Friday, May 31, 2019

The Versatile, and Loved Cherry Tree :: Botany

The Versatile, and Loved Cherry TreePeople all across the world enjoy cherries for their sweet flavor in pies, candies, and pastries. They have become one of the most widely obliging fruits in the world. As reported by the Columbia Encyclopedia Online (2000), they can be imbed in home orchards all across the country. However, the rubicund steer has many uses. Some varieties are valued for their beautiful flowers, others for the wood that can be make into high quality furniture. Whatever the variety or use, the cherry tree tree is an important plant in todays society. The cherry tree traces its origins back to the east. The earliest signs of cherry trees come from the area around Asia Minor, Persia, and Transcaucasia (www.botany.com, 2000). To this area of the world, the cherry tree has become almost a sacred plant, with many varieties of flowering cherry trees being cultivated into various forms all valued for their flowers. This has become so popular in the east that in Japan they have even instituted a national spend around the time that the trees begin to blossom (The Columbia Encyclopedia Online, 2000). Cherry trees were introduced to Europe through both natural processes and human interaction. By 73 BC, the cherry tree had been introduced to most of southern and central Europe with the help of the Romans. Soon after, the plants started to appear in Great Britain, where they were able to flourish (MS Encarta Online, 2000). Now there are species of cherry trees all over the Northern Hemisphere with species and varieties that have adapted so well to the different environments that today you can find varieties of cherry tree in almost any region, from California to Japan, that have developed unique and prized characteristics (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1999). Cherry trees, like many fruit bearing trees, are members of the rose family. The scientific name for the family is Rosaceae. Cherries are in the genus Prunus along with apricots, peaches, and plums ( The Columbia Encyclopedia Online, 2000). Cherry trees come in hundreds of varieties, but are derived from only a a few(prenominal) species. There are two main species valued for their fruit, a couple of species are known for producing high quality wood or are bad as ornamentals. All species of cherry tree have varieties that are prized for their beautiful and aromatic flowers (www.botany.com, 2000). One of the cherries that bear edible fruit is known scientifically as Prunus avium.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Paperless(?) Office :: essays research papers

The Paperless(?) Office1. What ar the advantages and disadvantages of the paperless procedure?There are many advantages to having a paperless office. One advantageis that companies are able to greatly reduce the get of paper thatthey use. Not only does this help the environment, it helps cut costs withinthe organization. Companies are also able to improve service throughimplementing the paperless office. This is because communication is adjacentand does not get lost in a pile of papers on some sensations desk. A paperless office fucking also save the company money. This offer be seen in the example of WashingtonMutual Savings Bank of Seattle. The bank automated more than one-hundreddifferent forms and estimates that they are saving upwards of one million peryear.One disadvantage to having a paperless office is the issue security.How does a company cultivate sure that only the eyes the document is intended for,are the only eyes that see it? Also how does a company know an elect roniccommunication is authentic? Another issue is privacy. How does a company makesure that when an electronic communication is sent only the person it isintended for will read it? How does a company make sure private readingdoes not make the evening news?2. Are certain types of information more readily amenable to digitalprocessing in a paperless office than others? If so, why if not, why not? It would seem that some types of information are better in paperlessform, while some are not. Implementing an e-mail system can do wonders forcompanies. The e-mail sessions allow managers to get more information across tothe employees and vice versa. This is a way to make sure everyone will accessto the resembling information. A paperless office is a good way to send and receivereports.Another area that is conducive to a paperless office is such companiesthat put bear-sized volumes of books and papers on CD-ROM. A single CD-ROM can holda whole room full of books. This cuts down on the phys ical post a company mustdevote to paper storage.3. How might book publishing change as the technology of the paperless officecontinues to develop? Will books plump obsolete? Why or why not?The book publishing industry will have to grow and change in relation tothe ever-changing technology. As the paperless office gains more and more popularity,one will begin to see more and more documents being on CD-ROM and also on theInternet.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Fraud in The Firm by John Grisham Essay -- The Firm John Grisham Liter

Fraud in The Firm by John Grisham John Grisham was born in Jonesboro, Arkansas, on February 8, 1955. In 1967 he lived in Southhaven, Mississippi. In 1977 he received an undergraduate degree in accounting. In 1981 he attended law check at the school at the University of Mississippi where he earned a degree. John set up a law practice in Southehaven, where he practiced both criminal law and civil law. In 1981 he was elected to the Mississippi House of Representatives. In 1989 John published his first legend A Time to Kill. John Grisham has written many books, one of them is The Firm. Mitch McDeere is about to graduate in the top five percentile at the Harvard Law School. A representative from a highly prestigious tax law firm approaches Mitch telling him of a job at his company. After a long finish of thinking Mitch and his wife Abby move to Memphis Tennessee where the firm is located. At this time Mitch and Abby had no idea that they were under close surveillance by Mr. DeV asher. Mitch also has yet to contract that the firm is a cleaver cover up for a Mafia controlled money laundering operation. Mitch later visits his brother Ray in jail, who refers him to a scout by the name of Eddie Lomax. Later Mitch goes to the Caimans on a business trip and was set up have sex with a hooker that appeared to be in distress. While Mitch was gone Eddie Lomax was killed. When Mitch returns, Tammy, Eddies secretary is waiting to meet him to let him know about what had happened....

Biometrics: The Science of Human Recognition :: Research Science Papers

Biometrics The Science of Human Recognition As our society becomes more than and more modernized so does our need for more train ways to identify people for who they really are. Biometrics is the science of human recognition. With this rapid battlefront to develop this new technology, many companies have come bug out with different ways to distinguish people. Some of these new forms of recognition include retinal scanning, masthead recognition, finger imaging, hand geometry, face recognition, voice recognition and tactual sensation recognition. These forms of distinguish people may be broken down into both basic categories bodily characteristics and personal traits. Physical characteristics are limited to each person. A forcible characteristic is as unique as a persons deoxyribonucleic acid code. A personal trait is a style that is a great deal unique to each person. The only problem with the recognition of this style is that it may often stir as a person grows and mat ures. Retinal scanning waterfall into the category of scanning for physical characteristics. It is performed by bouncing a laser beam glum the cornea, which then absorbs specific frequencies of light according to that persons specific cornea. The light that is not absorbed bounces back into the machine and is then read. The machine is adequate to(p) to recognize the unabsorbed frequencies of light as, Frank Turco. Another new physical biometrics system is iris recognition. iris recognition is akin(predicate) to retinal scanning. The colored athletic field of the eye that surrounds the pupil has many lines randomly placed. These lines are specific to each individual like a barcode is to a product. Again, a laser scans the eye and recognizes the exclude of the iris as a person. Amazing isnt it? Iris canning tends to be more user loving because you dont need to be as close to the machine when it is scanning your iris. You may be up to nine inches away, where as with retinal scann ing you may only be one to two inches away. The reason iris scanning is more user friendly is because when utilized by the public many communicable diseases may be passes along by the machine because of it close contact with the person. Face recognition is similar to the way we recognize people. A computer would be utilized to take a image of each person and then analyze it. The computers analysis of the photograph would use facial geometry to recognize each person.Biometrics The Science of Human Recognition explore Science PapersBiometrics The Science of Human Recognition As our society becomes more and more modernized so does our need for more sophisticated ways to identify people for who they really are. Biometrics is the science of human recognition. With this rapid movement to develop this new technology, many companies have come out with different ways to distinguish people. Some of these new forms of recognition include retinal scanning, iris recognition, finger imagi ng, hand geometry, face recognition, voice recognition and signature recognition. These forms of distinguish people may be broken down into two basic categories physical characteristics and personal traits. Physical characteristics are specific to each person. A physical characteristic is as unique as a persons DNA code. A personal trait is a style that is often unique to each person. The only problem with the recognition of this style is that it may often change as a person grows and matures. Retinal scanning falls into the category of scanning for physical characteristics. It is performed by bouncing a laser beam off the cornea, which then absorbs specific frequencies of light according to that persons specific cornea. The light that is not absorbed bounces back into the machine and is then read. The machine is able to recognize the unabsorbed frequencies of light as, Frank Turco. Another new physical biometrics system is iris recognition. Iris recognition is similar to retinal sc anning. The colored area of the eye that surrounds the pupil has many lines randomly placed. These lines are specific to each individual like a barcode is to a product. Again, a laser scans the eye and recognizes the bars of the iris as a person. Amazing isnt it? Iris canning tends to be more user friendly because you dont need to be as close to the machine when it is scanning your iris. You may be up to nine inches away, where as with retinal scanning you may only be one to two inches away. The reason iris scanning is more user friendly is because when utilized by the public many communicable diseases may be passes along by the machine because of it close contact with the person. Face recognition is similar to the way we recognize people. A computer would be utilized to take a photo of each person and then analyze it. The computers analysis of the photo would use facial geometry to recognize each person.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Essay --

Should marihuana be legalized ? In all honesty, should it be? Ask yourself again. How is alcohol legal. Marijuana is much safer and has medicative use capability . According to Cbsnews.com, in a recent poll in the New England Journal of Medicine, 76% of doctors approve Marijuana for medical use. 1446 doctors asked in 72 total countries. Why is marijuana so widely supported? Because its medical capabilities be legit. (Ill address medical capabilities below) Alcohol totally impairs you and and causes your frontal lobes to malfunction. Its stupid, alcohol, which is actually dangerous is legal and people are still killing themselves under the influence, but Marijuana is good for you yet illegal? It seems as if the presidential term is trying to kill us with such a thing being legal (I dont drink or smoke so this isnt biased) . Besides, who really cares? -- If potheads want to smoke, why not on the button let them smoke? Prisons are for criminals and not for people who smoke a plant that makes them happy. A remarkable aspect of this controversy is that freedom is being seized. In 2007, arrests for Marijuana alone totalled up to 775,138, dramatically surpassing arrests for all violent abhorrence combined. Thats just ridiculous. People should not be getting incarcerated for smoking a plant that is beneficial to health. Most people just smoke it to reduce stress. Weed smokers are not criminals rapists, killers, and thieves are criminals. Seriously people, prisons are being flooded. Sticking someone in prison isnt something thats cheap. According to Ministry of Justice, the cost of keeping someone in prison is roughly $25,000 a year. These people cant get jobs, in many states, possession of Marijuana can be command a misdemeanor or a felony. A ... ...mount of our population suffers from at least one of these conditions. Moreover, non-cannabis supporters strongest argument is the abuse of the plant. The oppositions argument states that Marijuana is addictive , but recent studies by a professor at the University of Cambridge in England named Leslie L. Iverson, who also wrote a book called The Science Of Marijuana, show that only 9% of Marijuana users develop serious dependency of the plant. Those are overwhelming statistics for anyone trying to keep the plant illegal.In conclusion, Marijuana should definitely be decriminalized. It benefits human health, it allow boost the economy if taxed, it will massively reduce the profit of international crime gangs, it will bring down the ever so high crime rate, and will result in prisons not being packed with people who dont belong there. Support Marijuana legalization

Essay --

Should marihuana be legalized ? In all honesty, should it be? Ask yourself again. How is alcohol legal. Marijuana is much safer and has medicinal use capability . According to Cbsnews.com, in a recent poll in the New England Journal of Medicine, 76% of doctors approve Marijuana for medical use. 1446 doctors asked in 72 total countries. Why is marijuana so widely supported? Because its medical capabilities atomic number 18 legit. (Ill address medical capabilities below) Alcohol totally impairs you and and causes your frontlet lobes to malfunction. Its stupid, alcohol, which is actually dangerous is legal and people are still killing themselves under the influence, but Marijuana is good for you yet illegal? It seems as if the administration is trying to kill us with such a thing being legal (I dont drink or smoke so this isnt biased) . Besides, who really cares? -- If potheads want to smoke, why not alone let them smoke? Prisons are for criminals and not for people who smoke a plant that makes them happy. A noteworthy aspect of this controversy is that freedom is being seized. In 2007, arrests for Marijuana alone totalled up to 775,138, dramatically surpassing arrests for all violent offense combined. Thats just ridiculous. People should not be getting incarcerated for smoking a plant that is beneficial to health. Most people just smoke it to reduce stress. Weed smokers are not criminals rapists, killers, and thieves are criminals. Seriously people, prisons are being flooded. Sticking soul in prison isnt something thats cheap. According to Ministry of Justice, the cost of keeping someone in prison is roughly $25,000 a year. These people cant get jobs, in many states, possession of Marijuana can be command a misdemeanor or a felony. A ... ...mount of our population suffers from at least one of these conditions. Moreover, non-cannabis supporters strongest argument is the abuse of the plant. The oppositions argument states that Marijuana is addictive, but recent studies by a professor at the University of Cambridge in England named Leslie L. Iverson, who also wrote a book called The Science Of Marijuana, show that only 9% of Marijuana users develop serious dependency of the plant. Those are overwhelming statistics for anyone trying to keep the plant illegal.In conclusion, Marijuana should definitely be decriminalized. It benefits human health, it ordain boost the economy if taxed, it will massively reduce the profit of international crime gangs, it will bring down the ever so high crime rate, and will result in prisons not being packed with people who dont belong there. Support Marijuana legalization

Monday, May 27, 2019

Minority Group Status

A nonage group refers to a subordinate group whereby the members do not have enough control over their lives and do not have power to effectively fight for their rights. A minority group is outclassed and is unremarkably dominated by the rest, who are usually the legal age group. The minority group experiences rather some opportunities to pursue their goals since education, success and wealth is limited to them. such(prenominal) opportunities are disproportionately very low when compared to their population within the society. (Feagin, 2000)Characteristics of nonage Group StatusA minority group has a number of characteristics which make them from the majority group. The characteristics make them stand out from the rest and become easily identifiable. One characteristic of the members of the minority group is that they have distinguishing ethnical or somatogenic traits, for example skin color (physical) and language (cultural). A good example is Blacks in countries which are lar gely dominated by Whites. Another characteristic is that they usually face unequal treatment and have less power and therefore are not in full control of what goes around them. Mostly, the members claim of receiving unsportsmanlike treatment and are constantly discriminated against. (Peter & Trauttman, 2006)In extreme cases, the members may be denied their rights to access certain resources, for, example, having recreational facilities strictly for majority group and restricting the minority group from accessing them. The third characteristic is that the members do not belong to the minority group by choice. The membership is therefore involuntary and no one fag end be compelled to remain a member or give up the membership since it is through race, power or even law that a psyche finds himself or herself belonging to the minority group.The fourth characteristic is that there is usually a high degree of awareness of subordination as well as a strong sense of solidarity among the m embers. The last characteristic is that, the majority group is high characterized by in-group marriages due to their close association and collaboration. (Jacob, 2005)Different Ways in Which Groups Become MinoritiesThere are various ways in which groups become minorities numerically and socially. Numerically the minority group is judged by virtue of being few in numbers, for example, racial whereby the members are classified on some obvious characteristics, such as skin color. These characteristics are visible. For instance, Racial minority groups in US American Indian, Blacks, Hawaiians and Asian Americans. Socially, the minority group is judged on the basis of inferior enculturation, organized religion, or belief as in gender, ethnic and religion. (Jacob, 2005)Ethnically, the groups are classified on cultural basis, such as food and language. Ethnic Minority Groups in US include Latinos and Hispanics such as Puerto Ricans, Chicanos and Cubans. The Jews are also part of the cultur al minorities. In terms of gender, males are usually the social majority and women are the social minority. In religion, the minorities are the members who do not have the same faith as the majority group. For instance, Muslims, Mormons, Roman Catholics and Amish are religious minorities in US. (Peter & Trauttman, 2006)Consequences of Minority Group StatusSome of the consequences are pluralism, assimilation, fusion, segregation, secession, expulsion and extermination. In pluralism, this is whereby the minority and majority groups or individuals maintain their different identities, that is, Whites are represented by Whites and Blacks by Blacks. In assimilation, the minority group identifies with the majority group in terms of culture and consequently is absorbed by the dominant group. In fusion, the majority and minority group merge to create a new group. (Feagin, 2000)Their cultures and physical characteristics are synthesized without intermarrying. In segregation, these two groups are physically separated in terms of work place, residence and social functions. In secession, the minority group moves out to create a new nation or join an established nation, whereby it becomes dominant. In expulsion, the minority group may be forced to leave a certain parting or even thrown out of the country by the dominant group. In, extermination, the minority group is wiped out through genocide or systematic, deliberate killing. (Feagin, 2000) decisionFrom the discussion above, the existence of minority group status is not healthy though it cannot be avoided. Many divisions result from such differences making it impossible for a certain group to pursue their common goals and encourage vices such as discrimination against tribe, gender and religion. (Peter & Trauttman, 2006)ReferencesFeagin, J. (2000) Racial and Ethnic Relations, Palgrave Publishers, US.Jacob, C. (2005) What is a Minority Group, Palgrave Publishers, UK.Peter, Z. & Trauttmann, C. (2006) Distinguishing between Minority and Majority Group, Fireside Press, Washington DC.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Placing Blame for the My Lai Massacre

As you can appreciate, our Army is faced with a tremendous challenge here in Vietnam. Initially our soldiers were committed strictly in an consultative role, and as such the number required was relatively small. But now it has become necessary to commit more and more US troops to developed combat. It is necessary therefore that our training programs in the United States be oriented toward the type of fighting we are involved in today in this field (Westmoreland). From 1959-1975, America was involved in a prolonged conflict to prevent the spread of communism.Opposing forces were attempting to unify Vietnam under a communist government. In 1954, at the geneva conference, Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel, splitting the country into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam. Communist sympathizers in South Vietnam formed the Viet Cong to use guerilla war against their fellow South Vietnamese. Fighting among the Viet Cong and South Vietnamese continued. When the North Vietnamese fired directly into two US ships in March of 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson consistent the first US ground troops to Vietnam.The original goal of US involvement in Vietnam was to aid the Souths defense until they could fight for themselves. As it turned out, this was not the outcome (Vietnam War). There are several questions surrounding the Vietnam War, many of which are still unanswered. For years, Americans have posed the following question why did our soldiers attack hundreds of unarmed South Vietnamese in the My Lai village in March 1968? United States soldiers shot, beat, and burned innocent unarmed farmers, women, and children. Why was this allowed to happen?Anytime a country goes into war, furiousity is expected casualties are expected. But when this brutality and these casualties come at the expense of 400 innocent Vietnamese, we must ask why. Although most do not cond mavin what happened on March 16, 1968, those soldiers cannot be held responsible fo r several reasons the Vietnamese were treating the US soldiers in the same manner, Americans had dehumanized the Vietnamese people, soldiers were unsure of who merely the resistance was, and the orders they received were vague, soldiers were unaware that they could question authority.The My Lai incident on March 16, 1968 was purely a military crime of obedience (Newman). American soldiers are change to being treated poorly by the natives of an occupied country, but it still influenced the actions that occurred on March 16. surrogate leadiam Calley testified about the violent, unnecessary assaults that South Vietnamese soldiers carried out. A radio operator was killed in the first Pinkville assault when the bullet just took his entire kidney out, Calley explained (Who is Responsible). Six innocent Vietnamese women were gunned down on their trend to the market by South Vietnamese police.After an assault that killed six men and left another wounded, Calley says that it instilled a deeper form of hatred toward the enemy (Who is Responsible). These brutal acts all occurred at the hand of the people our soldiers thought they were helping. How can these nineteen year old soldiers be expected to react to these violent actions with anything other than more violence? Possibly due to the poor treatment of soldiers, Americans began to dehumanize the Vietnamese people. There are two qualities that make soul human, identity and community.The Vietnamese were simply not considered human beings anymore (Kelman and Hamilton). The American soldiers had come to believe that every man and every woman were Viet Cong and every child would grow up with Viet Cong ideals. Lieut. Calley wrote I had no love for these people now. I did have a few weeks earlier, but it had been slowly driven out (Sack 80). In the same seduce he says that a captain said to him I sit with my starlight scope, and I see VC at this village every night. I could go home if I could eliminate it (Sack 84).W hen all the South Vietnamese became Viet Cong instead of living, breathing, feeling people, soldiers no longer saw killing them as murder, but as a necessity. When veterans speech about Vietnam, they often talk about trying to find Charlie. Who is Charlie? Unfortunately, our soldiers did not know who this allusive Charlie was either. General W. C. Westmoreland, named by President Johnson to command all forces in Vietnam, knew his task was daunting. How could he root out and kill enemy forces when they could be any Vietnam citizen? Westmoreland says, in a letter to Lt. Col. Lewis L.Millet, Here we have an enemy who operates covertly. The field is everywhere-no front to it nor rear. The enemy is here today and fine tomorrow. He moves at night, concentrates, attacks, and consequently he disappears into the wilderness of a jungle or into the landscape when chemical reaction forces are brought to bear (Westmoreland, par 3. ) Here we have the air force officer of all US troops in Vietn am and he admits that they do not know who the enemy is. Twenty-year-old Bob Leahy writes home to his family and explains that when one is in a combat situation, a chance cannot be taken on whether or not a citizen is VC or not.If one waits to find out whether the civilian is armed or just an innocent bystander, it could be too late (Leahy, par 2. ) In addition to my exsert three points, the orders that the soldiers were issued were extremely vague. Kelman and Hamilton claim written orders were never issued (par 6). All orders were passed by word of mouth by the time they had traveled through Barker, Medina, Calley and finally to the soldiers, the solo message that was conveyed was this the Son My area must be destroyed (Kelman and Hamilton, par 7). Soldiers were under the impression that only VC would be in that village.The Peers Report, mentioned in Kelman and Hamiltons organization The My Lai Massacre A Military Crime of Obedience, said that it is reasonable to conclude that L TC Barkers minimal or nonexistent instructions concerning the handlings of noncombatants created the potential for encrypt misunderstandings (par 7). These vague directions were destined to bring about poor results. Because of the ambiguity of the orders, our soldiers cannot be held responsible for the outcome of My Lai. In the time period of Vietnam, soldiers did not question their commanders orders.It did not matter how absurd the orders were they were carried out. Lt Calley explains, For refusing in order in the face of the enemy, you could be sent to death (Who is Responsible). He also states that if he had known My Lai would turn out this way, he would have run from the draft and gone to jail instead (His Own Story, 85). Bob Leahy, in his letter home, says that if someone disobeyed orders, and My Lai was not released to the public, he would serve 5-10 years in Leavenworth Federal Prison for cowardice in the face of the enemy or some trash give care that (par 7).As I have prev iously pointed out, the American forces were following orders when they went into the My Lai village of Son My and killed innocent civilians. Yes, the My Lai incident was a crime, but it was a military crime of obedience. deputy Colonel Barker and his staff planned the Son My raid as a search and destroy mission. Captain Medina was briefed on vague orders and in turn told his men. Lieutenant Calley and other soldiers are not responsible for the events that transpired on March 16, 1968. But perhaps their leaders are.Obeying orders from a lieutenant colonel is not an offense or a crime-it is a custom. Although the My Lai massacre was a horrific event that occurred at the hand of American soldiers, they are not to blame. It was merely a crime of obedience, even though the orders were vague and the soldiers did not know that they could or should question orders. Americans had dehumanized the Vietnamese people, and were very angry. Bob Leahy uses the following analogy If you enrage and t ease a lion, and then an innocent person comes along and pets the lion, the innocent person will be mauled (War Letters, par 4).He says This is war and Ill give a news flash to everyone posterior in the states-theyre playing for keeps over here. You cannot ask a man to risk her own life and chance of going home in one piece for a Vietnamese civilian who might not have a weapon. Especially when, as in My Lai, they were told only enemy troops and their families lived in the village. It is asking too much (par 5). Could there have been a different outcome that day? Maybe, maybe not. What was the one true cause of the My Lai massacre? Will we ever know?

Saturday, May 25, 2019

The Code of Hammurabi

After the fall of the third dynasty of Ur, King Hammurabi came to power in ancient Babylon from 1792 to 1750 BC. As an influential ruler, he accomplished many things, including the reunification of Mesopotamia. His interest in state affairs and his opinion of himself as a shepard to his people approximately likely conduct to his greatest contri notwithstandingion to Mesopotamian life, the Code of Hammurabi. The 282 laws mainly focus on responsibilities of public officials, standards for agriculture and commerce, expectations for women, and regulations of sexual relations.Hammurabi believed that the laws were sent by the gods, which explains their strict expectations. In addition, the laws generally follow the philosophy of an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, revealing the importance of a strict justice system in Mesopotamian society and establishing the authority of the gods and the state. Overall, the punishments were very harsh, with most offenses resulting in death or d isfigurement.Although to solar days legal standards greatly differ from those of 18th century BC, the Code of Hammurabi can be seen as the foundation for ultramodern day Western legal codes. One reason why modern societys legal system differs from Hammurabis is because the concept of order in society and, veritable(a), in the family has changed greatly. While in that respect are still economic classes today, they are not judged differently in the court of law. In ancient Babylon the social classes of the offender and victim were factors in ascertain the severity of the penalty.Family life has withal changed from a power based (patriarchal) system to a more nurturing and supportive (unified) atmosphere. For example, during Hammurabis reign, if a son were to hit his father, he would be punished by having his hand cut off. In todays society this would be considered cruel and unusual. Except in extreme situations, the law would not even have reason to get involved. Such is the case for many of the 18th century BCs codes. Mahatma Ghandi made this distinction clear when he said, An eye for an eye makes the full world blind. Modern legal codes aim more at consequences that will help change the behavior, as opposed to punishments that get back at the offender. scorn the differences, Hammurabis approach to justice was very influential to the development of modern Western legal systems. They were not the first set of laws of this time, but they were the most structured and thorough. In other cultures the law was simply whatever the king said it was, which inevitably would change depending on certain factors.However, with Hammurabis laws set in stone and displayed for everyone to see, it was clear what was judge of the people. This concept of a fixed law is the primary similarity between Hammurabis legal codes and those of today. In addition, the code of Hammurabi established that there be a subroutine in law. Because there were now penalties for wrongfully accu sing another, it made people think twice before bringing up false charges against somebody. In modern society, specifically the U. S. , this concept is found in the fifth amendment under the clause without due process.The Code of Hammurabi whitethorn seem harsh when applying it to modern society, but since values, practices, and standards were different at that time, it really wasnt too far fetched. The inhabitants of Mesopotamia valued the individual rights of the people and the means by which to protect those rights. Even though the process may be different today, the general goal of establishing justice within the society is the same. Hammurabi not only marked his place in Babylonian history, but also throughout the world, by constituting a model of moral codes that civilizations would duplicate for centuries.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Paradise of the Blind

World literature two Statement of intent I plan to elaborate on the governmental expressions of Paradise of the ruse by writing a formal letter to the Vietnam government. The Vietnam government drive outned this give from the country because of the every(prenominal) encompassing political aspects included in the book. In the authors books all of the aspects of life are demonstrated and the total view was an unattractive image for the leaders. This book was banned because it went against what a government hopes to portray to their mickle.Duong Thu Huong worked for the Communist Youth brigade at the age of 20 only if was expelled from the communist party in 1989. She has been imprisoned numerous measures for her outspoken support for human rights and democratic political reform and is no longer fall by the waysideed to leave Vietnam. In Paradise of the blind, her fourth book written and her fourth book to be banned, she included government acts much(prenominal) as the effect s of communists on the people such as the land reform act, and Ratification of Errors. The bear-sized political attraction and its effect on the people are a large part of her books but the cultural aspects are also prominent.I hope to convince the Viet bootse government to get out this book which would brook a better understanding for the people in and out of Vietnam. The reason I chose to do a letter it because it allows me to intend the governments large and influential part in the peoples lives and as wholesome as discus the cultural aspects. The government banned the book in 1991 and I wanted to explore why it was important enough to ban and hopefully have an objective view on why it would be good to publish it. President Truong T? n Sang,Thank you for the honor of taking time out of your day to read my letter. I would like to address the Book Paradise of the Blind by Duong Thu Huong. Because it was banned from your country you might not be familiar with the work but I am sure you are aware of the author. She is well known for her writing and political stances. Her book is a fiction with many real life situations and probable events for a person of Vietnam in the 1980s. Because of this factor I found it interesting that it was banned from your country under the term of President (Insert name here).I write to you today in hopes that you will reevaluate president (insert name here)s decision and allow this book to be published. The social conditions were not optimal in the book and I can respect the decision to ban it, but it was banned from the country but that was a different time and things have changed since then. Under the influence of many years the conditions and circumstances have changed. produce the book provides you with a good chance to portray an understanding for the people and your willingness to cooperate with their wants with little or no cost to you.Duong Thu Huong has spoken out intimately the government censorship numerous times and by allowing her book to be published now, it could allow the people to trust their government. The book showed a vulnerable time in Vietnamese history fraught with trials and errors on the part of the government. The fact that it revealed corruption in the government was a problem at the time but the government has improved since then. After the Ratification of Errors the land owners were allowed to prosper again such as Aunt Tam even though times were sleek over difficult.Like the Ratification of errors after the land reform, by ending the ban it would show that you as a country are willing to accept the past and hightail it on. As the governmental issues discussed in the book are not as prominent today it would be beneficial for the governments reputation to show how far they have come. As I read the book I soon realized what insight it would provide an understanding into the lifestyle of the older generations. It would allow the students of today to better understand their countries history and how it affected the peoples lives.The insight that the book provided Americans into Vietnam could also be mirrored by the Vietnamese and a new appreciation for their culture could arise. By allowing the people to see the conditions back then they will realize the full extent of the improvements made and understand their parents and grandparents went though. The food in the book allows for a better understanding of the situation. At each time in the characters life, depending on their financial situation, the food varied. The fact that there is an focus on food would be understood and relatable to the public.They have the ability to compare condition then and now creating a bond that comes from true understanding. Thought this book good traits, situations, and food are juxtaposed with bad and the influence that they had on their surroundings is something that can be makeed from. This book demonstrates a strong aspect of your culture in the submission of Que t o her brother. When her brother told her to leave her husband she did even though she loved him. Her devotion to her brother demonstrates the characteristics of a good sister and subsequently aunt.Que went to the tenement were her brother lived in order to care for her brother and his family. She put her brothers needs in front of her own and her daughters. When her job was not acceptable in her brothers opinions she reluctantly changed jobs. That selflessness in her endeavor to help her brother is something to be admired. Just as Que helped her brothers family, Hang was faithful to her mother. When her mother had her leg amputated due to a car accident and could no longer be an efficient worker, Hang hurried to help her. Hang let go school to go to Russia to work and support her mother.Tam also had admirable qualities in that she supported her brothers child when Hangs mother had a stack abandoned her for her nephews. Tam supported Hang through school and gave her many opportu nities to succeed. The traits in all three of these women are admirable and the general public could learn from their sacrifices. The hard work that they put in gave others the ability to live and do as they needed to survive. Paradise of the Blind is an interesting book that taught me a lot about your culture. It advocates many good qualities as well as change.Hangs decision to progress into the future and leave her past behind when she decided to get by her Aunts house allows her to move on and create a new opportunity to better herself. By releasing the book the same opportunity would come for you and learning form the past would further strengthen yourself today. People could compare what is to what was and make up their opinion for themselves. The people will appreciate the license and respect you for allowing them the option. By leaving the book banned you lead people to believe that it is still true today when much change has occurred.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Global Warming or Global Warning? Essay

One of the controversial issues in the United States in particular and in the piece in general is spherical thawing. A polemic has been going on whether the concept of planetary heating system is real or non, and some believe that the phenomenon is caused by human activities while other denies that assertion. Whether we believe in it or not, global warming is now a well known concept in our society. cyclopaedia Britannica states that global warming is an affix in the global average surface temperature dissolventing from an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide, methane, and certain other trace burn outes in the atmosphere. In a simple version, the planet temperature is rising delinquent to chemical reactions occurring in the nature. Is this assertion true? And what are the factors that favor the happening of chemical reactions? Although the humankinds temperature increase is a natural phenomenon, several other catalyzers participate to speed up the natural reaction, i ncluding human activity. According to spheric Warming newsprint Archives, tens of thousands years ago, the res publica was covered by a layer of rubbish, and that time was called the Ice Age. As the planet temperature began to rise, the full-page layer of screwball disappeared giving come forward to the Little Ice Age characterized by extreme cold and harsh conditions in poles and in uplands. The French mathematician and physicist Jean Baptist Joseph Fourier was the first to introduce the concept of global warming in 1824 when he noticed that the planet temperature was increasing. Fourier brought up the Greenhouse effect theory which explains how carbon dioxide traps heat in the Earths atmosphere (Global Warming composition Archives).In 1950, Guy Stewart Callendar the British engineer supported the nursery effect and warned about the seriousness of global warming which led to the beginning of the environmental activism. some(prenominal) predictions on the future of the Eart h came up pushing the United Nations to hold an environmental conference in 1992 where countries were asked to engage themselves to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Since the effects of the 1992 assemblage werent signifi put forwardt, the United Nations created the Kyoto Protocol the first international commitment to fight against global warming.125 countries shake up ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but the United States the world largest blue jethouse gases professionalducer never signed for the global climate treaty. Global warming is a well understood concept because it is a reality. The change of the average die hard condition of the planet in a long period of time is a strong indicator of the global warming phenomenon. This change usually concerns the temperature in particular, sea level, and natural phenomena in the second place.In the American Meteorological Society Bulletin, an Arctic sea ice extend average chart shows that from 1961 to 1990, for July-September and April-J une, the ice extend has go downd. These periods correspond to the hottest period of the year. However, for October to December and January-March, the ice extend did not change even tough it had been subject of fluctuation over the years. The decreased of ice extend in the two first time period proves that the ice in the Arctic sea is melting. Scientifically, a material change is state from unassailable to liquid if it is exposed to an increase of ambient temperature.Another chart from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report shows the global average temperature of -0. 3 item Celsius in 1850 and 14. 5 degree Celsius in 2000 the global average sea level of -125 millimeters in 1870 and 55 millimeters in 2000. The same chart also shows the decrease of Northern hemisphere snow cover from 37 million of kilometer square in 1925 to 35 million of kilometer square in 2000. These results understandably shows that the world is warmer than before, pole ice is melting, and sea leve l is going up shrinking at the same time the area of the living ground.Global warming is a reality daily noticeable. After recognizing the existence of global warming, many people believe that human activities are the main cause of the whole situation. According to MacMillan Social Science Library global warming is characterized by the fact that certain gases trap heat from the sun in the earths atmosphere with a process known as the greenhouse effect which occurs naturally. The greenhouse effect is a cyclic process that allows the Earth to stay warm and livable for beings when occurring naturally.It becomes a problem when human activities such as burning of hydrocarbons, use of chemical fertilizers, and guff of certain waste material pollute the atmosphere and change magnitude the volume of greenhouse gases. Since the industrialization era started, human had been producing waste, and gases through his factories. The emission of gases is more observable in industrialized countr ies. Gases liberated in the atmosphere by the industries participate in the greenhouse gases scenario. The most known greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, methane and water vapor.The carbon dioxide is known as a gas that absorbs infrared radiation. An increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to more energy absorption and accompany with an increase in planets temperature. According to the phrase How Global Warming, The World Watch Institute affirms that the world carbon dioxide emissions have increase from 1 zillion tons in 1900 to 7 billion tons in 1995. The result of that is the increase of the Earth temperature from 14. 5 degrees Celsius in 1860 to 15. 3 degrees Celsius in 1985.Nitrous oxide produces by fertilizers and methane gas result of waste decomposition have the same energy absorbing quality as the carbon dioxide. Although humans bustt produce a huge amount of nitrous oxide, methane gas is abundantly produced on Earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in a chart in page 15 of the report presents the increased of the methane emissions from 750 ppb in 1900 to 1750 ppb in 2000 (Climate Change 2007). These indicators significantly accredit the fact that mankind activities gravely impact the global warming effect.Some people dont believe that global warming is real. The skeptics of global warming say that the increase of the world temperature as an argument in favor of pro global warming is a fallacy, because global warming is a natural phenomenon. So, global warming is not an environmental problem. The fact that scientists dont have a consensus on global warming issue entertains the polemic. The IPCC report is not evidence of a scientific consensus on global warming (Global Warming is not a Serious Threat).The Heartland Institute a con global warming organization says that NASA released a study in October 2007 demonstrating that the recent decline in Arctic sea ice is due to unusual localized wind patterns earlier than global warming (Taylor). It means that the predictions and results on the gravity of global warming are not true because an official report of the NASA contradicts former assertion. Heartland Institute even affirms that The December 2005 issue of Journal of Glaciology reports that the Greenland ice sheet is growing rather than shrinking (Taylor).For con global warming, the topic is still a theory it is not a fact yet because scientific research shows the contradiction on the subject. Global warming is not caused by human activities. Environmentalists have exaggerated the dangers of fossil fuels use predicting the apocalypse. Global warming advocates utilize the topic for political reasons. In the United Kingdom, Al Gore An Inconvenient Truth is banned from school projection without disclaimer because of misleading and factual errors contain in the film. The British high gear Court believes that the film is too partisan and political.Jonathan Adler in False Apocalypse says t hat William Gray of Colorado State University, one of the foremost hurricane experts in the world, insists that any increase in hurricane activity during the last few years is the result of natural variability, not human-induced climate change. Those who believe that hurricanes are the result of global warming can learn that human activities have nothing to do with what happened in New Orleans, in Florida or in Texas. Natural disasters occurring in these days are not related to global warming instead, they are inexplicable and remain a mystery since their causes are natural.Most of the scientific predictive effects of global warming did not occur. For instance, in 1995, Robert Shope, a virologist and director of Yale University Arbovirus Research Unit predicted an epidemical spread of yellow fever and cholera in North America due to temperature risings (Taubes). This disaster never happened even though the world temperature has risen. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change r eveals that human activities are the cause of an excessive amount of greenhouse gases release in the atmosphere instead, Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon, researchers from the George C.Marshall Institute say that Most of the warming of the last 100 years has natural causes as its explanation. This is another tabular array of researchers which confirms that the heating of the blue planet is not due to human activities, but by natural phenomena. President Bill Clinton says, The overwhelming balance of evidence and scientific opinion is that it is no longer a theory but now a fact that global warming is for real. Base on different arguments from pro and con global warming theory, one can understand that pro global warming arguments weigh than cons opinions.The fact that global warming skeptics acknowledge the existence of global warming is an important sign of the reality of the problem. Their arguments to prove that global warming does not exist are not convincing, and moreover they are based on refutation of pro global warming ideas. Global warming advocates clearly explain the correlation between the Earths temperature increase and human being actions. Before the industrial era, the world was less polluted than it is now. Emission of gases and decomposition of waste gravely pollute the atmosphere.The result of it is hotter summers, lesser snow in winters, and sometimes unpredictable weather especially here in the Metropolitan Area. Furthermore, car engine emission and inspection procedures have been put in place in order to reduce pollution which indicates that the government is aware of the fact that global warming is caused by human activities. The green seal logo is now given to business organizations that respect and practice waste recycling. This demarche shows the overwhelming concern for humans survival in a planet in danger.Global warming is real for global warming advocates, and it is a misleading notion for con global warming advocates. Arguments f rom both sides of the gangboard lead to a convincing opinion from global warming advocates. The world is confronted to a major menace called global warming it is a global prototype for humanity to consider the danger of the phenomenon and to get ready to fight it by reducing our waste, recycling in a daily basis, and to come up with an enamor energy consuming policy that will help to keep our world safer and livable for future generations.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Equality Diversity and Rights

As a health and social c are professional it is part of your role to understand the bases of favoritism and to list sure you dont discriminate a individual in any sort of way as it can have a contradict effect on the individual leading to further problems. Culture A persons culture is very important to them and indentifies them who they are. It is important to respect everyones culture regardless when they come from, everyone should be treated as an individuals and treated fairly.In a health and social care setting it is important at all times to respect an individuals culture and not to discriminate against them. Disability As a professional you will be work with many people who are different various types of disability, under no circumstances should a disabled person be discriminated against just because of their disability or seen different from everyone else. Many people dont think about the individual but see the disability first and see them different from the equaliser w hich can lead to bullying.Social class Our social class is based on where we live. The higher the class, the better the place is. This can lead to people organism discriminated against due to people who dont have a lot of money and cant afford some things. Age Age discrimination happens when someone is restricted to do certain things because of their age. In health and social no individuals should be discriminated against because of their age. Age shouldnt be a problem to anyone they are still entitled to everything just as everyone else is.An example of this will be an elderly needing an operation but the surgeons saying they cant undergo the surgery due to their age this is discriminating against their age and putting them at risk as the surgery may be essential and can maybe notwithstanding their life. Gender A person may be turned away or discriminated due to their gender. An example may be a male debase giving better treatment to another male. This is discrimination and ever yone should be treated fairly and not be discriminated because of their gender. Sexuality A person can be discriminated due to their sexual orientation.Sexual orientation can refer to a person who is attracted to the same sex. Some people think its wrong to be attracted to the same sex so they may start to bully the person or make them feel left out or different from the others. health status Sometimes decisions have to be made about an individual medical treatment, bearing in mind the cost of the treatment and an individuals life expectancy. Family status This can lead to a variety of discriminations against gay/lesbian parents, single parents, and parents with different races.An example of this would be a child get bullied at school due to the fact his dad is gay and is attracted to the same sex. This can have a negative effect on a person and may feel that they are different from the rest. Cognitive Ability Cognitive ability is the way individual processes information in their brain can be the cause of discrimination particularly for those with learning difficulties. Health and social care staff may find them hard and challenging to work with and may fall in labels to them.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Plan of action for Eliazar Gomez Essay

Research has shown that shaking babies is the leading cause of infant mortality. In the United States, up to 1,400 nipperren receive medical interference after being shake. Twenty-five percent of these die, while a majority of survivors have to cope with a lifelong vision problems and brain injury (First Statewide, undated).Debby Golonka, MPH, make-up for BCB Health Guide, in its Web site, expounds that the long-term complications of the shaken baby syndrome whitethorn include seizures (uncontrolled muscle movements and unable to speak, see and interact normally), muscle spasticity that results in gluey movements, mental retardation, blindness or vision problems, delays in physical or emotional growth, learning and behavior problems at school. Vincent Palusci, MD adds that damage to an infants immature brain, with little stored information and developed capacities, will impair the brains adaptive abilities.Dr. Palusci cites an example that a child with severe vision-related prob lems will not learn by observing. Dr. Palusci also says that the development of language, motor coordination and balance will be adversely affected, requiring physical and occupational therapy, using a sensory-rich environment, in hunting lodge to assist the child acquire the skills. Dr. Palusci also underlines the importance of building the childs ability to be attentive. Dr. Palusci writes that therapists often work on one child to help him focus and further his attention span.Dr.Palusci also says that older kids with SBS may require special education and continued therapy. Plan of Action for Eliazar Gomez From his medical records, it seems that Eliazar may have shaken baby syndrome. Its utterly important to ascertain for sure if he is mentally retarded. It is highly probable that Eliazar has problems with his social skills with fellow students and teachers, and chat skills (just looking at you might indicate that he didnt understand what was being said). His being a busybody mi ght indicate his footling attention span.All of which are signs of mental retardation (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2004). If Eliazar is determined to be mentally-retarded, he will need individualized help. One would need to work with Eliazars parents to come up with an individualized education program for him. Further, the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities writes in its fact sheet that teachers will do well to learn more about mental retardation, and the techniques and strategies one can employ to help mentally-retarded students.One also needs to get more elusive by emphasizing the students strengths and interest, being aware of his educational goals. On the instruction side, the fact sheet suggests being as concrete as possible, giving less verbal instructions and doing more demonstrations (show a picture, or other visual aids). Longer tasks also need to be broken nap into smaller steps. (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2004).References 2004. Mental Retardation Fact Sheet. National Dissemination Center for Children withDisabilities. Retreived on 28 March 2008. First statewide shaken baby prevention research project in US. EmaxHealth. Com Retrieved on 28 March 2008. Golonka, Debby. 2007.jolted Baby Syndrome. BCB Health Guide. Retrieved on 28 March 2008. Palusci, Vincent J. 2004. Shaken Baby / Shaken Impact Syndrome. .

Monday, May 20, 2019

International Journal of Business and Management Essay

As one of the to the highest degree successful fast-flying pabulum chain in the world, throughout the maturement of McDonalds, we could easily identify many an an new(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) successful worry strategy implementations. In this paper, I bequeath discuss whatever critical work strategies, which linked to the companys structure and outdoor(a) environs. This paper is organized as follows In the original section, I will give brief introduction to the success of McDonalds. In the second section, I will analyze some grouchy strategies used by McDonalds and how these strategies ar suitable to their production line structure. I will then analyze why McDonalds choose these strategies in response to the changing out-of-door purlieu. Finally, I will summarize the approaches used by McDonalds to achieve their strategic goals. Keywords Strategy, McDonalds structureIntroductionMcDonalds, originated in California, USA, 1954, has become one of the well-ni gh recognized and respected brands in the world. The success achieved includes that they mystify established to a greater extent than 30,000 franchising shop classs in 119 countries, serving more than 47 million people each day, and generating about $15 billions revenues annually. McDonalds withal continuously enhances its brand imagine through divers(prenominal) social activities and the sponsorship of circumscribed events and sports i.e. as a major sponsor of the world cup since 1994 and the Champions League football in England from 1996 to 2000.(www.McDonalds.com)How nominate McDonalds achieve such(prenominal) success? There atomic number 18 many formulatingstrategies, which we could use for our analysis of their formula of success such as Porters competitive strategies model, which includes distinguishableiation and low-cost leadership or Miles and Snows strategy typology, which defined prospector, defender, analyzer, and reactor strategy. Obviously, it is extremely im portant for McDonalds to choose the nigh appropriate strategy to be successful. From my personal point view, to be an Analyzer is the most suitable strategic position for them to develop their business as a building block especially when they facing an extreme complex continuously changing world. As Miles and Snow defined that The analyzer tries to maintain a stable business while innovating on the periphery. It seems to lie midway between the prospector and the defender. Some products will be targeted toward stable environment in which an efficiency strategy intentional to go forward current guests is used. Others will be targeted toward new, more impulsive environment, where growth is possible. (Richard L.Daft) It is also very important to consider how McDonalds applies these strategies and how their strategies interact with their business structure and the external environment.1. How McDonalds business structure captivates its strategy? The McDonalds business structure i s based upon a geographic structure. When log on their website, you will be asked to choose the country that you argon interested in. Actually, McDonalds split its operations into five geographical divisions.(www.McDonalds.com) supranational Journal of Business and ManagementNovember, 2008As shown in to a higher place pie charts that around 65% of McDonalds restaurants and approximately 75% of its revenues are generated in the United State and Europe. So, to McDonalds, the most important strategic approach for maintaining its leading position is to keep their major markets at the same date expanding their business into the other emerging markets. However, variant consumer groups in different countries may gift very different tastes and/or requirements. So each full functional geographic unit of McDonalds was required to solely response for producing and marketing its products in that region. Through this regional structure, McDonalds could not lone(prenominal) fill the topic al anesthetic anesthetic consumers needs in different geographical areas hardly also pursuing maximum local development. Actually they produce and market slightly different types of products in different areas, and they even have different prices.As Jim Skinner, the vice-chairmen of McDonalds illustrated that if you are looking for a command center with one push waiver that operate our restaurant in every corner of the world, you wont find it. However, their philosophy of QSC&V-quality, service, cleanliness and appraise is same for everywhere. And McDonalds targets the similar consumer segments that need fast service, affordable price and good standard hygiene. So their main products are similar in most countries, where they provided service, including beef, chicken, bread potatoes and milk. As the consumers in different countries having different foods requirements, McDonalds keep launching new products for their regional consumers. In this case China and France can be very good examples.2. McDonalds in ChinaIn 1990, McDonalds opened their first store in shenzhen (near HongKong). But before they actually started their business, McDonalds had already carried out 5 years business research and all sorts of information gathering such as the income level of the Chinese people, the kind of foods they enthrall etc. Moreover, their re-design of the counter, chairs and desks also reflected their considerations of the height and body shape of Chinese people. They made lots of efforts to promote their American burgers, and wanted to repeat the same success in China market as they has done elsewhere. Unfortunately, they are not as successful as KFC, their biggest rival, in China now.There are lots of reasons to excuse it, one important issue which has once been ignored by McDonalds is that Chinese people are more prefer chicken dishes than beef burgers, which are their main products. After identified this problem, McDonalds has move to adapt more Chinese tastes by a dding more chicken repasts into their menu for attracting more customers.(Chinese website) 3. McDonalds in FranceIn France, where customers has been resentful of the fast-food chains incursion, McDonalds has boosted it changes by remodeling restaurants i.e. hardwood floors, wood-beam ceilings, comfortable armchairs, and also by adding new menu items such as espresso, brioche and more upscale sandwiches. Actually they have success richly replyed to the preferences of the local area. (Richard L.Daft)In the other countries the situation is the same. For example, in Canada, McDonalds has introduced new Canadian feature breakfast. In Belgium, the McCicken premiere has been added to the menu. Although McDonalds has been regarded as the ultimate example of standardization for the world market. 4. How the strategy is influenced by external environment?The external environment can be divided into several sectors. In this section, I will only discuss two important parts competitors, social concept (healthy problem) and uncertainty situation, which can greatly influence McDonalds strategies. Then at the last part of this section, I will discuss one particular strategy they used which served for their future development purpose.CompetitorIts unlikely that McDonalds can evermore be No.1. In an annual consumer satisfaction survey, McDonalds has been scored dead last among fast-food restaurants since 1992. In the fourth turd of 2002, McDonalds disclosed its first-ever quarterly loss, one reason why McDonalds is struggling is that the consumers began to switch to its competitors, such as Burger King, Wendys, and Subway.These companies emphasized on passporting fresher, hotter, high-quality foods at lower price with faster service. On the other hand, McDonalds decided to close 719 poorly performing restaurants around world. All of these simply proved that McDonalds might no longer be competitive in the fast-food market. And if McDonalds cannot adapt external environment c hange, they might be gradually diminished and even replaced by other competitors. In order to keep their market share, increasing sales and profits. McDonalds has to respond to the threat of competitors. In 2003, McDonalds offered the McGriddles sandwiches in the US and the Canada feature breakfast. Meanwhile, McChicken Premiere and a zesty chicken have been introduced in the UK, France, Italy and Belgium. McDonalds was trying to satisfy customers desire for premium products at affordable prices.Furthermore, McDonalds is providing more choice with respond to offer Happy Meal to keep the children. For example, Happy meal now including chicken selects, and no-sugar add crop drink (juice and low-fat drink) and also to produce McDonalds coffee which appeals to adult. Those products have been made to attract brisk customer and develop new customers.(www.McDonalds)Moreover, in addition to the innovational menu, McDonalds is also rebuilding and even relocating some of their restaurants to make the environment more attractive. At the same time, McDonalds is differentiating itself by creating 73Vol. 3, No. 11International Journal of Business and Managementmore relevant experiences such as allowing the customers to access the meshing with the wireless technology platform. This innovative way not only attracts the teenagers, but also perfectly able the modern professionals requirements. Social problem healthy issueWith the economic development, peoples living standards have increased dramatically these years. People are becoming more concerned about their health issues. It cannot be denied that McDonalds has attempted to make itself more convenience for the people. However, people also believe that such kinds of fast food are not good for their health. The world health organizations report presented that those food not only can cause the obesity of children, but also is part of the reason of causing cancer. Healthy issues became the biggest stumbling block to the d evelopment of McDonalds. Customers were switching to healthier offering, such as Subways sandwiches, or KFCs mashed potato instead of fried potato.McDonalds has responded to this healthy trend. In order to compete, McDonalds has added salads and other lighter options into their menu. If a mother comes in, she is not only buy the happy meal for her children, she will also be likely to buy herself a meal too .the lighter options also encourage existing customers to come back more often, because there is a greater variety of choices. Focus on ChildrenNo matter how different the tastes and the local needs are, McDonalds has paid considerable attention to the children in every country. They built happy land for them, offering fantastic happy meals with novelty toys to them. Furthermore, McDonalds has just launched computers with games that were designed to inspire the childrens imagination at the same time shape their personal characteristics. There are three main reasons for McDonalds to focus on the children(1) Children are one of the biggest consumers groups to McDonalds. And McDonalds has been regarded, as their popular place to go .The brand culture happiness is known by children. (2) McDonalds believe that counsel on children can build the stable business, and will provide the best engine to encourage the whole family to come to McDonalds. For example, one happy meal for a child only cost $ 5 but McDonalds can produce more new products in addition to happy meal to offer the whole family. (3) By Building a brand loyalty with the children, McDonalds more likely to be successfully today and in the future. In my opinion, McDonalds is not just selling the happy meal to children it is selling the American culture to the children the enjoyable individual life.Actually this strategy with focused children segment is fully worked for their future development purpose. Whatever how the environment changes this strategy can always develop future multiplication custom ers loyalty. And the happy children can also bring in the whole happy families. ConclusionTo sum up, there is a strong possibility that if the company fails to recognize the new competitions, shifting of consumer interests, and the social trends or innovative technologies, it will loose its market share.Previously, McDonalds emphasis on adding new restaurants for near 5 years, more than 50% of increase in new restaurants opened. Unfortunately, there was only 2% of increase in the sale of the food. So, in the year 2003 McDonalds decided to change its focus on increasing sales at existing restaurant and reduced capital spending which allows for a sizeable amount of cash be returned to shareholder. For achieving their objectives, the McDonalds strategy should be attract more new customers, encourage existing customers to visit McDonalds more often, build brand loyalty and, ultimately, create enduring profitable growth for the company.ReferencesEdstrm. A., & Galbraith, J.R. (1977). Tran sfer of managers as a coordination and control strategy in multinational organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, June, 248-263. Egelhoff, W.G. (1984). Patterns of control in U.S., U.K. and European multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, Fall, 73-83Fatehi, K. (1996). International Management, New Jersey Prentice Hall. Geringer, J.M. & Hebert, L. (1989). Control and consummation of international joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, Summer, 235-253Hodgetts, R.M., Luthans, F. (1994). International Management, New York McGraw-Hi Richard L.Daft,(2005).Organization Theory and Design, 8th edition, Thomson ,south-western(Chapter 10) Mead, R. (1994). International Management. Cross Cultural Dimensions, Oxford Blackwell. http//baike.baidu.com/view/4676.htm

Sunday, May 19, 2019

California Critical Thinking Skills Test Education Essay

Most approach shots to developing full of life feeling be rooted in doctrine. The philosophical positions of believing be based on ground in dedicate to steer conduct with formal logic harmonizing to Aristotle and Plato and formal logic. The formal logic attack has appe ard since the 1950s and after that in the everywheresupplys develop by Lipman ( 1985 ) and Ennis ( 1985 1987 ) .On the other manus, in the early 1990s, Marzano ( 1991 ) declared that lively musical theme is now utilizing psychogenic attacks every bit well(p) as philosophical 1s. The psychological attacks consider the human head as a working mechanism that lowlife be studied from cognitive psychological positions that complicate meta perception, componential ( tot up uping, comparing, analysing, oppugning and developing visuals ) and heuristics ( strown(prenominal) resolution and decision-making ) .Dispositional attack is besides another attack, introduced by Marzano ( 1991 ) , as wonts of head, cogn itive mental sets for specific state of affairss. The socially-based attacks adjoin the philosophical and psychological attacks re drinked by heathland ( 1991 ) . A societal attack includes reading to believe comminutedly in collaborative acquirement state of affairss.Thankss to these diverse attacks, comminuted fancy has become broader. Benesch ( 1993 ) , one of the postmodernist advocates, gives us a distinguishable definition of hyper comminuted concept. She believes that critical thought is a procedure of oppugning the position quo and of disputing bing cognition and the societal instal. She sees it as a investigation for societal, political and historical beginnings of conventional cognition and an orientation to change schooling and society. Harmonizing to Benesch and her pursuances, critical thought is a attestcratic eruditeness procedure which encourages apprentices to take part actively and raise issues of concern in their day-to-day lives. in that respect fore, the scholars can accord their ain experience to the lingual colloquy, political relations, and the history of the new-made civilization.In malice of the effectivity and force of critical thought and promoting learning critical thought in schoolrooms, pedagogues, trial shapers, and experts are concerned to the highest degree scholars hapless critical thought. The fact is that the scholars ever do non implement good thought accomplishments or they leave indefensible premise into their logical thinking and give way jobs to happen alternate solutions and believe creatively.Another job is the primary(prenominal) power over scholars by publishing ho habit and writers. In inn to antagonize this power, Heath ( 1991 ) points stunned that pupils must hold certain premises before they can show critical thought, and draw in their ain authorization through critical thought.Aside from all the attacks with different definitions in which on that point is frequently convergenc e and treatments of the jobs in order to happen solutions to heighten the scholars critical thought, attempts on developing this accomplishment eat non ever been successful. Students critical thought accomplishments improve as pupils progress but public presentation by and large remains under expected degree ( Tsui, 1998 ) .2.2.1 boot s TaxonomyIn 1956, peak introduced the taxonomy of educational aims in a signifier of categorization of the purposes of the educational procedure to help teachers in the rating of their class occlude and proving results. A peculiarly utile characteristic of Bloom s taxonomy is the hierarchical takement of cognitive abilities that translates a straightforward method for instructors to designing preceptal aims and activities that relate straight to want learning results. The cognitive celestial sphere of Bloom s taxonomy included sixsome major subdivisions from reject order believing accomplishments ( LOTS ) to high order believing accompli shments ( LOTS ) cognition, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and rating.Bloom defined knowledge as those behaviours and trial state of affairss which evince the retention, every by acknowledgment or callback, of thoughts, stuff, or phenomena ( p.62 ) . In add-on, comprehension is defined as pupils abilities to derive what is being communicated and analyse its content ( p.89 ) . In this respect, Bloom considered comprehension as threesome signifiers of behaviour inter lingual rendition, leaseing, and extrapolation. The following class is applying that shows how a scholar can physical exercise what has been learned to new state of affairss. In Bloom s point of position, analysis emphasizes the dislocation of the stuff into its component parts and sensing of the bloods of the parts and of the dash they are organized ( p.144 ) . The close to(prenominal) originative behaviour in this taxonomy, synthesis , was defined as the seting together of eleme nts and parts so as to organize a whole ( p.162 ) . Further more than, the in the end round, evaluation , was regarded as making of judgements about the value of thoughts, plants, and solutions ( p.185 ) .Originally, Bloom s taxonomy was based on the behaviourist theory and throngs educational activities into three chief classs that affect the procedure of larning in different ways cognitive, affectional, and psychomotor ( Krathwohl, Bloom & A Bertram, 1973 ) . The six classs under the cognitive presentt were explained from the least complex to the most complex accomplishment in the antecedent paragraph. The affective sphere is the manner persons deal with the growing in feelings or emotional accomplishments, including five classs of receiving, reacting, valuing, forming, and internalising. And the last 1 is psychomotor sphere which focuses on the country of physical motion, coordination, and usage of motor accomplishments incorporating six degrees of perceptual experie nce, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response and adaption.Although Bloom s original taxonomy was a radical theoretical account which presented systematic classifications of cognitive accomplishments, Anderson and Krathworthl ( 2001 ) revised it to concentrate on the active, ongoing procedure of larning in order to assist instructors understand and implement a standards-based course of topic. In add-on, other research workers developed it harmonizing to the aims that teachers, adroit specializers, and supervisors need to measure the scholars attainment and public presentation in a given class. Anderson and Krathworthl ( 2001 ) reevaluated the original version and the revised taxonomy included memory, apprehension, using, analysing, rating and making. In other words, the revised taxonomy duplicates the six classs of the original 1 with the cognition class labeled as remember , the comprehension class termed understand and synthesis was changed into create . Th ey are arranged in a hierarchal construction, but non every bit stiffly as in the original taxonomy. ( Krathwohl, 2002, p. 218 )Since Bloom provided the wight that helps research workers to find the scholars learned prefer open behaviour forms after winning a class, Bloom s taxonomy has long been applied by pedagogues, commissional interior decorators in order to orient and accomplish the aims, lesson, and appraisals ( Joyce & A Weil, 1996 ) . Furthermore, the cognitive taxonomy has received much attending because of its pertinence in inessential and postsecondary instruction ( Chyung, 2003 ) . Therefore, the research workers consecrate besides utilize Bloom s taxonomy as an assessment tool to measure pupil public presentation in traditional classs versus online simulations ( Boyd & A Murphrey, 2002 ) .Based on the consequences of Garrison, Anderson, and Archer s research in 2001 which utilizing Bloom s six degrees of cognitive processing, they noted that over 80 % of scho lars treatment stations ( online ) reflected turn down degrees of thought. Similarly, Gilbert and Dabbagh ( 2005 ) reported that about 75-80 % of their pupils on-line posters were at the lower degrees of Bloom s taxonomy..In 2006, John DiMarco examined the Bloom s taxonomy and Peschl s manners of cognizing for categorization of larning objects on the PBS.org/teacher beginning Website. By soft content analysis, he ensnare that larning objects at PBS.org/teacher beginning were instructionally marked on accomplishing aims that were lower in the cognitive sphere based on the research of Bloom and his newspaper column theme and the subsequent instantiations of the 1956 work in 2002 by Krathwol and in 2005 by Krumme.Hamad Odhabi, in 2007, conducted a qualitative research in order to see the refer of laptops on pupils larning utilizing Bloom s larning taxonomy. It concluded that pupils agree that larning with laptops would better pupils encyclopaedism in the cognitive ( cogniti on ) and psychomotor ( convening ) domains.Hasan SA?eker and Sevki KoA?muA?r in 2008 were hold back a keep an eye on which aimed at look intoing the relationship between critical thought accomplishments and in-class oppugning behaviours of English delivery Teaching ( ELT ) pupils at the Faculty of Education at Mugla University. The findings of this slew revealed that the pupils in the higher mark group experienced believing procedures more intensively than the lower mark group.Recently, Churches ( 2008 ) updated the revised Bloom s taxonomy to commute behaviours and actions that implemented with digital erudition. In Bloom s digital taxonomy, coaction has been added as an factor that turn outs the science procedure. In other words, he presented the Bloom s Digital Taxonomy with a set of rubrics that each of these leads the use of a digital encyclopaedism engineering in order to accomplish Bloom s acquisition degrees.In 2010, Alyson Simpson conducted a classroom-based rese arch to look into the premiss that an information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) undertaking where kids read keep backs and so utilize email communicating to interchange responses with other scholars will back up critical thought. Improvements in critical thought were measured utilizing lingual analysis. Although there were additions in critical thought, there was splendid student battle with engineering and the treatment problematised the integrating of engineering in the schoolroom through a repositioning of coaction in a blended acquisition context known as book blames.Ertmer, Sadaf and J. Ertmer in 2011 examined the relationships among inquiry types and degrees and pupils subsequent responses/interactions in on-line treatment forums and the consequences of their research supported the hypothesis that inquiries at the higher degrees of Bloom s taxonomy facilitate higher degrees of pupils responses.A survey was do by El-Ghalayini in 2011, which presented a systematic d esign procedure for developing blended classs for undergraduate higher instruction. The instructional design procedure for e-learning was on the footing of instructional design theories and employ three taxonomies Bloom Taxonomy, Redeker Taxonomy and Guerra graduated table. It was found out that all the different design methodological analysiss try to supply a set of activities or guidelines that address all or section of these determination doing procedure to guarantee the quality and/or the toll of the concluding merchandise. The meta-cognitive standards is less likely to be achieved by undergraduate scholars.Birjandi and Alizadeh were developed a study in 2013 to look into the extent to which the books employed for Teaching English as Foreign Language include critical thought accomplishments. a 70 two-item critical thought checklist based on Likert-scale and dwelling of 12 accomplishments namely , comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, rating, tax write-off, initiat ion, balanced-thinking, multiple perspective-taking, originative thought, constructing community of minds, and cognition. However, the mark accomplishments on the checklist were chiefly based on Bloom s taxonomy. The paper discussed the deficiency of critical thought in the schoolroom and stuffs and proposes some ways to include more critical thought accomplishments in the stuffs.2.1.2. California lively Thinking Skills TestAn appropriate appraisal plan will lend to learner growing and development, ensuing in change magnituded dexterity, self knowledge, self esteem, and toast ( Allen, et al. , 1985 ) .Before 1880s, there were many arguments on definitions of critical thought as there were writers on the topic. In 1987, in order to define a clear consensus definition of critical thought, the Committee on Pre-College doctrine of the American Philosophical Society ( APS ) began look intoing into the establishing of critical thought definition and its appraisal. A facilitator conduc ted an anon. , biannual intercommunication between 46 critical thought experts in the Fieldss of doctrine, psychological science, and instruction. They were from different parts of the universe, across the unite States and Canada. They could accomplish the first consensus definition, and this research has been called the Delphi Report ( Facione, 1990 ) .On the other manus, critical thought accomplishments are in-chief(postnominal) for each human and society every bit good, hence, set uping a proper trial to measure critical thought is a important undertaking ( Ennis, 1993 ) . There are many trials available and there are besides many ways to measure critical thought accomplishments, such as like trials, locally developed trials, portfolios, essays, and competence/ public presentation appraisal. In Ennis position ( 1993 ) , about all of standardised critical thought accomplishments trials are with a format of multiple picks which are preferred for establishments in footings of cost, force and clip. However, he noted that more researches and development in this country are needed.Before the Delphi Project, based on different theoretical concepts, there were merely three trials available for measuring critical thought accomplishments at the college degree ( Facione and Facione, 1994 ) . California lively Thinking Skills Test ( CCTST ) developed in 1990 by Peter Facione, used the Delphi definition of critical thought as its conceptual model ( Facione & A Facione, 1994 ) . An objectively scored standardised agent that assesses the cognitive accomplishments dimension of critical thought. It is a 45- minute multiple pick trial with 34 points. There are an overall critical thought mark and five sub-scores can derive from CCTST, and can be used for post-test merely or pretest-posttest designs ( California Academic Press, 1996b, 1996c ) .Technical surveies have been completed on concept, content, and concurrent hardship, point favoritism and trouble, and de pendability ( P. A. Facione, 1991 ) .Facione and Facione, ( 1994 ) implied that increasing the length of the CCTST to increase dependability would partake its ability to be given during a typical form period. It would besides likely cause increased mental tiredness due to the trouble of the inquiries and consequence in reduced dependability estimations. Hence, no dependabilities are given for the subscale tonss ( Jacobs, 1995 ) . In add-on, it is worthy to observe ( CCTST ) does non do differentiation below the belt between gender, ethnicity, degree of critical thought assurance, and major ( P. A. Facione, 1991 ) . The alpha dependability is estimated at.71 ( Jacobs, 1995 ) .From one manus, the trial manual declares that the two signifiers ( A and B ) are statistically tantamount and the same for practical intents ( California Academic Press, 1996c ) . On the other manus, Jacobs ( 1995 ) indicated that a survey of 1,383 pupils at a big university found no important difference on the unchanged points and a important difference in agencies for Form A and B, with signifier B being more sullen than organize A and it shows how critical thought is extremely contextually sensitive.Construct cogency is supported in proof surveies by little but important additions in pretest-posttest tonss in experimental groups after a critical thought class was taken. Controls did non do the same additions ( Facione & A Facione, 1994 ) .These additions were merely between 0.04 and 1.45 in middling tonss, but they were statistically important for the big samples used ( McMorris, 1995 ) . This may explicate why important alterations are non seen in many of the smaller graduated table surveies.However, more psychometric research is required to consent to widespread usage of CCTST in order to look into the countries where the trial is strong or weak.Raykovich ( 2000 ) conducted a survey to find whether the California Critical Thinking skills trial discriminate between first semest er pupils and forth semester pupils critical thought. Consequences of this survey indicated that important additions in the CCTST entire mark were observed in the instance group.Stein et Al. ( 2003 ) were through a study in Tennessee Technological University to research methods of measuring critical thought accomplishments as portion of a public presentation support enterprise since 2000. American College Test ( ACT ) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test ( CCTST ) were utilized as the appraisal tools. The initial trial demonstrated good face cogency and high standard cogency when correlated with tonss on both ( ACT ) and ( CCTST ) .In Iran, Khalili and Hossein Zadeh ( 2003 ) investigated the dependability, cogency and norm of CCTST Form B. on 405 BSN nursing pupils of Nursing Faculties located in Tehran. The findings showed that the inquiries of trial is sufficiently trustworthy as a research tool, and all subscales measure a individual concept, Critical Thinking, and are able to separate the individuals with different degrees of critical thought.Husband ( 2006 ) employed the CCTST appraisal tool on a computation machineinformation engineering unit of direction to look into the effectivity of critical thought learning methodological analysiss. The survey concluded that the average tonss from the post-test were non significantly higher than the pre-test mean tonss.In 2008, Yang and Chou investigated the relationship between critical thought accomplishments and temperaments and the effectivity of different degrees of on-line instructional scheme. Findingss presented that the sweetening in critical thought accomplishments reinforced critical thought temperaments, but the betterment in critical thought temperaments did non increase the degree of critical thought accomplishments.Cotter and Tally in 2009 examined the effectivity of the critical thought exercisings on critical thought accomplishments. It was revealed that the critical thought assignmen ts did non hold a positive consequence on either formal operational idea or critical thought accomplishments.Dehghani et Al. ( 2011 ) conducted a descriptive-correlation survey aimed to see the relationship between pupils self-efficacy and critical thought in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The consequences revealed a significantly positive relationship between pupils self-efficacy and critical thought.2.2 Ex Reading and Critical ThinkingMany research workers have emphasized the importance of including extended interpreting in foreign lingual communication course of study ( Day & A Bamford, 1998 Grabe, 1995 Krashen, 1982 )Extensive reading is an attack to 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) reading direction and aims to do covering big sums of reading stuff gratifying for scholars, as Day & A Bamford, ( 1998 ) believe reading addition without reading hurting. It besides necessarily to observe that upon scrutiny of Bamford s ( 2000 ) annotated bibliography on ER, one rapidly discovers that a good chassis of ER plans use simplified books or ranked readers as the basic reading stuff ( Day and Bamford, 1988 ) .A figure of experimental and quasi-experimental surveies have been conducted to learn the effectivity of ER and to supply support for the usage of ER in 2nd linguistic communication ( ESL ) and EFL scenes. ER surveies have shown that their participants alter in countries such as reading comprehension, spread outing vocabulary cognition, and heightening composing accomplishments and Many English as a foreign linguistic communication ( EFL ) research workers ( e.g. , Camiciottoli, 2001 Day & A Bamford, 1998 Krashen, 1982 Mason & A Krashen, 1997 Robb & A Susser, 1989 Yamashita, 2004 ) have suggested ER as a good scheme to better reading proficiency, and a big figure of surveies ( e.g. , Elley & A Mangubhai, 1981 Greenberg, Rodrigo, Berry, Brinck & A Joseph, 2006 Hafiz & A Tudor, 1990 Lai, 1993 ) have confirmed its effectivity in edifice lingual competency ( e.g. , reading ability, vocabulary, composing and spelling accomplishments ) . Numerous schoolroom activities utilizing graded readers have besides been described ( e.g. , Bamford & A Day, 2004 Nakanishi, 2005 ) .On the other manus, In order to larn English successfully, EFL learners non merely necessitate to get the intravenous alimentation macro accomplishments composing, but besides need to develop critical analytical accomplishments.Traditionally, among the four macro accomplishments, the educational accent has preponderantly been on the acquisition of productive accomplishments. The importance of receptive accomplishments, and the development of critical accomplishments, has most frequently been neglected in the context of EFL scenes consequently, there has been less infinite to develop critical thought among scholars.Reading is a medium that a instructor usage to further scholars critical thought and tonss of the text editions include assignm ents and activities purported to tap into critical thought accomplishments.Distinguishing among four types of reading, it can be said that extended reading ( ER ) is one of the most good, since it promotes the development of critical thought.This means critical thought is an of import accomplishment ESL pupils need to develop from extended reading stuffs which are books of their pleasance to go analytical and witting deal about the environment that surrounds them. Learners need to believe about the stuffs they read and use their ain conceptualisations and scholars can larn to hold or differ with the texts they have read in order to show their points of position.Previous surveies on the effects of extended reading ( text-based and on-line stuffs ) had adopted assorted research designs, but few provide deduction for the consequence of extended reading on critical thought accomplishments. The focal point of the present survey is on the relationship between ER and critical thought.2.3 ConcordancerWith the coming of engineering and its attendant impact on stylistics literary surveies, the quality of instruction and acquisition in linguistic communication schoolrooms has been enhanced. An effort has been do to incorporate computing machines, the Internet and computer-aided plan as tools in linguistic communication schoolrooms to ease the instruction and acquisition.The most of import end of modern teaching method is to assist scholars travel beyond the lower order cognitive accomplishments to the higher order believing 1s, including application, analysis, synthesis, and rating ( Bloom et al.,1956 ) . These accomplishments are necessary for scholars to analyse, measure, synthesise, utilize critical penetration, be originative, work collaboratively, work out jobs, and direct their ain acquisition ( Romiszowski, 1996 ) . In order to obtain command of these accomplishments, instructors need to supply larning environments that are learner-centered, reliable, problem-ba sed and collaborative.With increasing figure of research, the good effects of ( on-line ) computer-assisted plans on linguistic communication acquisition have emerged. They have intended to back up the pedagogical concerns in the schoolrooms.Among the modern instruction AIDSs, concordancers characterized as computer-based plans became available in the 1980s and a figure of surveies have been conducted to supply empirical grounds to the effectivity of principal concordancing in linguistic communication schoolrooms ( Hadley, 2000 Ilse, 1991 Lee & A Liou, 2003 Someya, 2000 St. John, 2001 ) and of import developments began in the 1990s, get downing with publications recommending the usage of principals and harmonies in linguistic communication instruction ( Tribble & A Jones, 1990 ) . Concordancers provide a list of frequence happenings in a pre-selected principal and affect exposing the defined points inwardly the current context. They search for happenings of a given word, port ion of a word, combination of words, a punctuation grade, affix, or a phrase or construction within a given text principal to demo its immediate context ( Granger, 1998 Biber, Conrad & A Reppen, 1998 ) .Through this, scholars can develop their ability to see, to theorize and to place forms in the mark linguistic communication ( Johns, 1988 ) . In add-on, the end product of concordancer hunts and nowadayss scholars with reliable, existent picks that linguistic communication users make and allows them to research and detect ordinary forms of word or sentence use in assorted manners. Therefore, the potentiality of contextual illation can be well enhanced by supplying multiple contexts for a given word with the assistance of a computing machine system ( Cobb, 1997, 1999 ) .As a consequence, harmonies have been used for a scope of intents. By utilizing concordancers, the scholars can research characteristics of mark linguistic communication independently, including regulations of gra mmar, the use in different context, and lexical properties. This, accordingly, leads to data-driven acquisition ( DDL ) ( e.g. Johns, 1994 ) . By this pedagogical attack, scholars are research workers, who discover and analyze regulations and forms embedded in the informations instead than implementing rule application exercisings or following a spoon feeding attack.Prior surveies have shown that a DDL attack creates a learner-centered acquisition ambiance in which scholars are intricate in explorative concordance-based undertakings to spread out their linguistic communication experience ( Biber, Conrad, & A Reppen, 1998 ) . Furthermore, they can detect the implicit in linguistic communication forms on their ain, and therefore they become active participants in the acquisition procedure ( Brown, 2001 Johns, 1997 sunniness, 1999 ) . Therefore, the data-driven attack utilizing harmony package stimulates the scholars analytical capacities, improves their expressed cognition of ma rk linguistic communication, advances critical linguistic communication spirit, and supports the development of scholar liberty.Furthermore, scholars themselves besides show positive reactions to DDL and utilizing concordancer due to their turning consciousness of descriptive instead than normative linguistic communication ( Chambers, 2005 Yeh, Liou, & A Li, 2007 ) . Consequently, equipped with Language Awareness ( Hawkins, 1987, Wolff, 1992 ) , Consciousness-raising ( Sharwood-Smith, 1981, Rutherford, 1987 ) and Critical Thinking ( Astleitner, 2002 Facione, 2007 Paul, 1995 ) through concordancer, scholars change inactive information from the huge sum of different available lingual characteristics into dynamic end product to explicate the linguistic communication regulations in their ain public presentation.several(prenominal) surveies have been carried out to measure the potency of utilizing concordancer and research attacks to incorporate concordancing tools into linguistic c ommunication acquisition and instruction ( Chen, 2000 Cobb, 1997 Conrad, 1999 Flowerdew, 1993 Turnbull & A Burston, 1998 ) . Besides, several surveies were conducted to look into the efficaciousness of harmonies in EFL schoolroom ( Sripicharn, 2003 Boulton, 2008 ) .In Todd s ( 2001 ) survey, a category of college pupils consulted a web-based principal to assist with their self-corrections of lexical mistakes. The consequences showed that these pupils were able to bring on effectual forms from their self-selected harmonies and to do valid self-corrections of their mistakes.Gabel, in 2001, conducted a research in which focused on another possibility of using concordancers, to wit a comparative survey taking at penetrations into the scholars lingua franca ( IL ) and examined the over-indulgence and under-representation of lingual characteristics in the linguistic communication usage of advanced German EFL pupils. It was concluded that scholars benefited because they attempt t o bridge the spread between their ain public presentation and that of native talkers.In add-on, in Malaysia, the survey carried out by Daud and Husin ( 2004 ) indicated the potency of a literary text, Othello, and a concordancer in developing and heightening critical thought ability and the findings revealed that there is a important difference between the experimental and control groups in their critical thought ability.In 2003, Sun conducted a survey that endeavored to implement reading plan, Extensive Reading Online ( ERO ) , having specific demands for EFL scholars in Taiwan. He utilised concordancer, stage-by-stage reading scheme preparation, and text note maps. As the consequences, pupils held a positive attitude toward the reading system. Again, in the same twelvemonth, Sun worked on a instance survey by three Chinese college pupils which conducted the acquisition procedure in the concordancer puting. During set abouting a proofreading activity, a web-based concordancer assis ted the participants. Four factors evolved the consequences and scholars larning procedure ( 1 ) anterior cognition, ( 2 ) cognitive accomplishments, ( 3 ) instructor intercession and ( 4 ) concordancer accomplishments.Concordancer is besides good in the acquisition of vocabulary ( Cobb, 1997 Zahar et al.,2001 ) . In add-on, the 2nd linguistic communication vocabulary cognition includes balls, such as collocations or parlances ( Nation, 2001 ) . Much of the research on concordancers has focused on grammar and collocation acquisition. It is believed that collocational cognition is hard to get for linguistic communication scholars ( church et.al. , 1991 ) and it s particularly effectual for sentence coevals ( Smadja & A Mckeown,1990 ) . Sun and Wang ( 2003 ) , with a category of 11th grade pupils in Taiwan, examined the consequence of concordancing on larning grammatical collocations and they found the inductive group significantly outperformed deductive group in the proofreading undertaking. Similarly, Lee and Liou ( 2003 ) probed into the consequence of pupils as principal research workers by measuring and comparing the lexical public presentation of pupils and the consequences showed that concordancer inquiring was good to pupils who employed inductive acquisition schemes. In the field of collocation, in 2005, Chan and Liou carried out a survey to research the impact of utilizing five web-based name units on English verb-noun collocations with the assistance of a web-based Chinese-English multilingual concordancer. Consequences indicated that scholars improved significantly after the on-line pattern at one time but regressed subsequently. Furthermore the on-line instructional units with using the concordancer were acceptable to most scholars.In the context of ESL scholars, Horst et Al. ( 2005 ) blended the usage of a harmony, a dictionary, a cloze-builder, a hypertext, and a database with synergistic self-quizzing characteristics in several academic E nglish classs and evaluated the effects of the tools and activities on 150 pupils. The findings evidenced the acquisition additions provided support for vocabulary acquisition. Webb and Kagimoto ( 2011 ) , examined the effects of three factors ( the figure of collocates per node word, the place of the node word, synonymy ) on larning collocations. The consequences revealed that more collocations were learned as the figure of collocates per node word increased, the place of the node word did non impact acquisition, and synonymity had a negative consequence on acquisition.Additionally, few surveies have communicate issues refering the sweetening of scholars composing accomplishments. In this respect, Yeh, Liou and Li ( 2007 ) carried out another research under the rubric of on-line equivalent word stuffs and concordancing for EFL college composing. They addressed overused adjectives by non-native speech production scholars by assistance of a bilingualist collocation concordancer, T ANGO. The findings showed that, non merely they improved in the immediate posttest, but besides pupils word cognition for equivalent word usage was well-kept as measured two months subsequently in the delayed posttest. Furthermore, in the post-instruction physical composition undertaking, pupils avoided utilizing general adjectives, tried to use more specific points to better their overall authorship quality. Sun ( 2007 ) besides examined the effects that the scholar variables had on participants perceptual experience of the on-line Scholarly Writing Template ( SWT ) . The consequences of the survey showed that the templet had different effects on pupils scholarly composing procedures and usage of scheme. Indeed, pupils held a positive attitude towards the scholarly authorship templet.Besides, concordancers allow linguistic communication scholars to prosecute in larning more actively and to seek for lingual forms by straight researching computerized principals and concordancers, in other words, concordancers can be used as the key tools in the data-driven acquisition ( DDL ) attack. By computer-based DDL attack, scholars can seek the principal with the aid of a concordancer. In Iran, Tabriz, Jafarpour and Koosha ( 2007 ) studied concordancing stuffs presented through data-driven learning attack and the findings showed that the data-driven attack is extremely effectual in the instruction and larning collocation of prepositions.Another survey in Taiwan explored the DDL attack utilizing harmony roll uping package in instruction of J. K. Rowling s utilizations of the preposition in harry Potter and the Philosopher s Rock by Lee ( 2009 ) which expressed data-driven acquisition is helpful for pupils both in fixing for their tests and besides for their general English acquisition.In 2011, Chen undertook a research to find if the new tool, WebCollocate, which is based on a big portion of speech-tagged Gutenberg principal could advance the DDL attack and ease the searching of collocations. The consequences indicated that the pupils who used the WebCollocate tool found more proper English collocates.And Thanh ( 2010 ) , in Netherland, designed a study to analyze the consequence of concordancing and staging in developing scholars cognition of lexical collocations. This survey revealed that scaffolding did non do a important difference in footings of the pupils ability to place ( myocardial infarction ) collocations but concordancing produced important effects on the topics overall public presentation in lexical collocation.Further, in the field of interlingual rendition, bilingual concordancers are one the most widely used computer-assisted interlingual rendition tools amongst transcribers. Bourdaillet et Al. ( 2011 ) studied the betterment of the commercial bilingual concordancer, TransSearch, in order to implant a word alliance characteristic. The consequences gained utilizing a big interlingual rendition memory comprising of 8.3 million sentence braces were verified by human rating.Most of the above-named surveies have been done with different ESL or EFL scholars at different degrees of proficiency. Holec ( 1990 ) and Hadley ( 2002 ) claimed that concordancing might be relevant to progress scholars merely as those of lower degrees do non hold plenty lingual resources and analytical accomplishments to get by with reliable informations. In this respect, this survey aims to present scholars who are at the same degree of proficiency and in a akin category as intermediate degree. Otherwise, concerns sing troubles in comprehending and pull outing information from linguistic communication illustrations will be prevailing in linguistic communication schoolrooms ( Sun, 2003 ) .On the other manus, the surveies show that concordancing-based interventions could be good for English acquisition. Although, other surveies have examined the effects of concordancing on assorted facets of linguistic communication acquisition. to th at extent few old surveies have examined the impact of concordancing on the acquisition of reading accomplishment. Therefore, it may be good to plan concordance-based stuffs with the purpose of developing scholars reading accomplishments through concordance-based extended reading.Using different reliable narratives instead of working on one literary text will promote scholars to be involved with different characters and genres and will perchance do a more optimal usage of concordancer hunts. In other words, larning can be driven by reliable linguistic communication informations ( Johns 1991a, Johns 1991b ) .Since a few surveies have been carried out to turn to the proficiency of reading accomplishment by assistance of computer-based plan, concordancer, the present survey seeks to research the impact of computer-assisted extended readingA direction on EFL scholars reading comprehension.