to revive it. Godrej Soaps was giving a tough competition to Hindustan Lever. Crowning Glory was pitched for hair care. Even Nirma has achieved a significant penetration and has notched up an impressive 60,000 tonnes sale in just three years. Nirma Ltd has been putting up a backward integration plant to produce soda ash and linear alkyl benzene (LAB). Capacity utilization in the industry varies from as low as 50% to 80%. Godrej Soaps Limited (GSL) has been using its capacity by working for other producers. GSL makes Rexona and Dettol for Reckitt Colman of India and Johnsons Baby Soap for Hindustan UniLever (Johnson Johnson). And yet only half of its capacity of 71,000 tonnes is being used. Also companies like VVF Ltd. has state of the art technology oriented plants, which they mostly use for producing brands like Dettol, Nivea Creame soap and also internationally well know brands like Fa for other marketers. It seems Indians have sacrificed hygiene at the altar of thrift. If numbers are anything to go by, Indians do seem to be washing themselves, as well as their clothes, rather less. Data collated by industry certainly points to this rather unpleasant conclusion. The consumption of soaps and detergents has shrunk substantially with volumes declining by 11.5 per cent and consumption of detergents declining by 4.1 per cent in the year. The evidence of this decline in consumption is somewhat perplexing in a country with a growing population as the consumption of soap and detergents should logically be directly proportional to population growth. Soaps and detergents are at the back of the house and are not status products like TVs or refrigerators. Its possible that consumers may be economizing on their use or buying cheaper brands during a downturn, explains an official at a leading FMCG firm. One possible reason could be increased production in the small-scale sector. For instance, besides detergents sold as powders and bars, which is produced by organized players, a large quantum of detergents is sold in the form of laundry soaps, which are used for washing clothes. Production of laundry soaps are reserved for the small-scale sector and data is not readily available. There is also a large cottage industry producing cheap soap, used for personal wash, for which reliable numbers are not available. Another possible reason for the apparent decline in consumption could be the free samples of soap which have been handed out as part of incentive schemes, say industry sources. The quantum of such samples may not be picked up in the data, said the official. There is another whacky hypothesis. Many households earlier used soaps for twin purposes: for body wash as well as shampoo substitutes. However, successful sachet marketing in shampoo seems to have now penetrated this market, which has directly impacted the sales of soaps. A detailed analysis of the data shows that sale of premium soaps, the likes of HULs Lux or Godrejs Cinthol, declined by 13.1 per cent. But even the carbolic or discount soaps the likes of HULs Lifebuoy or Nirma saw volumes decline by 9.9 per cent. Even though the market has shown de-growth in toilet soaps segment, analyst say that it will grow at a meager rate of 3 to 4 per cent especially in the premium category, which was previously looking attractive. This can be attributed to factors like excessive dependent of Indian rural sector on monsoon, which can be uncertain. Also due to high excise duty prices have remained high enough to keep the huge middle class chunk away from this market. Thirdly 80% of the raw materials used in premium soap are imports, which attract high import duty. All this factors lead to increase in cost, which deters the players to provide value for money product to the middle class consumer. The price of the premium segment products is twice that of economy segment products. The economy and popular segments are 4/5ths of the entire soaps market. The penetration level of toilet soaps is 88.6%. However, the per capita consumption of soap in India is at 460 gms per annum, while in Brazil it is at 1,100 gms per annum. In India, soaps are available in five million retail stores, out of which, 3.75 million retail stores are in the rural areas. Therefore, availability of these products is not an issue. 70% of Indias population resides in the rural areas; hence around 50% of the soaps are sold in the rural markets. Growth With increase in disposable incomes, growth in rural demand is expected to increase because consumers are moving up towards premium products. However, in the recent past there has not been much change in the volume of premium soaps in proportion to economy soaps, because increase in prices has led some consumers to look for cheaper substitutes. The major players in personal wash (Soap) market are HUL, Nirma and Godrej REVIEW OF LITERATURE Publised by WPP COMPANY ( OGLIVY INDIA ) Developing markets such as India are an important source of growth for Unilever. The company is adopting unique marketing approaches to increase consumption of its products in these regions, positioning itself as an ethical brand that benefits wider society. Unilevers Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetna (Health Awakening) campaign is one example. This educates people on the importance of health and hygiene in preventing diarrhea and encourages them to adopt a simple hand-washing regime using soap. Swasthya Chetna is Indias largest ever rural health and hygiene education program. HUL have done aggressive advertising strategies to promote its Swasthya Chetna Programme Lifebuoy health officers visited 43,000 Indian villages and schools over five years where they used product demonstrations, interactive visuals, competitions and drama workshops to spread the health and hygiene message. The program has reached 110 million rural Indians since it began in 2002. Awareness of germs has increased by 30% and soap use has increased among 79% of parents and among 93% of children in the areas targeted. Soap consumption has increased by 15%. The campaign received recognition for its innovation and effectiveness, winning Silver in the Rural Marketing Advertisers Association of India awards in 2006, and the grand prize at the Asian CSR awards 2007. It was also recognized by the Indian government who created a special edition postal cover dedicated to the campaign. .[1] Publised in by Sawmya roy on August 18,2009 Godrej No. 1. is a hit though, from the stables of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. It claimed the number three spot in the toilet soap category for the quarter ended June 2009, eating into market leader Hindustan Unilevers (HUL) market share. It is now the third highest selling soap behind Lifebuoy and Lux. Lifebuoy and Lux, both HUL products and market leaders, saw market share decline by almost 2 percent to 16 and 15.4 Santoor also stakes claim to the number three spot. The ACNielsen Repot shows Godrej No. 1 in the number three slot, but only in terms of volume. Since it is a discount brand, it falls to number five in terms of value. Santoor and Dettol take the third and fourth spots on the Neilson Report Table. Toilet-soaps have emerged as the most advertised product in the personal care category in the first half of 2009, leaving behind summer skewed category favorites like talcum powders and prickly heat powders/lotions by a considerable margin. The top 10 list saw three of the brands from toilet soaps Lifebuoy Swasth, Chetna 07, Godrej No.1 Papaya Lotus and Lux Pink Soap. The change in trend is because traditional summer categories like talcum powder has reached stagnation due to consumers shift towards other categories like the deodorants. The shift from talcum powders to toilet soaps during summers is also because soaps too are increasingly being positioned as a value-added, cosmetic category which could ensure lasting fragrance, smooth skin and even fairness in some cases. According to industry estimates, the soap segment is one of the biggest FMCG categories in India with bathing and toilet soaps constituting around 30 per cent of the soap market.. Hindustan Unilever (HUL) is the biggest advertiser in the personal care category across print and television media. Toilet Soaps had a 1/4th share in the entire personal care advertising in print, while the category led the advertising with 30 per cent share on TV. HUL advertised with 42 brands in which Lux soap, Fair Lovely Multivitamin and Pepsodent Complete Germi Check had the maximum share. .[2] Publised in by Sawmya roy on August 18,2009 Godrej No. 1 has gained market share but it is more due to HULs bad judgments in assessing consumer sentiment. No. 1s growth figures have come from rural areas. During the peak of the slowdown last year, rural buying was largely unaffected even as urban figures dropped. But rural areas are sensitive to price changes. Prices of palm oil, a key ingredient in soap, started rising and HUL imposed steep price hikes. Godrej waited and increased prices slowly and at a much lower rate than HUL. They drove home the advantage that they had been handed. Once consumers started trying out Godrej No. 1, the brand managers used a combination of clear mass market, rural positioning and a rapid increase in distribution to cement the gains. The company sharply increased its rural distribution network. No. 1 ads now appear only on Doordarshan because it is cheaper and ubiquitous in the areas where they want to be. Spending only on Doordarshan also means that Godrej No. 1s ad to sales ratio is just 1 percent compared to the industry figure of around 8 to 10 percent. No. 1 was traditionally popular in Punjab and Haryana but not known in other states. It has doubled distribution in Uttar Pradesh in the last two years to compete with large competitors. The Godrej group re-branding campaign also helped. But No. 1 is not alone in its success. Wipro has also worked with micro finance institutions to promote its soaps in rural areas. .[3} Published: June 03, 2010 in India [emailprotected] In Indian villages, though, a marriage in the family means shopping not just for the trousers and home appliances it also means buying hair dye, henna and bigger bars of soap. For many households in rural India, what the rest of the world considers everyday products are luxuries to be indulged in once in a while. Consumer products companies in India are working overtime to change that thinking. Godrej Consumer Products Ltd (GCPL), though, ensuring its products fly off village store shelves has become the governing ambition. In April 2009, Godrej initiated the ambitious Project Dharti (Dharti is the Hindi word for Earth) to increase the companys focus on rural India. The programs goals are: to generate sales in rural India that overtake within a year the contribution of the countrys urban areas; that rural sales growth will outstrip overall sales increases; and that GCPLs distribution network within three years will have expanded to 50,000 villages and 8,000 small towns across India. GCPL is the second largest bath soap manufacturer in India, after Hindustan Unilever. The company claims its Godrej No.1 brand is the best-selling Grade 1; toilet soaps ,have a higher fat content than bathing bars) and the market leader across north India. Rural sales contribution to total revenue has increased to 42%, and GCPL has gained a percentage point each in market share of hair color and soaps. Godrej increased its Market Share with the Advertising in Rural Areas with their Discount Schemes. . GCPL always have been mainly focusing on Customize product and communication; build recognition through demonstration; build word of mouth for the brand; and build access through innovation and a cost-effective distribution channel. Conventional wisdom says rural consumers need customized products designed to suit their needs, their conditions and their wallets. But they also want products similar to those available in urban markets, so many believe that small compromises in product quality are acceptable. Rural consumers want the same product as urban shoppers. If you compromise on quality to make it affordable now, they will shun your brand when their income levels increase. The solution lies in customizing the size of the offering, not the product itself. GCPL has done just that, introducing smaller packages of the same products, at price points rural consumers can afford. Smaller bars of soap, herbal henna packets for 10 cents, sachets of powder hair dye and talcum powder for 20 cents act as entry points for rural consumers, who return for larger packs when their budgets permit. Sales of consumer products in rural markets peak immediately after the harvest and during festivals and the wedding season (September through December), when many of Indias 600,000 villages are in a have-cash-will-spend mood. Company executives say the response to the smaller packages has been strong, especially in South India, where the smallest available size of GCPLs Cinthol soap retails at 50 cents. An 11-cent bar has been added to the portfolio. There was Aggressive advertising for their smaller pack Communication and promotion strategies also need to be tailored to suit rural customer needs. It starts with the media plan. For value brands like Godrej No.1, GCPL has stopped advertising on private cable and satellite channels, preferring the cheaper and more widely received government-owned television network, Doordarshan, as well as All-India Radio. In addition, it advertises on regional language TV channels and in local publications. It is more cost-effective to be on Doordarshan since the share of voice is higher,. The hair color brands and soap brand Cinthol also retain a more conventional media plan, including ads on cable television. The commercials that appear on regional TV channels and Doordarshan are quite different from those on cable television, keeping local sentiments in mind. For instance, visuals of people playing with their hair or running their fingers through their hair would be frowned upon in conservative villages, although its a common image in hair care product advertising across the country.. The rural consumer is just evolving from the economics of necessity to the economics of gratification. Unlike the urban consumer, he is largely a first-time user of several product categories, be it FMCG or durables, he adds. Regular below-the-line activity such as in-store demonstrations and stalls at village fairs and farmers meets are also forming part of GCPLs rural marketing strategy. Barbers as Brand Ambassadors GCPL is counting on word-of-mouth brand building for its Expert line of hair color products and Toiletry soaps . The company is reaching out to 50,000 barbers and salons in nine states, offering to engage them in a co-branding exercise. Under the program, the salons add the Expert tag to their names, with all fixtures including mirrors and chairs displaying the GCPL brand logo prominently. The salons will also be provided grooming kits including the hair dye, mixing bowl and brush, as well as other GCPL products such as talcum powder and shaving cream. Most people turn to their hairdressers for advice when they decide to color their hair. So it makes sense for us to influence the influencer, .[4] Publised in Times of India by Namrata Singh Rupali Mukherjee Demand for top-of-the- drawer FMCG products is no longer restricted to urban India. The rural consumer has emerged as an important cog in the sales growth of premium offerings. Clever pricing, rising aspirations and new marketing mantras are driving this trend. With rural consumers warming up to branded products, the urban-rural divide is fading away faster than one can imagine. There is now very little difference between the aspirations of rural consumers and their urban counterparts. Certain growth statistics have shattered the myth that the rural consumer is content with unbranded or mass-end products alone and gives a strong indication that rural market consumption has picked up and is accelerating faster than urban markets. This has led to their changing their consumption pattern. Dove shampoo, a premium-end product, reported a growth of over 100% in the rural market during January-October 2010 over the same period last year. In fact, Dove grew faster than its mid-priced cousin, Sunsilk shampoo, which reported a growth of 14% in rural India during the period. Although analysts explain that the high growth is due to a lower base and that actual sales number would be smaller given the recent introduction of the brand, one cannot overlook the fact that there is a demand for such products and marketers can no longer underestimate the aspirations of the rural consumer. Gone are the days when the rural consumer was content with using mustard oil and plain soap.Today,he/she is seeking special branded products for daily skin and healthcare needs. Rural consumers across income segments are showing a marked propensity towards spending on premium high-quality products, which are backed by strong brand values, For instance, take food products. Not only has the demand for cream biscuits gone up in rural markets, the sale of instant noodles, too,is growing nearly twice as fast in the rural market compared to the urban one. Whats more, one in every six rural buyer of hair dye now uses colours other than black something, which would have been dubbed indulgence a decade ago. Even seemingly urbane brands in categories like deodorants and fabric softeners are said to be growing much faster in rural India than urban. [5] RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine the relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research is conceptual structure within which research is conducted. It is way to systematically study and solve the research problems. Research purpose can be divided into three categories: Exploratory research: It is also termed as formulate research the main purpose of such research is to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights. Descriptive research: This portrays the particular characteristics of a particular individual situation or a group. Casual research: Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships. A close end questionnaire was constructed for the survey. A questionnaire comprising a set of questions was presented to respondents for their answers. Data Collection: PRIMARY DATA: The first-hand information bearing on any research is the one which has been collected by the researcher. The data here is collected through: A structured questionnaire SECONDARY DATA: The data which has already been collected, complied and presented earlier by any agency may be used for purpose of investigation. The data collected through: Various publications in form of annual reports, various papers and journals published from time to time. Statistical Tool After collection of data another work necessary for any data collector is to correctly analysis that data. So statistical tools helps us to correctly analysis the data. The statistical tool used here is the software SPSS version 16.0. Ordinal Scale: An ordinal scale not only categorizes the variables in such a way as to denote differences among the various categories, it also rank-orders the categories in some meaningful way. With any variable for which the categories are to be ordered according to some preference the ordinal scale would be used. The preference would be ranked and numbered 1, 2 and so on. Nominal Scale: A nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups. For example with respect to the variable of gender, respondents can be grouped into two categories male and female. These two groups can be assigned code numbers 1 and 2. These numbers serve as simple and convenient category labels with no intrinsic value, other than to assign respondents to one of two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive categories. Objectives of the Study: To find out the impact of advertising on Brand Performance. To know the consumer Perception of a brand after Advertising. Hypothesis Null Hypothesis: There is No significant impact of advertisement on Purchasing of toilet soaps in Rural India Alternative Hypothesis: There would be significant impact of advertisement on Purchasing of Toilet Soaps in Rural India. Research Design: The research is exploratory in nature. Explorative studies valuable means of finding out what is happening to seek new insights to ask questions and to access phenomenon in a new light. The study involves finding out impact of advertising on Brand Performance and the consumer Perception of a Brand after Advertising. Sampling Technique: Sample Size- Rural Consumers -150 Rural Retailers -50 Sampling Method- Random Sampling Method , Research Instrument Questionnaire Research Type -Exploratory Research The date was collected from filling of Questionnaires from Rural Customers and Retailers in the outskirts of Ghaziabad and Noida and the sampling Method used is Random Sampling Method. TESTS : CHI-SQUARE TEST : A chi-square test (also chi squared test or à Ã¢â‚¬ ¡2 test) is any statistical hypothesis testin which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-square distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough. Procedure: Set up the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and expected value. We compute the value of CHI- square by using the formula CHI-square = à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ à Ã¢â‚¬ ¡2=ÃŽÂ £ (( Oi- Ei)2/Ei) O- Observed value E- Expected value Degree of freedoms=(R-1)(C-1) Level of significance=5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: Research is based on the collection of data from both primary and secondary sources. There may be a possibility of biasness on the part of some respondents, but very much care has been taken to make this report unbiased. Some respondents might not give the correct information due to their lack of interest and shortage of time. Time constraint. All the information is based on primary and secondary data that has its own limitations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Analysis on Toilet Soap Industry in India There are various toilet soaps which are sold in the Rural Market but same stay for long time and some do not and the main reason for this that companies drop in their Advertising Efforts and but companies like HUL,Godrej,Nirma Have excelled in the Rural Market because of their continuous Marketing Efforts throughout the years . The Target market chosen by me was people in the rural areas and I used random sampling method and chose people from the age group of 18-45 yrs and went on with the Research. There were 14 set of questions Designed, 7 each for the consumers and the Retailers. Analysis Question 1 Interpretation: When it comes to the Rural Market of India, the most sold Soap is Lifebuoy, Godrej and Lux and the responses from the people is also the same, 28 Respondents

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Romanian Adoption :: Romania Adoption Adopted

Romanian Adoption Abstract During my research on Romanian Adoption, I first believed that the law had no relevance and was just a stupid law so that Romania could get into the European Union. However, during my research I saw that Romania did have the children at interest but the law was too extreme. The law has both upsides and downsides to it. The most effective and persuasive evidence that I have found is the letter from Emma Nicholson. This quote is pretty strong: â€Å"Adoption is the giving of a family to a child and not a child to a family.† This statement was made by the Stratsburg Court when they ruled in favor of the two Romanian girls who wished to stay in Romania but was adopted against their wishes. Even though I do not agree with Emma Nicholson completely, she is very persuasive and she makes very strong claims. Emma Nicholson does not live in Romania but she is very concerned about the children of Romania. Since she doesn’t live in Romania she doesn’t have too much concern for the country which makes her seem she is more for the children. I understand that Romania does not want to be a â€Å"baby producer† for other countries and I understand that European Union was threatening Romania about adoptions and I also understand that child trafficking is a problem in Romania. I do believe that Romania has interest for the child but the law is too harsh and some exceptions should be made to the law. The process of the assignment was tiring. Although there was not much more to do then research, pulling all the research together into one cohesive paper was tiring. My most valuable research tool was the internet. With my topic there were not any books. Most of my research was done on the database search on the Penrose Library. But I did have a lot of research through the US embassy and Joint Council. During my research I learned a lot about the history of Romania. I learned that the orphan problem in Romania was because of the Communist Regime and the Dictator.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

History of the Werewolf

The werewolf is a myth that has been around since the ancient Greeks and is still prevalent in today’s culture. Some websites say that the origins of werewolf’s are in the territory of the Fox tribe today known as Wisconsin. People who have seen a werewolf have described it as a tall, greyish white beast that stands on its hind legs. Some legends say that werewolf’s are the seventh child born, others say they are men that have gone on angry rampages killing entire villages in wolf hides, others say the full moon causes men to change into wolves and become violent.Before researching this paper I had questions about where the term werewolf may have originated. I also pondered about when the first recorded sightings may have been for werewolves or how to become a werewolf. During my research I found out that the prefix â€Å"wer† is Saxon for man, so it means man wolf. It is said that the first sighting of a werewolf was recorded in 1550 B. C. near Arcadia. T he story is about King Lycaon of Arcadia who supposedly gave an offering of human flesh to the God Zeus. As a punishment Zeus turned him into a wolf.In Native American mythology it is said that Wisakachek produced the first werewolf. I found out that people can become werewolves through a virus called Lupine Parvovirus or LPV. This can only be transmitted by a wolf bite. Usually a virus takes over a cell and uses it as a factory or host for producing proteins. LPV is different from most viruses in that sense because it transforms the host organism instead of destroying it. The story starts with Wisakachek meeting two boys out hunting for their village.He gave the hunters the ability to shape-shift into wolves in order to catch deer, but only for catching deer not to kill humans. The one boy named Matchitehew got into a scrum with another boy from the village. In his anger he turned into a wolf and killed the boy. The two hunters Keme and Matchitehew were kicked out of the village. W isakachek became furious and casted a spell on Matchitehew that turned him into a mindless wolf every night. Keme left knowing that Matchitehew would not be able to control himself.Matchitehew became known as the father of werewolves. In present times werewolves have more influence than ever. From dominating the screen to books the legend of the werewolf lives on. Movies and books such as Twilight have deep mythical roots. With the books and movies grossing well over three billion dollars we could deduce that werewolves play a role in the world’s economy. Another effect werewolves have on society is they are vicious man eating beasts that may hurt little children. History of the Werewolf The werewolf is a myth that has been around since the ancient Greeks and is still prevalent in today’s culture. Some websites say that the origins of werewolf’s are in the territory of the Fox tribe today known as Wisconsin. People who have seen a werewolf have described it as a tall, greyish white beast that stands on its hind legs. Some legends say that werewolf’s are the seventh child born, others say they are men that have gone on angry rampages killing entire villages in wolf hides, others say the full moon causes men to change into wolves and become violent.Before researching this paper I had questions about where the term werewolf may have originated. I also pondered about when the first recorded sightings may have been for werewolves or how to become a werewolf. During my research I found out that the prefix â€Å"wer† is Saxon for man, so it means man wolf. It is said that the first sighting of a werewolf was recorded in 1550 B. C. near Arcadia. T he story is about King Lycaon of Arcadia who supposedly gave an offering of human flesh to the God Zeus. As a punishment Zeus turned him into a wolf.In Native American mythology it is said that Wisakachek produced the first werewolf. I found out that people can become werewolves through a virus called Lupine Parvovirus or LPV. This can only be transmitted by a wolf bite. Usually a virus takes over a cell and uses it as a factory or host for producing proteins. LPV is different from most viruses in that sense because it transforms the host organism instead of destroying it. The story starts with Wisakachek meeting two boys out hunting for their village.He gave the hunters the ability to shape-shift into wolves in order to catch deer, but only for catching deer not to kill humans. The one boy named Matchitehew got into a scrum with another boy from the village. In his anger he turned into a wolf and killed the boy. The two hunters Keme and Matchitehew were kicked out of the village. W isakachek became furious and casted a spell on Matchitehew that turned him into a mindless wolf every night. Keme left knowing that Matchitehew would not be able to control himself.Matchitehew became known as the father of werewolves. In present times werewolves have more influence than ever. From dominating the screen to books the legend of the werewolf lives on. Movies and books such as Twilight have deep mythical roots. With the books and movies grossing well over three billion dollars we could deduce that werewolves play a role in the world’s economy. Another effect werewolves have on society is they are vicious man eating beasts that may hurt little children.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Ever since the dawn of time

Ever since the dawn of time, the sun has been a resource we cannot live or do without, so its not such a shock that man has come up with the idea of solar energy. Solar energy had many uses. Some can be dangerous and some, a very valuable asset to the modern world. Solar energy is energy derived from the sun in a form of ultra-violet rays. Its was first applied to use in 212 B.C., by the Greek genius Archimedes. Solar energy was used to defend the harbor of Syracuse against the Roman fleet. Archimedes used a mirror or burning mirror as they had called it, to set fire to the ships of the Roman fleets while standing on shore. It wasnt until 1615 when Salomon de Caux constructed the first solar device; a solar engine. His device was made of glass lenses, supporting frame, and an airtight metal vessel containing water and air. This produced a small water fountain when the air heated up during operation. This was considered to be more of a toy than a device, but it was the! first published account of the use of solar energy since the fall of the Roman Empire Some other use of solar energy after that was the solar roof and the solar oven. In a solar roof system, water is contained in a clear plastic bag and it is placed on a black metal roof. A man traveling through India on a technical aid mission for the U.S government found the idea. While there, he noticed that many people were living in rusty, sheet metal shacks, which were hot in the day and cold at night. Hays plan was to remove the insulation from the roof on winter days so that the roof would get hot, and Replacing the insulation at night to allow the shack to be warm through the night. Then in the summer, he would so the reverse of what he did in winter to let the house cool at night and replacing the insulation in the daytime to block out the heat. Then over the years, a 3- by 3.7-m building using water basins as the actual roofing material was ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Profile of Christine Falling

Profile of Christine Falling Christine Falling was a 17-year-old babysitter when she murdered five babies and an elderly man. She was one of the youngest female serial killers in U.S. history. Childhood Years Christine Falling was born on March 12, 1963, in Perry, Florida to Ann, age 16 and Thomas Slaughter, age 65. Christine was Anns second child. Her sister Carol was born a year and a half earlier. From the beginning, life for Christine was challenging. Her mother Ann would often leave for months at a time. When Ann would return home, it seemed to her young daughters that she always came back pregnant. Over the following two years, after Christine was born, Ann had two more children, boys Michael and Earl. Of all the children, Thomas claimed only Earl as his biological child. The Slaughters were very poor, as were many living in Perry at the time. During Anns absence, Thomas cared for the children by bringing them out to the woods where he worked. But when he was in a work-related accident, Ann was forced to rejoin the family. After that the children were often shuffled around to family members until, according to Carol, Ann completely abandoned them, leaving them on a bench at a Perry shopping center. Jesse and Dolly Falling Dolly Falling wanted to be a mother  but was unable to have children. Her husband Jesse was related to the Slaughter children and they decided to adopt Carol and Christine. Life for the two girls at the Fallings home was unstable. Christine was epileptic and suffered from seizures. She also had severe learning and developmental problems. Physically she was unattractive, obese, and had an odd vacant look in her eyes. At an early age, Christine demonstrated personality traits that were worrisome. She would have severe fits of anger and displayed antisocial behavior. For example, she developed a fascination with torturing cats. She would strangle them and then drop them from up high to see if they really had nine lives. She learned immediately that they did not, yet that did not end her experiments. Both Carol and Christine became rebellious and unruly as they got older. However, according to author Madeline Blais in her book The Heart Is an Instrument, the girls were also subjected to physical and sexual abuse by Jesse Falling, something the Fallings both denied. However, life at the Falling home was so dysfunctional that the church pastor interceded and the Fallings agreed to send the girls away. A Refuge The girls were sent to the Great Oaks Village in Orlando. This was a group foster home designed to help neglected and abused children. Christine later commented on how much she enjoyed her time there, although according to social workers, during her stay she was a thief, compulsive liar, and would often get in trouble just for the attention that it brought. It was also noted in the social workers records that Jesse Falling had been arrested twice for sexually abusing Carol. The first arrest ended in a hung jury and the second time Dolly Falling dropped the charges. After a year at the refuge, the girls were returned to the Fallings. This time there was no sexual abuse, but the physical abuse continued. The final episode happened in October 1975 when Jesse allegedly subjected Christine to a severe beating for being 10 minutes late. He also insisted that she wear shorts to school the following day so everyone could see the justice marks. The following day the girls ran away. Munchausen Syndrome After six weeks of living with Carols friend, Christine decided to go to Blountstown and live with Ann, her birth mother. She managed to do that for a while, and in September 1977, at the age of 14, she married a man (reportedly her stepbrother) who was in his twenties. The marriage was riddled with arguments and violence and it ended after just six weeks. After her marriage failed, Christine developed a compulsion for going to the hospital emergency room. Each time she would complain of different ailments that doctors could not diagnose. One time she went complaining of bleeding, which turned out to be her regular menstrual period. Another time she thought a snake bit her. Within two years, she went to the hospital over 50 times. It seemed that Christines need for attention, which the counselors at Great Oaks Village had noted, was transferred to getting attention at the hospital. At that point, she was possibly developing Munchausen syndrome, an infliction in which those affected seek the comfort from medical personnel for exaggerated or self-inflicted symptoms of illnesses. Munchausen syndrome is closely related to Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP/MSP), when they abuse another person, usually a child, to get attention or sympathy for themselves. Christine Finds Her Calling Christine Falling had few options when it came to earning a living. She was uneducated and her maturity level was that of a young child. She managed to make some money by babysitting for neighbors and family. In fact, it seemed to be her calling. Parents trusted her and she enjoyed being with the children, or so it appeared. Her Victims - The Children On February 25, 1980, Christine was babysitting two-year-old Cassidy Muffin Johnson, when according to Falling, the child became ill and fell out of her crib. She was diagnosed with encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and died three days later. According to the autopsy, her death was due to blunt trauma to the skull. One of the doctors did not agree with the childs diagnosis and found Fallings tear-stained story questionable. He noted his suspicions that the baby was physically harmed and did not die of natural causes. He suggested that the police should talk to Falling, but investigators took no further action. Soon after the incident, Falling moved to Lakeland, Florida. The next two children to die were cousins, four-year-old Jeffrey Davis and two-year-old Joseph Spring. While caring for Jeffrey, Falling told doctors that he had stopped breathing. The autopsy report listed myocarditis, which is usually a result of a viral infection and causes inflammation of the heart. Three days later Falling was babysitting Joseph while his parents attended Jeffreys funeral. Falling said Joseph failed to wake up from his nap. He was also found with a viral infection and the case was closed. Falling decided to return to Perry  and took a position in July 1981 as a housekeeper for 77-year-old William Swindle. Swindle died on the first day that Falling worked. He was found on his kitchen floor. It was assumed that he suffered a massive heart attack. Not long after Swindles death, Fallings stepsister took her eight-month-old daughter, Jennifer Daniels, for her vaccinations. Falling went along. On the way home, the stepsister ran into the store for diapers and when she returned to the car Falling told her that Jennifer had stopped breathing. The baby was dead. On July 2, 1982, Falling was taking care of 10-week-old Travis Cook who was just home from the hospital after a week prior Christine had noticed he was having a hard time breathing. This time, however, Travis did not make it. Christine said he just suddenly died. The doctors and nurses ignored the usual tears that poured from Falling as she explained what happened. The autopsy showed that the childs death was caused by suffocation. Fallings reign of terror had finally ended. Fallings Confession Falling eventually confessed to five murders. She was afraid of getting the death penalty and agreed to a plea deal. She told detectives that she killed her victims by smotheration and had learned how to do it by watching television. She boasted about putting her own spin on the technique by placing a blanket over the children faces. She also said that she heard voices telling her to kill the baby. In a taped confession, she described the events leading up to the smotheration of each child. According to Falling: Cassidy Johnson was smothered because she had gotten kind of rowdy or something. Jeffrey Davis made me mad or something. I was already mad that morning. I just took it out on him and just started choking him til he was dead. Joe Boy was napping when I dont know. I just got the urge and wanted to kill him. Her niece, Jennifer Daniels died because She was continually crying and crying and crying and it made me mad so I just put my hands around her neck and choked her til she shut up. Travis Coleman was sleeping when for no apparent reason she killed him. Guilty Plea On September 17, 1982, Christine Falling plead guilty to murder two children and received two concurrent life sentences. After a few years in prison, she admitted to strangling William Swindle. In 2006, Falling came up for parole and was denied. Her next parole hearing was set for September 2017.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Nintendo Co Ltd Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Nintendo Co Ltd - Essay Example In this study we will try and evaluate the key strategic issue that Nintendo is facing and what are their current strategic options. The three major players in the industry are Microsoft, Nintendo and Sony. For all the players the market is broadly being divided into two major segments such as the hardware segment and the software or the gaming segment. Though there is a major drift in sales for all the three major companies in the recent year we can analyze their positions and strength from the data of the previous year that is 2008. Nintendo noted a 49 percent market share for their consoles i.e. Wii and about a 73% market share for the handheld, which are called the DS. (Elliot, 2008) So it is quite evident Nintendo is a market leader in the hardware segment of the industry. Also notably there were five gaming software made by Nintendo which acquired the top ten spot of NPD software (Elliot, 2008). So the constant mix of the quality hardware and innovative software making Nintendo a prospective leader in the industry. Sony’s product in the hardware segment called the PS3 attributed a growth of 99% on ye ar-to-year basis (2008). Apart from that, though Nintendo is the market leader in the hardware segment. According to the Consumer Behavior Report of 2007 Nintendo’s consoles are readily accepted by the target consumers. But Sony’s playstation (which is their hardware console) recorded over 10 million accounts all over the world. But the USP of Sony remains with the innovativeness and varieties of gaming software they introduce with quick succession. According to Microsoft, their hardware product Xbox 360 enjoys a 49% market share in USA. Also Xbox 360 title, a product in the software segment accounts for 34% in software sales for July 2008. (Elliot, 2008) Though Nintendo is more successful in developing game platforms, but the real focus of the company is on producing games rather than only platforms. (Ackerson, 2008).

Friday, November 1, 2019

Nursing leader DIX Dorothea Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Nursing leader DIX Dorothea - Essay Example well recognized for her patient advocacy in struggling to improve the condition of a mental asylum and jails, in North America and Europe (Parry, 2006). Dix quitted her career as a schoolteacher at the age of 24-years, and began to explore her second career as a nurse at the age of 39-years (Parry, 2006). She was not a nurse by profession, but the situation allowed her practice as a nurse since the present nursing practices were not yet developed. She became one of the pioneers of the modern nursing, and introduced the key value that drives the provision of quality nursing care through patient advocacy. Her nursing career was inspired, in 1841, when she visited the Cambridge House of Correction to teach Women inmates’ Sunday class (Dolan, 1968). The scenes and conditions she witnessed, in this correctional center were nearly identical to the scenes in â€Å"mental health† facilities she had visited throughout Europe and North America. She discovered that mentally ill patients shared the same facilities with prison inmates who are usually confined in enclosed and filthy spaces, without proper clothing, and sexually and physically abused (Dolan, 1968). From her personal experiences as a mentally ill patient, she decided to challenge how inmates and mentally ill patients are treated, in the court. She filed a number of lawsuits where she won many cases. Her first plan was to improve care for the mentally ill patients and condition of jails throughout Massachusetts. Dix played a number of significant roles in the establishment and expansion of more than 30 hospitals for the mentally ill patients (Parry, 2006). She is a renowned activist in international and national movements that advocated for the rights of the mentally ill patients, and challenged the notion that people with mental problems cannot be helped or cured. She also criticized the harsh and neglectful practices and conditions the mentally ill patients are subjected to, and these include painful physical