Monday, September 30, 2019

Gun politics Essay

â€Å"This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitors suffer each year.† Several times a month,† ranger Rod Torres of O’Leno State Park said, â€Å"people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night.† Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn’t the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on this trip through Florida.† Here is an example of a student model answer of an Expository Essay from The Write Source:†Did you know that 7 out of 10 students have cheated at least once in the past year? Did you know that 50 percent of those students have cheated more than twice? These shocking statistics are from a survey of 9,000 U.S. high school students.Incredibly, teacher s may even be encouraging their students to cheat! Last year at a school in Detroit, teachers allegedly provided their students with answers to statewide standard tests.†Here is an another example of an expository essay. This example comes from Essay Start:†Throughout history and through a cross-section of cultures, women have transformed their appearance to conform to a beauty ideal. Ancient Chinese aristocrats bound their feet as a show of femininity; American and European women in the 1800s cinched in their waists so tightly, some suffered internal damage; in some African cultures women continue to wear plates in their lower lips, continually stretching the skin to receive plates of larger size. The North American ideal of beauty has continually focussed on women’s bodies: the tiny waist of the Victorian period, the boyish figure in vogue during the flapper era, and the voluptuous curves that were the measure of beauty between the 1930s and 1950s. Current standards emphasize a toned, slender look, one that exudes fitness, youth, and health. According to psychologist Eva Szekely, â€Å"Having to be attractive at this time . . . means unequivocally having to be thin. In North America today, thinness is a precondition for being perceived by others and oneself as healthy† (19). However, this relentless pursuit of thinness is not just an example of women trying to look their best, it is also a struggle for control, acceptance and success.† Finally, here are excerpts from argumentative essays: â€Å"Gun control has been a controversial issue for years. A vast majority of citizens believe that if gun control is strictly enforced it would quickly reduce the threat of crime. Many innocent people feel they have the right to bear arms for protection, or even for the pleasure of hunting. These people are penalized for protecting their lives, or even for enjoying a common, innocent sport. To enforce gun control throughout the nation means violating a persons Constitutional rights. Although some people feel that the issue of gun control will limit crime, the issue should not exist due to the fact that guns are necessary for self defense against crime, and by enforcing gun control is violating a citizen’s second amendment right to bear arms.† Another examples of an argumentative essay comes from Bogazici University:†Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at leastcome as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an evenbigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reikion on a regular basis.† On Essay By Example, on the other hand, the sample argumentative essay addresses online games and socialization: â€Å"Online games aren’t just a diversion, but a unique way to meet other people. As millions of gamers demonstrate, playing online is about friendship and cooperation, not just killing monsters. These games are a viable social network because players focus on teamwork, form groups with like-minded people and have romantic relationships with other players. â€Å"Massively-Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) feature millions of players interacting in the same environment. The games are social in nature as they allow players to band together and complete missions based on a story line, or test their skills by fighting against each other. At the start of the game, the user creates a fictional character, and customizes its physical appearance. Since many games involve combat, players also outfit their characters with armor and weapons, as well as choose their â€Å"profession.† Many popular game titles like World of Warcraft and Everquest follow a fantasy theme, so most professions have magical abilities like healing other players or raising undead minions. While the process seems simple, players may spend hours agonizing over the perfect look for their character, from their armor color to the type of  skills to use in battle. Once their character is created, the player is free to explore the vast, digital world and interact with other players; however they must pay on average $15 a month for game content. MMOG users are mostly male – usually between the ages of 18-34 – although titles like World of Warcraft have a healthy population of female players as well. With millions of players, there are plenty of people to adventure with.† The key to learning to write a good essay is to read and study other essays and then practice, practice, rewrite and practice some more

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Macy’s Store Essay

1. Macy’s and other department stores are faced with imminent problems where sales are declining each year. Due to high competition and many substitutions in the market, company must always analyze, investigate, and plan for decision making. Creating situational analysis is a great way to analyze both the internal and external environments in order to understand the company’s capabilities, business environment, and customers. In Macy’s case, some of the external factors are competition and economy. Since competitors such as discount stores and specialty stores are attracting many customers, Macy’s need to find a solution to differentiate themselves from others to deliver value. Some of the examples can be lowering prices to meet customer expectations, expand market by using online- shopping, or take a survey to gather which brands or items customers want in Macy’s department store. Economy is another crucial factor store has to consider. When the economy is healthy, stores tend to worry less, but when the economy is in recession, customers will spend less and find a cheaper substitute items to purchase. Although Macy’s positioned themselves as upper middle class, company can increase sales by also providing less expensive brands for customers to choose from. As for internal factors, training employees, contract with excellent suppliers, and positive recognized brand will strengthen Macy’s. For example, experienced management can teach and lead employees to perform day-to-day operations and to be professional in what they do. Brand awareness is also an important factor since customer’s judge product and service by its brand image. 2. To this date, Macy’s is struggling to find a sustainable competitive advantage in the retail industry. Clothing store such as ZARA and H&M have a definite advantage since they attract customers by displaying latest fashionable clothing with affordable price and Macy’s on the other hand, have not yet able to deliver right messages to buyers. Moreover, Macy’s consolidation and efforts to become national-wide brand are not unique because most major retailers in the states are now national brands. However, Macy’s strategy of positioning themselves as â€Å"mid-level† can become a unique competitive advantage in the future because people would believe its merchandise is neither cheap nor expensive. This way people won’t judge Macy’s as a â€Å"cheap store† but store which carries affordable items. Nevertheless, Macy’s still face a serious threat since fashion clothing retailers such as H&M and Urban outfitters are targeting teenagers with very low prices. One way to improve competitive advantage may be quality. Customers know H&M is a cheap, fashionable store and they also know clothing will wear out if washed couple times. By focusing on quality, people may recognize paying extra money to purchase Macy’s merchandise is saving money in long- term. 3. Overall, Macy’s consolidation and repositioning strategy have many advantages since the company converted 15 department stores to Macy’s brand; Remodelling stores promote a pleasant shopping experience to customers, displaying fashionable clothing to attract trend-followers, and developing private brands to increase profits. As mentioned above, the first strength to this change is the decision to consolidate. By using the same brand name, this will reduce advertising costs, customers will easily recognize the brand, and since all stores carry same products they may have bargaining power over suppliers. Next advantage is locations. Since Macy’s now have approximately 810 stores in 50 states, customers can visit any Macy’s stores without inconvenience. Moreover, because all stores carry same products, services, and designs, buyers can visit any stores to buy what they need. Last strength is Macy’s focus on affordable fashion. People nowadays value fashion so much that they simply won’t purchase clothing that is boring and bland. By recognizing these factors, Macy’s are working with top designers to attract and show buyers their brand is fashionable and also affordable. Despite of these advantages, Macy’s also have weakness to worry about. Customers are complaining that the price of merchandise increased and they would shop elsewhere. Macy’s would reduce these complaints by offering coupons or to perform customer relationship program to recognise those who are loyal to the store and give special incentives or discounts. 4. æ ­ ¤Ã§â€ ¨Ã¦Ë† ·Ã¥  Ã¥ · ²Ã¨ ¢ «Ã¦ ³ ¨Ã¥â€ Å',è ¯ ·Ã¥  ¦Ã¦  ¢Ã¤ ¸â‚¬Ã¤ ¸ ªDepartment stores are faced with serious threat since industry is declining and competitions are growing rapidly. But Macy’s have found a bold strategy to compete in a tough market. Macy’s has a good chance of succeeding in 5 years since the store recognizes the trend and strives to meet customer’s needs. In order to extremely successful in the future however, Macy’s need to closely monitor competitors such as Nordstrom, ZARA, and H&M to gather competitor intelligence and to react to fast changing market. Brand awareness is also a crucial factor for success. Brand loyal customers tend to be less price sensitive because they have a strong belief that it is worth paying more money. If Macy’s can build brand royal customers, they would reduce advertising costs, and have positive brand image. Lastly, pricing its merchandise will be a key point for success in 5 years bec ause price is what makes customers to make a purchase or to find a substitute.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

System-Beaters: On the Road to Heartbreak

System-beaters are basically lazy people that do all this thinking and try so hard to figure out a way that will help them beat the system. What they don’t know is that they hurt themselves more than helping. They are not only hurting themselves but their families as well. These kinds of people always search for the easiest way out of things. For example, they make up excuses of why they didn’t show up for work or why they miss important meetings. These people are capable to influence others to do their work instead of doing it themselves. These kinds of people think that by doing all the work they are suppose to do to accomplish what they have to is just a waste of time when as to them there is an easy way out. System-beaters are capable of making themselves and their surroundings believe that they could survive out in the real world by their beliefs. When their luck comes to an end, they start pointing fingers to those who always tried to help them. They make everyone feel guilty except themselves. At the end of time most of these system-beaters never achieve their goals. System-beaters loose trust from all the people that once trusted them. Some of them actually have to start all over again to fulfill their goals and that will take time to accomplish them. If parents feel like their children are leaning towards that way, they have the power to make them better human beings. Parents have all the power of saving their children. This article is very important. It contains powerful and truthful information. This is actually the first time I read about these kinds of people, the system-beaters. I didn’t even know that these people even existed. Now that I think about there is people like this I know few. I think that where it all starts is when we get to high school. Most of the students take high school as a place to hangout with friends instead of the real purpose which is education. We start to realize how serious education is when we graduate from high school. We are nothing without an education. I could say that I was one of these people when I was in high school, but I didn’t know that it could be dangerous. I liked to go to school just to see my friends, know all the new gossips, just have fun and not care about school related information. It is very true when it says that these people use a lot of their time and energy on trying to beat the system. I never thought that being this way could really make me an untrustworthy person or lazy person. I agree with this advice. By reading this article, I learned that these people could have very serious difficulties in the future, especially when it comes to school and jobs. I actually thought that I was the only one that was like that. College for me is being difficult because I was being use to high school. I used to do whatever I want when I wanted. I was always missing school or ditch and when I was in the class I would always be talking or not paying attention to the lecture. Even though I did not take high school very seriously I graduated. My grades where always passing, I never got in trouble with the teachers or the principle. I can say that I knew what to do so my teachers wouldn’t be on my back all the time. Every time I miss a class, I would go and sometimes make up an excuse as to why I was absent that they and that way they would let make up any missing assignments. I would always ask them what the homework was for that day and take it to them, so that they could see that I was really serious about passing that class. When I was in elementary school I would always get good grades, honor roll, homework hero, all the possible recognitions that there could have been I would get. I was a very bright child. It all started when I entered high school, I guess I changed because of all the things that go on there for example, the parties, the liquor, friends, and all those little things do affect someone. I being like this did not affect anyone in any harmful way. I think it is not too late for me to change my way of taking school seriously. Now more than ever I want to finish my career, get a job, and hopefully get married with children. I never thought that this could actually have some seriously bad consequences. Never in my mind would I imagine that this could affect me and my loved ones in my future. This stage of my life I am taking it very serious especially now that I read this article. I want to learn as much as possible so that when I transfer to a university I would not struggle as much as I am in college. I guess I was so used to high school always being so easy that I thought college was going to be the same, but now I realize that it’s not. College is just preparing me for university, now I can’t imagine how difficult it is going to be there. This is why I do agree with this article hundred percent. The audience the article is addressing to is the ones that are like this. These are people that do not care about absolutely nothing but themselves. They would do anything to achieve their goals even though they are hurting others. To the ones who know that they are going on the wrong path because there are people who are like this, lazy, but they do not know that they can hurt or struggle more in the future. It is not fair if these people achieve their goals by doing what they do, cheating the system. I really enjoyed reading this article about system-beaters it taught me a really good lesson, try to make a plan so that you won’t become a system beater.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Race and American Revolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Race and American Revolution - Essay Example Giving the Indians and the Africans a more prominent role meant that the older white-dominated success story f early America would have to change, ideally to be replaced by a more complicated story f cultural conflict and cultural intermingling. Nash next turned to the origins f the American Revolution, and in Urban Crucible, in 1979, he argued that the tensions arising from poverty and other underlying social and economic inequalities in the cities led to a radical lower-class politics that helps to account for the Revolution. Over the past several decades, Nash has devoted himself to the study f African American slavery and African American anti-slave movements--subjects on which he has written his best work. (Skemp 1429-1431) At the same time, together with Charlotte Crabtree at UCLA, he launched the National History Standards Project with funds supplied by the National Endowment for the Humanities. The published work, National Standards for United States History: Exploring the American Experience, which appeared in 1994, was repudiated by former NEH head Lynne Cheney, who had funded it, and disowned by the U.S. Senate by a vote f ninety-nine to one, though few senators actually read the standards. Through all the controversies and attacks--from the left and from the right--Nash never lost his faith that a fairer, more just, and more equitable America could be created by a more "inclusive" historiography, by historians uncovering all the inequities and brutalities f early America, especially those inflicted on Native Americans, African slaves, and poor lower-class whites. Although he did not write extensively on women in early America, inevitably he has been sympathetic to their cause as well. Nash has always sought to project his political vision into his history-writing. As much as anyone, Nash seems to represent the best f the "race, class, gender" historians f the past generation, who have succeeded remarkably in transforming the kind f history taught in many colleges and universities. His role as one f the leaders f this major historiographical transformation makes his book on race and revolution all the more significant. Here Nash applies the "race, class, gender" formula to what is arguably the most important event in American history. Although Nash has titled his book Race And Revolution, his interpretation f the Revolution may not be as unknown as he makes it out to be, owing to the revisionist work f many academic historians over the past four decades. As a result f this work, many people now know who Crispus Attucks is. (But can anyone name the other four victims f the Boston Massacre) f course, if polls f seniors from leading colleges and universities are to be believed, many events f the Revolution appear to be unknown by even the best-educated Americans. Only 34 percent f college seniors were able to identify George Washington as an American general at the battle f Yorktown. Only 23 percent knew that James Madison was the "Father f the Constitution." When Nash laments the "historical amnesia" f Americans, he doesn't appreciate the half f it. (Foster 20-27) Nash intends his book to be "a history f inclusion," an effort to bring into the story f the Revolution those who have been long forgotten: poor whites, Indians, African Americans, women. Compared with the likes f Washington and Madison, these people may have been lowly and

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Journal Article Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Journal Review - Article Example In the secondary school setting, the major elements of stereotyping were assumed to come from teachers and peers in the school. Universities and colleges have opened their doors to people with LD’s. This is with the overall aim of ensuring that they provide the equal opportunities that are needed by people with LD’s to expand their horizons. At this stage, the intelligence of people with LD’s is highly questioned by their peers. Many people wonder whether people with LD’s can effectively adapt to the mechanisms present in the institutions of higher learning. According to them, the system is created in such a way that it would prove a herculean task for people with LD’s to adapt and perform effectively. Their overall ability to contribute to the set educational and cultural standards is observed as no mean fete. The external, self perception creates issues in the overall journey of improving and settling in for people with LD’s in the institut ions of higher learning (May & Stone, 2010). It could be observed that the characteristic of stereotyping should be an element of yester years. This is because people with LD’s have come full circle. ... cation from the Journal of Special Education Many programs have been introduced and practiced with the sole aim of ensuring that each and every child has an effective chance at a career. Career development is a crucial stage in each and every person’s life, and it should be treated with the significance that it deserves. In many areas and regions, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has taken effect (Blowe & Price, 2012). This is with the sole aim of ensuring that all children, including those with special needs, acquire training and get active career chances. The adoption of this legislation offers a prominent step in the right direction as it reduces the overall perception that careers are a privilege of the selected few. Technical education in any curriculum aims to ensure that the varied skills and competencies could be effectively adopted into the economy. This is by ensuring that they are focused on by the selected people in society who are interested in the tech nical subjects, in the curriculum. Special education relies on the creation and adoption of varied skills and competencies that would best equip students with exceptional needs. The technical subjects provide feasible alternatives and options for people with unique needs. This is not to say that all other subjects are not vital or crucial. The technical subjects offer tangible alternatives for students who may be interested in the technical aspect of education. The technical subjects should be adopted, and they should be examined like all other subjects (Blowe & Price, 2012). This is with the realization that they play a momentous task in the apprehension of talents, capacities and likes that could translate to individual sustainability. Agriculture, computer and business applications, industry

Report explaining the difficulties in recruiting, training, motivating Essay

Report explaining the difficulties in recruiting, training, motivating and rewarding staff in a given Financial Services company - Essay Example current employees, the research findings revealed that employees are very much satisfied with NatWest’s training and development programme including its motivational strategies and reward system. However, there is a need for NatWest HR manager to consider the importance of job analysis to increase the company’s ability of hiring the right person to perform a specific role and responsibility within the financial institution. A member of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group – the Group, the National Westminster Bank also known as â€Å"NatWest† was established back in 1968 when the National Provincial Bank and Westminster Bank decided to enter a merger contract (NatWest, 2009a). Since then, NatWest managed to establish 3,600 branches that provide the people with a wide-range of personal, business, and commercial banking services such as the use of debit and credit cards, telephone banking, home, car, and commercial loans, corporate bonds, Wealth management services, and the touch-screen share dealings which assists the UK government’s privatization programme among others (NatWest, 2009a, b) The application of effective recruitment process, training programmes, motivational strategies, and rewarding of staff are among the key issues that needs to be addressed to enable NatWest’s HR manager to keep employees satisfied with their current job. In line with this, a quantitative and qualitative research survey will be conducted to examine NatWest’s employees’ perception with regards to the company’s recruitment process, training programmes, motivational strategies and reward system. Based on the research findings, difficulties and challenges NatWest is facing will be identified. Considering the global crisis, financial institutions around the world are facing tight competition in terms of being able to capture a bigger market share as compared to other financial institutions. In line with this, the HR manager of NatWest plays a crucial role in terms of

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Enviro Golf Tees Company Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Enviro Golf Tees Company - Case Study Example Golf tees are a necessity in playing golf, we all know that.   We can not just play out there without this gadget.   They are like golf balls; if there’s great demand for golf balls, so do with golf tees.   And they are also expendable.   This is the reason why the company’s objective of producing bio-degradable tees is a priority.   The product alone is beneficial to the environment.  Prices for the product should be consistent with the Enviro Golf Tees’ goals and mission.   Pricing decision should be set in accordance with organization’s objectives, costs for the manufacturing, other marketing mix variables, channel member expectations, buyers’ perceptions, competition, and the legal and regulatory issues. (Dibb et al, 1997, p. 567-568) Perceived or â€Å"real† differences in competitors’ products: Some competitive products are identical product.Price is therefore the only consideration. Marketing Mix VariablesAccording to Dibb et al (1997, p. 576), â€Å"Price is the value placed on what is exchanged. The buyer exchanges buying power – which depends on the buyer’s income, credit and wealth – for satisfaction or utility. Price is a key element in the marketing mix because it relates directly to the generation of total revenue.†Ã‚  While we depend on the price of golf tees for the generation of revenues, pricing has to consider many factors so that the company can proceed smoothly.... 5) Activities of Enviro Golf Tees in the immediate future will revolve around this concept: creation, distribution, promotion and pricing of a state-of-the art environment-friendly golf tees. Marketing a product with an objective of helping preserve the environment is the primary goal. However, the company will go through the process of regular marketing, surveying the psychology and culture of consumers and people, and making moves that will lead the company to a determined future. "Marketers must constantly assess their customers' requirements and be prepared to modify their marketing activity accordingly. An assessment of marketing opportunities is an ever evolving process requiring regular revision and up-dating." (Zairi, 1996, p. 5) Objectives and goals of Enviro Golf Tees are currently based on this. Core ingredients of our priorites Focus and thrust of the company's business will bear the "core ingredients of the various definitions that collectively indicate the basic priorities of marketing: satisfying customers Marketing of the product will be primarily based on a wholesale basis, not piece-by-piece. For as long as customers, in this case golf courses, tournament organizers, etc. - buy golf balls, golf tees will be simultaneously sold along with it. identifying/maximizing marketing opportunities This may be an easy way because marketing opportunities will always be there in the field of the countless golf courses in the country. targeting the right customers As has been said, the customers are not one or a few players of golf, but the thousands of golf courses and owners in the United States. facilitating exchange relationships Customer relationship marketing

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 8

Letter - Essay Example German invasion of Poland and French declaration of war on Germany have resulted in a large number of casualties. I do not know why the main powers of the world have lost patience and have started the war but I believe that our army can lead the world towards peace and stability. We are determined to get victory in the pacific region. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour and Hitler’s declaration of war are such issues which have forced us to participate in the war. We have the aim of helping the countries which are in need. We have to support British in order to stop Germans from conquering the land of Britain. We are the peacemakers, not peace destroyers. My dear sister! Do not get upset because of the situation. We are doing our best for the cause. Our physical condition is also good and we can fight for a long time for the cause of bringing pace to the world. You want, I want, we all want Britain and France to stop German invasion by winning the war against Germany. Our political leadership has given us a lot of support in aiding Britain and helping her win the war against Germans. It is very good to know that both political leadership and general public have the same mindset as they are supporting us in our mission of helping Britain. We want to stabilize democracy in every part of the world. To me, democracy is the best way of governance. When a threat to democracy occurs in any part of the world, its effects can be seen in all related parts of the world. Threat to democracy is also one of the main reasons of this war. The democratic powers have become passive. Here, I would like to tell you some of the main causes of this war in order to make you aware why we have been involved in the war. Some causes include Hitler’s aim to dominate the European countries, aggressive aims of Hitler’s allies, such as, Italy and Japan, failure of the Treaty of Versailles, and inability of the League of Nations to keep peace in the world. In the end, I would say

Monday, September 23, 2019

Community Health Nursing - Clinical Intervention Paper Assignment

Community Health Nursing - Clinical Intervention Paper - Assignment Example The Westchester Arc understands that some families who have a child with intellectual disabilities have difficulties in coping with the unique behavioral problems of their children with special needs. Medicaid Service Coordination helps individuals and their families who are eligible for Medicaid, to coordinate a wide range of services. These include access to government services and advocacy for services, including medical assessments and appointment, training and professional development, educational, recreational resources and housing. According to the US Census 2010, the Katonah city had a total population of 1,679 people compared to 10,739 residents of Katonah code 10536 in 2010 (Martin & Thompson, 2011). In CDP Katonah, there were 1,679 people, 589 households, and 445 families. The population density is 2,398.6 per square mile (883.7 / km2). There were 619 housing units at an average density of 884.3 ml / sq (325.8 / km2). The city has 87.1% White, 2.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 5.4% some other race, and 2.2% Hispanic (Kennedy, 2009). There were 589 households out of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples led by, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.4% were non-families. 17.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had an elderly dependent. The approximate household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP the masses were spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 5.1% fro m 18 to 24, 24.1% 25-44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.6% spread, the 65 years of age or were older. For the period 2007-11, the estimated average annual income for a household in the city was $ 86.296, and the median income for a family was $ 86.923. Full-time male workers had a median income of $ 54,250 USD 64 674 against women. About 7.7% of

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Federal Government and Laissez-Faire Essay Example for Free

The Federal Government and Laissez-Faire Essay The period of American history from 1865 to 1900 consisted of much controversy concerning economic control. Individual enterprises fought diligently to dominate economic affairs but the government was obligated to intervene when unjust activity was apparent. It was unanimously believed, among businessmen, that the government should have very little say in economic issues, the basis for Laissez-Faire. This policy invited the rights of the public consumer to be violated. As a result of the unjust treatment by the enterprises, it was necessary for the government to step in. The Interstate Commerce Act was enacted to limit the freedom and wrongful capital gain of railways to benefit the people. The Senate passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, heavily influenced by the monopolies, to prevent trade restrictions. Freedom and independence are extremely valuable aspects in any setting but can only remain if utilized responsibly. The successful individual enterprises were determined to maintain the Laissez-Faire policy. In Document A, Amasa Walker is quoted saying, Economically, it will ever remain true, that the government is best which governs least. When the government is too involved in the economy, a great many regulations are set and the corporations become less prosperous because their effective methods are limited. A New York City merchant, Daniel Knowlton, (Document B) has a supporting opinion pertaining to the proper functions of the government. He believes the government is in place to maintain domestic tranquility, defend the people from invasion, and protect them when traveling. Every merchant and big business owner alike new theyd benefit under the Laissez-Faire policy. The Interstate Commerce Act was a major intervening action taken by the Federal government in 1887. The act prevented discrimination and promoted reasonable and just fees. The success of the railroad has been attained at the most unwarranted discriminations and its effect has been to build up the strong at the expense of the weak. as stated in Document J. This method of success had come to cease because the rich were becoming richer and the poor, poorer. Document L depicts the beneficial aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act, The act to regulate commerce was not passed to injure any interests, but to conserve and protect bringing about great and salutary  measures of improvement. The act has operated directly to increase railway earnings despite initial appearance. The Sherman Antitrust Act was the proceeding measure taken by the Feds. The Senate, being dominated by monopolists as shown in Document M, was forced to pass the act. Actions in Senate were taken in the interest of monopolies instead of the people. This is a Senate of the monopolists by the monopolists, for the monopolists. The act declared all contracts restricting trade to be illegal. This was of importance to the monopolies because trade restrictions would harm them greatly. Contemporary corporations were required to be versatile in the expanding American economy. Individual enterprises fought diligently to dominate economic affairs but the government was obligated to intervene when unjust activity was apparent. The Laissez-Faire attitude was quite popular during this time. However, problems arose when it was in affect. The government instituted the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act to maintain a more balanced economy and make life easier for the poor. The Federal government only intervened in the economy when it was necessary to do so.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Impact Of Theories Relating To Risk Social Work Essay

Impact Of Theories Relating To Risk Social Work Essay To what extent do theories relating to risk inform our understanding of an aspect or aspects of contemporary social work? I am going to briefly discuss the meanings of risk. Whilst I am aware that there are many theories of risk, I have identified three main themes and will be exploring these in relation to contemporary social work, the themes of governmentality, cultural theory and risk society. Present day social work is concerned with matters of vulnerability and risk (Kemshall et al, 1997), (Dalrymple and Burke, 2006), (Parton, 1996), (Titterton, 2005), (Hothersall and Mass-Lowit, 2010). Media coverage of serious case reviews regarding the deaths of children have led to an onslaught of criticism into social work practice. In looking for definitions to define risk, I found several meanings. Traditionally risk was defined neutrally as a chance or likelihood a behaviour or event will occur (Lishman, 2002: 154), (Munro, 2002:64), for example the possibility of a gain as well as a loss. Kemshall (2002) discusses the uses of risk to insurance and a mathematical probability approach to risk. In postmodern society, risk is now attributed to the terms of danger or hazard (Lupton, 1999 a: 12). The concept of Governmentality was developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life between the late 1970s and his death in 1984. His concept provides an understanding of power, not just in terms of the power of the state from a top-down approach, but in the more subtle forms of power exercised through a network of institutions, practices, procedures and techniques which act to regulate social conduct (Joseph 2010:225). Power is noticeable in a positive way through the production of knowledge and discourses that are internalised by individuals, guiding the behaviour of populations and leading to more efficient forms of social control. Parton (1994) cited in Pease (2002) writes how individuals permit government at a distance through being encouraged and supported to exercise freedom and choice. Because power is de-centred individuals play a role in their own self-governance. Criticisms of Foucault argue that he fails to recognise that power is not equal to all. It can also be argued that he lacks reference to the exercise of power in relation to race, age, gender and class, especially how accessible power is between different social groups. Cooper (1994: 450) argues about the character of the technologies of power regarding racist and gendered discourses being used. It was argued that Foucault was not attentive to how people respond to discourses in their daily lives (Lupton: 1999 b: 102). Critics also believed that Foucault lacked awareness in the power institutions had over individuals and that individuals behaviour in society was down to following rules of conventions (Hoy: 1986:151). Feminist critics such as Hartstock (1990:171-172) believe Foucaults understanding of power diminishes individuals to objects of power than individuals able to resist. Foucaults work on defining the relations and mechanisms of power like governmentality can support social workers to think about their position of power within the structures (that maintain the oppression of service users) in their work. Empowerment uses social science to solve social problems and is a social justice discourse in social work. It allows social workers to redistribute power and knowledge in their practice, whilst challenging and combating injustice and oppression. Empowerment develops capacities of individuals, whilst emphasising individual responsibility. Pease (2002:137) argues that there is an assumption that power is something that can be given and empowering someone is to confer. Therefore as Braye and Preston-Shoot (2003:100) discuss, empowerment is about oppressed people taking the power and demanding to be heard. Because knowledge is central to understanding power within society, in order to empower service users there must be a reallocation of knowledge, an ins urrection of subjugated knowledge as indicated by Foucault (1977). Listening to service users and allowing them to have more control over seeking solutions to their problems or identifying their needs within the wider social context, is another example of empowerment. We belong to many social groups, some by choice and some because they are forced upon us. Within these groups, some have more or less power over others. Social workers need to be aware of difference and diversity and develop a greater sense of self awareness about the risks of labelling, stereotyping and holding subjective beliefs. The term Risk Society describes a society that is exposed to harm as a result of human activity. German sociologist Ulrich Beck (1992) first used the term, although British sociologist Anthony Giddens has also written on the same subject matter. Both authors argue humans have always been subjected to risk, e.g. natural disasters but these are seen as being caused by non-human forces. Modern society is now exposed to risks such as terrorism, chemical pollution and nuclear power. Giddens (1999) defines these as external and manufactured risks, external being risks arising from nature (e.g. flooding) and manufactured risks being the result of human activity, e.g. developments in science and technology. As humans are responsible for manufactured risks, both Beck and Giddens argue that societies can assess the level of risk being produced in a reflexive way that can alter the planned activity itself. People are now more wary of what professionals tell us, which is different to the view of the older generation. We are more critical of professionals and more likely to question them They believe there is an increase in reflexivity (the idea that society can adapt to new risks) as a response to risk and uncertainty in postmodern soci ety, but Beck (1992:21) relates this to more risks and hazards being produced, where Giddens (1999:3) believes in human subjectivity being more sensitive to risk. Criticisms of risk society question the level of risk in postmodern society. Turner (1994: 180) questions whether life has become more risky in the present day, than how it affected individuals in the past. Ungar, cited in Goode and Ben-Yehuda (2009: 82) argues that the threats of today infuse fear as well as, not instead of the past fears. Culture, race and gender do not feature in both Beck and Giddens writings and it could be argued that it would be difficult for an individual to be reflexive regarding conflicts of this nature. Joffe (1999) argues that there had been a failure to recognise emotion in respect to how people cope with living in a risk society. Delanty (1999:171) draws from the criticisms by Lash, arguing that Beck and Giddens do not recognise the cultural dimension of reflexivity, due to disregarding collective agency such as the community in favour of individualism. Social work has changed from a concern with need to one of risk (Kemshall, 2002). The media perception of social workers failing in their duty to prevent the deaths of children or protect the public from individuals known to be mentally ill, has led to more bureaucratic solutions, through legislation, procedures and guidelines (Ferguson, 2004). Blame is allocated due to the emphasis in risk (Douglas, 1992). The regulation of risk replaces need as a focal point and reasoning for social work intervention. Lishman (2007: 164) writes how working with risk will always remain a risky business, but with the assistance of sound methods and defensible decision-making it can be well managed. Titterton (2005:50) argues there is no such thing as a risk free option: all options hold potential risks. Lishman explains further that in the climate of the blame culture, risk assessments need to be of a standard that contain defensible decisions that can hold up in cases where there has been a risk failure (2007:157). There is the danger that in using risk assessments to check availability for a service, there is the potential for the social worker to be distanced from the service user. Involving the service user to do their own risk assessments and explain what they believe are the risks is a form of empowerment, which places them at the centre of the process. Clutton et al (2006: 18) links the involvement of the service user to empowerment, Risk assessment may be empowering if it allows the service user to take an informed decision on future action. Social workers have to be able to asses the predicted outcomes of a potential risk to a service user but this is not always easy. Differing interpretations of a situation due to the cultural and social background of people and groups can make understanding risk and risk management difficult in decision making (Reed et al, 2004:149). Service users have started to make choices in how they interact with social services e.g. self-referral. In order to make plans about their lives, social workers need to interact with families in new ways that recognise their disadvantage and oppression in society. It could be asked if service users really have choice or do they have options within choice? Harris and White (2009:100) consider choice to be a key element of the governments modernisation agenda and are established in services such as direct payments and choice of hospital. Labelling of service users in assessments as disturbed, at risk, in need, describes behaviour from a value perspective (Dalrymple and Burke, 2006). Slovic (1999) writes how risk assessments are coloured by subjective judgements of the social worker at every stage of the assessment process. Hall et al (2006:23) argues however that categorisation of service users in reports, meetings and in the court is an expectation of social workers as a practical and professional duty to provide assessments and provide a course of action or services. The notion of Culture Theory developed by Mary Douglas (1966, 1798) and Douglas and Wildavsky (1982) has been influential in looking at perspectives on risk. Cultural theory aims to explain how personality and cultural traits influence risk perceptions and why different people and social groups fear different risks. Douglas argues the relation of risk to politics and its link to accountability responsibility and blame (Lupton, 1999:39). Douglas and Wildavsky (1982) introduced the grid/group concept to explain how cultural proportions can compare society. It defines how people can be divided into four types that predict how they react to different types of hazards- Individualist, Egalitarian, Hierarchists and Fatalist. Thompson et al (1990:5) explain group as referring to how much the individual is integrated into enclosed units and grid to how much a persons life is restricted as a cause of exterior compulsory instructions. Douglass theory is not without criticism. Lupton (1999:7) questions the medias contributory role to the risk knowledge of their audience. It can be argued that you cannot foresee how anyone will behave in response to a particular circumstance and that cultural theory is opaque, not taking into account the complexities of modern society (Rayner, 1992, Boholm, 1996). Tansey and O Riordan (1999) argue the theory is deterministic and takes no account of the free will of individuals. Ostrander (1992) makes a prominent argument, suggesting that cultural theory should apply to social environments in order to distinguish social systems as a whole. It could also be argued that as Douglas does not explain how risk perceptions regarding to individuals and organisations change over time, her theory could be seen as static (Bellaby (1990). Gross and Rayner (1985:18) argue that Douglas fails to explain, what economic inducements or deprivations dispose persons to change their social position. Accountability means being answerable to others for the quality and efficiency of ones efforts. Social workers are accountable to service users, the community, their department and their supervisors. They must be able to explain what it is they do, how it is done and that their work meets professional standards for competence. Mishra (1984), cited in Wilson et al, (2008:39) writes how there is a reduction in professional autonomy and control due to accountability and structural demands being placed on agencies. Social workers, through fear of miscalculating a situation can undertake cautious and defensive practice which falls short of considering the implications, risks and benefits to the service user of the decisions made and measures taken. Bamford (1990) writes how social workers must develop a system of accountability which does not lose sight of the needs of the clients and their support systems. O Hanlon, cited in Parton and O Byrne (2000: 88), separates blame from accountability in that accountability features responsibility, is empowering and promotes self agency. Blame does not invite co-operation, is alienating and closes down possibilities. An example of the links between risk and blame is the case of baby Peter, who was killed by his mothers partner and was the subject of a multiple amount of media attention, proportioning blame on the social workers in his care. The description of harm and danger portrayed by the media, the government and organisational responses to complaints and legal action, resulting in a blame culture is a consequence of risk aversion employed by some social workers (Furedi, 2002). This could leave social workers feeling the need to protect themselves and hesitant, leading to passing the blame onto other people. Webb, (2006:70) links blame culture to risk avoidance being the main priority, resulting in tighter measures of accountability and trans parency being involved. Kemshall (2002: 94) suggests blame serves to strengthen accountability, but also subtly to control information flow and usage and to reinforce loyalty and solidarity with particular viewpoints on risk. Responsibility of the social worker is linked to accountability. These are sustained in codes of practice, the law and daily verbal exchanges. Hall et al (2006: 16) describes how professionals are mindful of their interactions, should their speech causes their conduct to be accountable. Parton and OByrne (2000: 183) discuss the ethics of responsibility in which service users are able to talk freely about themselves, their situation and the best way to solve their problems. Social workers are supporting service users to take responsibility for their own actions, which replaces concepts of cause and determination Howe (1986), cited in Parton (1996:88). The responsibility of the social worker is to the well-being of service users, but there are times when they work in situations that are conflicting. Dominelli (2009:11) offers one explanation of this in a care-control dilemma, when there is a need to balance the determination of the service user with harm. The social workers responsibil ity to the wider society and adherence to the law mean that at times the well-being of the service users may not take priority. In conclusion we have considered the impact of risk in the field of social work. In doing so we have identified three main theories, that of Govermentality, Risk Society and Culture Theory. We have analysed the impact of social work on these theories. Govermentality Theory helps us to understand power and the production of knowledge that enables individuals to govern themselves. Empowerment, as discussed previously enables service users to gain control over decisions that affect their lives. Risk Society Theory helps us to understand how communities are organised in its response to risk. This has been discussed in relation to social work in the media and the bureaucratic defensive practices that have developed as a result of extensive coverage of high profile service failings. Culture Theory seeks to explain how the social context in which we operate affects our responses to risk. As considered earlier, accountability is a means for social workers to explain their actions and the rea soning behind them, blame culture leads to social workers feeling apprehensive and self-preserving of their role. The social worker also has responsibility to the service users, but also to the wider society. Word count 2563

Friday, September 20, 2019

Pros And Cons Of Biotechnology

Pros And Cons Of Biotechnology The Convention on Biological Diversity signed on 5 July 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio Earth Summit) defines biotechnology: as any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Understand the many disciplines that contribute to Biotechnology The main focus of biotechnology revolves around the use of molecular biology in the application of genetic engineering. Biotechnology encompasses many disciplines and relies on contributions from areas such as chemistry, computer science, mathematics, biology and engineering in addition to other fields such as economics and philosophy. Historic and current applications of biotechnology and its products Fermentation to produce foods Fermentation was discovered over 10,000 years ago and is widely considered to be the most ancient biotechnological discovery. Mankind was producing beer, wine, vinegar and bread using yeast. Lactic acid bacteria in milk and moulds were used to produce cheese. Modern food production still employs these processes but the cultures have been genetically refined and purified so that only the most desirable traits remain. Food preservation Preserving food through drying, salting and freezing was practiced even before anyone really understood why food spoiled in the first place. Louis Pasteurs research on the spoilage of win in 1864 was the first attempt to research food technology in a scientific manner. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) PCR is a technique in molecular biology use to amplify a few copies of a piece of DNA through thermal cycling generating millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. This technique is used for a variety of purposes including DNA sequencing in cloning, analysis of hereditary genetic diseases or even in the identification of genetic fingerprints used in forensic science. Microbial biodegradation The elimination of pollutants and waste from the environment is a concern that has intensified in recent years as humanity strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments. Bioremediation harnesses the natural ability of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to degrade and transform a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons and metals. List and describe different types of biotechnology and their applications There are a number of jargon terms for sub-fields of biotechnology. Red biotechnology refers to biotechnology used in medical processes. Its applications include the production of antibiotics, vaccines and genomic manipulation to cure diseases. White biotechnology refers to biotechnology used in industrial processes. Its applications include using organisms to produce useful chemicals. The aim is to surpass traditional manufacturing processes by consuming fewer resources. Green biotechnology refers to biotechnology used in agricultural processes. Its applications include designing plants to grow under specific conditions or in the presence/absence of agricultural chemicals. One of its aims us to produce more environmentally friendly solutions separate from traditional industrial agriculture. Bioinformatics addresses biological problems using information technology. It plays a key role in areas like biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector. Bioinformatics also helps in the analysis of functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics amongst others. Provide examples of potential advances in Biotechnology Red biotechnology, especially in the field of regenerative medicine, is poised to transform healthcare. Advances in genetics, stem-cell research and cloning promises a golden age in medical care for the future. Genetics is the principle science behind regenerative medicine. Recombinant DNA technology is currently applied in producing vaccines to combat hepatitis B and human-protein drugs to treat diabetes. New protein drugs are in development to treat a wider range of diseases. It is speculated that genes can be used to stimulate the growth of new tissue, and create antibodies to either suppress or enhance the immune system. This can be used to treat diseases such as arthritis and various cancers in the future. Regenerative medicine, unlike chemical based drugs that simply supports failing or damaged organs or tissues, cures disease while having less toxic side effects. Cellular biology plays a major role in regenerative medicine. Human cells are currently being used in a variety of ways such as growing blood vessels and manufacturing artificial skin. Stem cell research offers even more promising treatments. In the future, adult stem cells can be harvested, cultured, and reinserted to heal damaged tissue, bones, nerves, and organs for those suffering brain and spinal injuries. Adult stem cells have limited flexibility as they are often difficult to locate and activate, this means they are unviable in the treatment of a number of disease and injuries. Embryonic stem cells are easier to obtain and their plasticity offers greater therapeutic benefit. Regenerative medicine promises many benefits. Better precision in diagnostics means earlier and more effective medical interventions. The Human Genome Project and ubiquitous monitoring will allow medicine to develop an appropriate response to the onset of debilitating and life-threatening diseases. Effective therapies will affect the quality of many patients lives. Diseased or damaged organs can be repaired or replaced completely. This will prove a great boon for the worlds ageing population as it improves the longevity of human life. Reflect on how it affects you and the world There is intense debate over the development of medical biotechnologies. Studies in genetics, cloning and stem-cell research have sparked unflattering headlines. How do we balance the great hope of treating currently incurable conditions such as Alzheimers with the moral cost that many argue is to high? Will embryonic stem-cell research and therapeutic cloning mean a callous commoditization of human life at its most vulnerable stage? Or are attempts to restrict development in regenerative medication condemning countless individuals to needless suffering? Will the benefits of regenerative medicine be distributed evenly, or will only the wealthy be able to afford it? What will be the social effects of a society populated by genetically enhanced individuals of varying levels? Does this prospect mean greater or less regulation of regenerative medicine research? Admittedly, these questions each embody a number of issues that are contentious in their own right. And each of them requires detailed analysis and scrutiny. Such inquiries are themselves shaped by a bigger picture of religious, moral, social, and political convictions. To what end are the current and future developments in regenerative medicine directing us? And how do we judge whether this end is desirable? Commoditization of human life Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique to produce human embryonic stem (ES) cells for research or therapy. The technique creates human embryos that serve as sources of human ES cells. In deriving the human ES cells, the cloned human embryo (enucleated human egg transplanted with somatic cell nucleus) is destroyed at the blastocyst stage. This technique has many significant applications for clinical applications and medical research. Human ES cells produced from unfertilized egg cells transplanted with a nucleus from a human somatic cell can serve as a renewable source of cells with varied applications. These cells are capable of self-renewal and can transform into any other type of cell in the human body. Human ES cells can also be used for research into in vitro studies of normal human embryogenesis, abnormal development, human gene discovery and teratogen testing. Therapeutic cloning involves the destruction of cloned human embryos. The moral controversy arises depending on what status cloned human organizes possess. I feel that there are 3 main responses to this question. Human being and human embryo are essentially different Human embryos are essentially different from human beings and have no status. Bonnie Stienbock stipulates that cognitive status is not a matter of species membership but rather the ability to think, feel and experience. Early embryos cannot feel or experience anything. Thus, nothing you do to an embryo, including the act of killing it, can harm its interests because embryos do not have any interests. Human being and human embryos are essentially the same Peter Garret, research director of Life, an anti abortion group in Britain states that therapeutic cloning is simply a form of technological cannibalism. The moral reasoning being that cloning a human embryo to harvest stem cells would be equivalent to creating an individual with the eventual aim of plundering him/her for body parts. To bring it in line with Steinbocks view, species membership is the core determining factor when deciding whether a human organism has cognitive status. Respect for human life The third response presents that view that while human embryos are not equivalent to human beings, they are still a form of human life and are deserving of respect. Steinbock stipulates that the significance of and importance of embryos is symbolic. The respect that we confer to human embryos is analogous to that we accord to dead bodies. A dead human body does not have interests by itself but we show respect for dead bodies by burying them in accordance with our social or religious views. We do this because the dead human body represents a person who has existed. Similarly, we can argue that respect should be accorded to human embryos because of its potential to become a human being. I do feel that the development of sound bioethics depends on according embryos, fetuses or babies some sort of moral significance and importance. But as these reflections show, advances in biotechnology lead us to explore the philosophical issues regarding how to develop and apply new medical and technological possibilities. There are conflicts regarding the moral standing of early human life, issues regarding the meaning of personal identity and the potential to become a person. The challenges of the future will not only be scientific, but will require careful grounding in bioethics. Post humanism The development of superior diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and enhancement techniques are sure to raise human life expectancy. Eminent researchers in the field of biogerontology such as Aubrey de Grey speculates that if accelerated aging syndrome such as Progeria can be fought as a disease, natural aging should fall along the same lines. Regenerative medicine can eventually thwart the natural aging process resulting in increased longevity. This is certainly within the realm of possibility, when all dysfunctional organs can continually be refreshed, we would have a substantially longer lifespan. If regenerative medicine is the first step in curing aging and subsequently, a declaration of war on human mortality, then an interesting issue is forced upon us. Should humans use technology to overcome or extend the limits of our mortality imposed on us by the evolution of human biology? When indeed these limits are overcome or greatly extended, then mortality is no longer a definitive feature of human life. In the absence of this defining feature, are human beings aspiring to become mere artifacts of our own engineering? I personally feel that much of the meaning and virtue in being human stems from our understanding of the finitude of mortal life. Much of the nobility embodied in human beings stem from procreation, a recognition that our future is shaped by and for our successors. Nothing good can come from continually extending the life of the progenitors. Preimplantation Genetics Testing and Eugenics Developments in reproductive medicine have provoked another range of questions, arising from the fact that techniques involving in vitro fertilization make it possible to examine and possibly alter the embryo prior to its implantation and development through fetal to the infant stage. This leads to what is known as the designer baby issue; imposing an ideal pattern on an embryo. The usual practice in clinics is to create a number of embryos in vitro and retain only those that meet the desired criteria. There are a number of situations where this procedure may be chose. It may be a matter of parents seeking to have a child free from a genetic condition known to be a risk in the family. However, groups representing the disabled claim that such selection disvalues disabled people. The same situation can be applied to selecting embryos by sex when the genetic condition involved is sex-linked. This would have broader impacts when sex selection is done for cultural or social reasons since this raises issues on the relative value set on male and female and the impact on the balance of sexes in society. Pre-implantation Tissue Typing (PITT) to produce a compatible donor for a sick family member takes the discussion onto new grounds. Many of them were covered in the film My Sisters Keeper and it raises questions about the exploitation of the resulting child and the violation of its own human rights claims. The spectrum of a new type of eugenics lies in the wait in any debate about designer babies. Scientists have rubbished the practice of eugenics as the convergence on a monoculture of ideal types may lead to elimination of traits that turn out to have evolutionary advantages. The issues that I have discussed have shown that there is a possibility of altering the embryos genetic structure either to eliminate some genetic diseases or, to promote sought-after characteristics such as intelligence or sporting potential. We are already screening various potential lives (embryos) in vitro to decide which should be given a chance at live and which should be allowed to perish. It is no longer the creation of live as we discussed earlier but the control, shaping and disposal of life that are at stake. This all leads to a brave new world of scientific eugenics. A variety of philosophers and scientists have argued for a developmental model of the legal status of the human embryo and foetus. The Roe vs. Wade decision held that pregnancy can be divided into 3 periods, corresponding to the degree that the foetus has been developed. The Supreme Court upheld that these periods correspond to an increasing standing of the emerging person in the human community. Yet the national debate continues and the lack of consensus about the status of the embryo has resulted in contradictory legal definitions in the US. Legality of embryo research varies from country to country as well. There is no clear guideline to the usage and treatment of embryonic material as there are too many fundamental questions that go to the root of humanity. Yet, I suggest that we apply the Kantian tradition of respect for persons and human rights that has been part of our history of civilized societies that balances. By all means, move ahead with stem cell research but let us be aware of all the issues surrounding it. Bioethics will continue to be faced with challenging questions, some of which we have not even conceptualized. In considered how to deal with moral issues, we should not narrow the range of persons who have moral responsibilities in determining answers. Both bioethicists and lawmakers must look to guidance from the public, not only from scientific and business interests. The public too have a special duty, which the media should assist in, to be well-informed in these complex matters.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Thomas Hardy :: History

Thomas Hardy About Thomas Hardy and his Wessex Thomas hardy was born in 1840 and died 1928. During his 88-years old life he wrote fifteen novels and one he never published. He also wrote over 900 poems. He wrote and published four volumes of short stories. He was born, and lived the best part of his life, near Dorchester, the county town of Dorset and Devon, Somerset, Cornwall, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire and Oxford. To the section of south-west England he gave the fictional name Wessex, called his first book of poetry ‘Wessex poetry’ and his first collection of short stories he called ‘Wessex tails’. He even called his dog ‘Wessex’. Thomas hardy was born in a cottage which had been built for his grandfather and was brought up buy his Mum, Dad and Nan. The cottage was an isolated building on the edge of a wild heath-land, for which Thomas hardy, in one of his novels, invented the name ‘Egdon heath’. The family Hardy was made up of a Mum, Dad, a gifted boy Thomas, two sisters and a brother. The children had to make their own fun and entertainment. So they would usually listen to their father’s tales. They would involve danger, excitement, interesting characters and a dramatic ending. Thomas hardy based some novels on his relative’s storeys. The telling of such tales was a regular pastime for the small family, and as he grew up, he learned to shape them for a wider audience. For instance, when Thomas was still a boy, he knew he wanted to be a writer. As a child, the lady of the manor at the local mansion particularly favoured Thomas. She was childless, and showed special interest in Thomas, treating him almost like a child of her own, and inviting him to her grand house. Thomas’s mother resented this and according to Thomas hardy, she openly defied the lady. No one knows what exactly happened, but it is certainly true that Thomas’s mother took young Thomas away from the village school, which the lady had founded, and sent him to a school in Dorchester. Thomas Hardy’s mother had a strong will of her own, unlike the heroine of ‘the son’s veto’ who all allows her life to be ruled by the middle- class people. Her marriage has put her among, and, in the end, to be fatally frustrated by the snobbery of her own son. Thomas Hardy :: History Thomas Hardy About Thomas Hardy and his Wessex Thomas hardy was born in 1840 and died 1928. During his 88-years old life he wrote fifteen novels and one he never published. He also wrote over 900 poems. He wrote and published four volumes of short stories. He was born, and lived the best part of his life, near Dorchester, the county town of Dorset and Devon, Somerset, Cornwall, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire and Oxford. To the section of south-west England he gave the fictional name Wessex, called his first book of poetry ‘Wessex poetry’ and his first collection of short stories he called ‘Wessex tails’. He even called his dog ‘Wessex’. Thomas hardy was born in a cottage which had been built for his grandfather and was brought up buy his Mum, Dad and Nan. The cottage was an isolated building on the edge of a wild heath-land, for which Thomas hardy, in one of his novels, invented the name ‘Egdon heath’. The family Hardy was made up of a Mum, Dad, a gifted boy Thomas, two sisters and a brother. The children had to make their own fun and entertainment. So they would usually listen to their father’s tales. They would involve danger, excitement, interesting characters and a dramatic ending. Thomas hardy based some novels on his relative’s storeys. The telling of such tales was a regular pastime for the small family, and as he grew up, he learned to shape them for a wider audience. For instance, when Thomas was still a boy, he knew he wanted to be a writer. As a child, the lady of the manor at the local mansion particularly favoured Thomas. She was childless, and showed special interest in Thomas, treating him almost like a child of her own, and inviting him to her grand house. Thomas’s mother resented this and according to Thomas hardy, she openly defied the lady. No one knows what exactly happened, but it is certainly true that Thomas’s mother took young Thomas away from the village school, which the lady had founded, and sent him to a school in Dorchester. Thomas Hardy’s mother had a strong will of her own, unlike the heroine of ‘the son’s veto’ who all allows her life to be ruled by the middle- class people. Her marriage has put her among, and, in the end, to be fatally frustrated by the snobbery of her own son.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

How Inclusion Came to Be :: essays papers

How Inclusion Came to Be When children have a learning disability there are two different ways for them to be taught. One is an out of the classroom approach where children with disabilities receive extra help with a specialist separate from the regular classroom. There are also schools that only have children that are disabled and cater to only the different needs of a child with a disability. In the approach where children with disabilities are separated from non-disabled children, the child spends half the day in the mainstream classroom and half of the day separated and excluded from the mainstream classroom (Odom 2002). As a result of this approach schools did not have the appropriate funding for the extra teachers needed to provide a separate learning classroom. This problem leads to public schools denying children with disabilities access to the facilities that are offered in a regular classroom, hence segregating the children with disabilities from the mainstream children (Lewis, 1999). In 1975 the Education for all Handicapped Children’s Act (later renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act abbreviated IDEA) was passed in reaction the problem of students being segregated. This act was written to make sure that all handicapped children would have access to free education including special education. The law emphasizes that children with disabilities be educated with non-disabled children (Daniel 1997). The act gave parents the right to choose how their disabled child will be educated whether it be a pull out program or and inclusive program with non-disabled children (Become 2003). This act gave way to inclusion, which is the second approach to educating children with disabilities. Inclusion is the "integration of a disabled student in a regular classroom with the necessary aids and services" (Daniel 1997). Student Views on Inclusion Since inclusion started there has been controversy on whether or not inclusion helps the children more than the pull-out program. There have been many different experiments that have studied the effects of student’s performances in inclusion programs and in pull out programs. In one specific study done in Iowa by the Council for Exceptional Children, students with a specific learning disability were sent to two different middle schools to participate in an 8th grade classroom. The two schools differed in only one way, and that was one was an inclusive school, the Enterprise, and one was a regular mainstream school, the Voyager.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

‘Split Down the Middle’ by David Campton

This piece of work is based on a section of script from a play. The segment is part of a play called ‘Split Down the Middle' by David Campton. The segment is a duologue that is about two girls (Josie and Fran) who are on a works outing. The scene is set in a rowing boat in the middle of the ocean surrounded by fog. Problems cumulate, when a small whole is discovered, and the boat is realised to be sinking! We liked this idea as we thought it was a good script that was well written and suited to the abilities of myself and the other girls in the scene. We liked the humorous dialogue and the situation of the script. The ages and respective temperament of the characters we though suited us, and we enjoyed reading the script together. There are two characters in the script. These are both young women. One is called Fran, and the other Josie. Josie is a much more lively character than Fran. She is quick witted, with a fiery temper and a lashing tongue. She blames Fran for them being stuck in the middle of the ocean. Josie considers herself to be above Fran, and is a harder character than Fran. She is dramatic, and over the top. However in the last part of the script, she relents and shows her true affection for Fran. We reached some of Josie's character by discussion, as part of it was already written on the script as a pointer. Fran is a much more slow character. She is simple and displays a degree of thoughtlessness that causes Josie to react dramatically in some scenes. She is not quite sure of herself, and almost reveres Josie as the superior character. However, she is totally unfazed by the aspect of death, and in the end, ahs to turn the comforter, and consoler of Josie when she has a complete breakdown. We got Fran's character the same way we got Josie's. I played the part of Fran. To set the scene, we paced two chairs together in the centre of the stage. This was to represent the bench on the rowing boat. We chose to use minimal props because we thought that would be easier and more effective than having some props, but not very many. The idea of swaying as if the boat was on the open seas was discussed, but we abandoned it as we though it would be very difficult to sustain, and it would ruin the simplicity of the scene. In my opinion the best scene in the play is the last scene where Fran and Josie reconcile and sit in peace. I think this was very effective as it brought the emotions of the scene to light. It had a good use of tension and focus was required between the characters. It brings to light the bond between two close friends. It was also one of the scenes where we knew our words! In contrast, I thought the middle of the play was slightly weak. We were not very sure of the words, and this seeped slightly into the performance. The atmosphere was not built up enough, and the body language between the characters was slightly wrong. The focus was not very good, and we could have made a better use of contrast between the characters. I was slightly nervous about performing this piece as I was not 100% sure of the words. I tried not to let this seep into my work, but it may have a little. However, I calmed down once I was in the theatre. The piece had to be performed slightly different to the way we did in rehearsals as we were used to rehearsing in quite a small room, and now we had to do it in a theatre. We had to project our voice considerably more than we were used to, and also had to act to a much larger audience. The audience were very helpful, as they found the scene quite funny in all the correct places, and not in places that it wasn't meant to be funny. They also applauded at the right time, and gave encouragement. I think that this piece worked mostly, as we managed to create a good focus between us. We did not forget our words, and built a successful atmosphere. Though we felt nervous, we managed to perform the scene successfully. I think that we did the script justice, and I thoroughly enjoyed doing it.

Monday, September 16, 2019


The company The Spykar story started way back in 1992, when Mr. Prasad Pabrekar led by ambition ventured into fashion apparels and accessories to make use of his vast repertoire of technical knowledge in processing of denim garments. He started the company with the firm belief that the best investment for the Co. was Human Capital, starting with a just a handful, and slowly built up a company with over 150 employees. He gave them the best possible infrastructure to work within, resulting in a strong & dedicated team.The company is based on strict code of ethics which is evident in its dealing with all its partners; namely employees, trade associates, vendors and the like. Its accent on the quality of its products has been unwavering right from its inception. It has always strived to produce a product, having a global appeal. Denims are the core of the company's business. This has been facilitated by the company's in-house processing unit and gives the company the competitive edge in consistently producing denims of international quality.To continuously innovate, and to bring new styles, cuts and fabric to the market, the company has a team of young and dedicated designers and merchandisers, who are extremely aware of the latest trends in the international market. The company experiments a great deal on new styles and accessories, making them trendy and accessible to the Indian consumer. Since Spykar designs specifically for Indian audiences, it has the best fits and designs in its repertoire. In 1994, Spykar moved beyond denims and introduced Helium's, a collection of cotton casual wear.This was followed by Forays in 1996; a brand with an attitude positioning that caters to the after-office leisurewear segment. SPYKAR products are available at over 500 MBOs across the country, apart from the large format stores like Shopper's Stop, Globus, Lifestyle, Pantaloons, Pyramids, etc. and at the Exclusive Spykar Jeans outlet at Ahmedabad, Ghazi bad, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nasik, New Delhi and Pune. Spykar Jeans currently has 99 Exclusive Brand Outlet and plans to increase that number to 150 by the end of 2008.To mark its foray in the international arena, Spykar has also opened its first exclusive outlet at Glades Mall, London. The brand has always focused on the u: th and their aspirations and built up the product portfolio accordingly. All its marketing efforts are targeted at making the brand relevant at all times to this discerning audience. Strategic Intent The company is committed to being the first choice casual wear brand of the youth. The company’s brand does not have a fixed definition but has always been relevant to the u:th and also to the changing market dynamics.The company’s brand building activities will continue to maintain the premium positioning and make it one of the most inspirational, trendy and obviously the most sought after brand. The Company is compliant, eco friendly, socially responsi ble, evolving, profit oriented, always people-centric and doing justice to those who work for it. Though professional and passionate; the people will have their professional and personal lives aligned. First to the Brands Credit/Milestones Achieved.We revolutionized Cargo's in the country with the very non-conformist look and its innovative presentation. We broke all norms of how a pair of pants should be sold. Rolled and tied by a canvas strip and stocked in this form on the shelves – it defied conventional norms and challenged tradition. Target audience who identified with this Rebellious approach lapped-up the product and yet again Spykar scored in turning the table upside down. We sold nearly 70,000 pants and cargos with not even 60% of the demand fed.To cut the monotonous complacency of basic 5 pockets we stylized denims as flamboyant blues. This fashioned persona of denims was introduced as Actifs (Spykar's Fashion Denim Collection) with 5 fits – Stern, Rebel, Ma verick, Recruit & Renegade. USP Endeavor sustenance as a premium fashion wear brand, providing total casual dressing for the u:th's complete fashion needs. The entire offering is fashion and hence radical at times. The single line to sum it up is Spykar jeans: 18 till I die (ever young).Advertising – Frankly one of the reasons why Spykar has clicked so well is that it has not done much advertising and restricted itself to the Print Media and the occasional Bill Board. I believe that if a Brand overexposes itself than it loses it’s value and if it has just the right amount of advertising and has some good â€Å"mouth-to-mouth† advertising then it actually becomes more â€Å"hep and cool† as in the case of Spykar and this is all the more important on a brand like which is trying to appeal to the 17-25 age group, i. e. , Spykar.What makes it Click – The major thing that makes Spykar click is that it goes adding and bringing in new trends every now and then. They had that shiny jeans I told you about around 6 months back and 3 months back they got the Polynosic short shirt and the maverick wash and now they have the Contrast Stitching Cargoes. Innovation and new trends are what are most important in Garment Business. Without that you are going nowhere except downhill. The best example for this is Wearhouse. For those who do not know this is a retail chain from Bangalore. How the Spykar Franchise OperatesThe Spykar franchise wants to retain its position as the premium casual wear choice of the young generation. The garments retail franchise does not like to associate its brand name with a fixed fashion definition. The  retail services business keeps a close watch on the changing dynamics of market. T The Spykar franchise involves in brand building and other promotional activities, which are needed to maintain its leading position in the garment industry. The retail services business ensures that all its operations are eco-friend ly, people-centric, socially responsible and profit oriented.The garments retail franchise has literally revolutionised the cargo wear industry in India. The retail services business presented cargo materials in an innovative fashion by providing a non-conformist look to it. The Spykar franchise dared to break all conventions regarding the sale of pants. The introduction of the unique cargo style by the garments retail franchise was actually a challenge to the traditional concept of pants. Another milestone in the history of the Spykar franchise was the incorporation of the garment company by name Span Apparels.The quality services offered by the retail services franchise in the field of garment industry were acclaimed by declaring it as the Best Casual Wear Brand of the Year in 2006. The Spykar Franchise Excels in Denim Manufacture The Spykar franchise has been offering fashion wears and accessories since 1992. The retail services business was founded by Prasad Pabrekar who wanted to make use of technical knowledge in processing jeans garments. The garments retail franchise was set up with the belief that human capital as its best investment.The quality service offered by the Spykar franchise slowly resulted in the enhancement of the number of employees. The functioning of the garments retail franchise is strictly based on a code of ethics. It is the absolute adherence to this code of ethics, which has helped the retail services franchise in ensuring smooth relationships with its trading partners, employees, vendors etc. The Spykar franchise always ensures that its employees are provided with the best possible infrastructural facilities in order to enhance their productivity.The garments retail franchise wants a dedicated team of employees who are all committed to the core values of the company. The retail services business has been offering garments of uniform quality standards from the very beginning. The garments retail franchise assays to come out with qu ality dress materials that are of global standards. The Spykar franchise has its focus on the manufacture of denims. The Variety of Products of the Spykar Franchise The in-house processing unit of the Spykar franchise strives consistently to produce denims of international quality.The garments retail franchise keeps on innovating new styles by experimenting with cuts and fabric patterns. The vibrant team of young designers of the retail services business is well updated on the latest trends in denim fashion. The Spykar franchise has introduced many accessories which have become trend setters in the Indian market. It was in 1994 that the garments retail franchise dared to introduce Helium's in the Indian market. These cotton casual wears of the Spykar franchise were well accepted. The success story of helium’s made the retail services franchise experiment Forays, which was a unique collection of leisure-wears.The Spykar franchise has got its outlets opened in all the major Ind ian cities. The garments retail franchise presently has seventy eight exclusive outlets. The retail services business aims at increasing the number of outlets to 150 by 2008. The Spykar franchise has also ventured into the international market by opening a store in London. All the marketing efforts of the garments retail franchise aims at ensuring that its brand name does not lose relevance and its designs are not described as ‘gone out of fashion

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Dr. Jose Rizal Writing

Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines. He was the author of Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army. He returned to the Philippines in 1892, but was exiled due to his desire for reform. Although he supported peaceful change, Rizal was convicted of sedition and executed on December 30, 1896, at age 35. On June 19, 1861, Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda was born in Calamba in the Philippines' Laguna Province. A brilliant student who became proficient in multiple languages, Jose Rizal studied medicine in Manila. In 1882, he traveled to Spain to complete his medical degree. While in Europe, Jose Rizal became part of the Propaganda Movement, connecting with other Filipinos who wanted reform. He also wrote his first novel, Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not/The Social Cancer), a work that detailed the dark aspects of Spain's colonial rule in the Philippines, with particular focus on the role of Catholic friars. The book was banned in the Philippines, though copies were smuggled in. Because of this novel, Rizal's return to the Philippines in 1887 was cut short when he was targeted by police. Rizal returned to Europe and continued to write, releasing his follow-up novel, El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed) in 1891. He also published articles in La Solidaridad, a paper aligned with the Propaganda Movement. The reforms Rizal advocated for did not include independence—he called for equal treatment of Filipinos, limiting the power of Spanish friars and representation for the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes (Spain's parliament). Rizal returned to the Philippines in 1892, feeling he needed to be in the country to effect change. Although the reform society he founded, the Liga Filipino (Philippine League), supported non-violent action, Rizal was still exiled to Dapitan, on the island of Mindanao. During the four years Rizal was in exile, he practiced medicine and took on students. In 1895, Rizal asked for permission to travel to Cuba as an army doctor. His request was approved, but in August 1896, Katipunan, a nationalist Filipino society founded by Andres Bonifacio, revolted. Though he had no ties to the group, and disapproved of its violent methods, Rizal was arrested shortly thereafter. After a show trial, Rizal was convicted of sedition and sentenced to death by firing squad. Rizal's public execution was carried out in Manila on December 30, 1896, when he was 35 years old. His execution created more opposition to Spanish rule. Spain's control of the Philippines ended in 1898, though the country did not gain lasting independence until after World War II. Rizal remains a nationalist icon in the Philippines for helping the country take its first steps toward independence. The greatest contribution of Dr. Jose rizal in our country is the two novel he written; the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, by this many filipinos awaken by the slavery of Spaniards to the Filipinos. He used these two writings instead of holding a sword against the Spaniards. He proved to everybody that pen is mightier than a sword. He also organized the first cooperative in the Philippines while in exile in Dapitan. The Rizal's clay sculptures, including the one entitled Prometheus Bound, are very original. They are not only pleasing to look at, but also show social issues. Rizal used art as a medium to effect societal change. Rizal's pencil sketches also show techniques that were later used in comic strips. For these, the historian Gregorio Zaide nicknamed Rizal as the â€Å"Leonardo da Vinci of the Philippines†. He was also an exemplary example of Filipino Values. He also advocated a peaceful and a diplomatic way to speak out Spanish indifferences. Andres Bonifacio, on the other hand, advocated a bloody revolution, which is against the Filipino value of life. He also made anthropological researches on the physical and social make up man. He also experimented on various plants as he practiced horticulture. He also made researches on the physiology, classification and habits of animals. Aside from being an ophthalmologist, he practiced engineering and constructed a water system while in exile in Dapitan. His death gave new courage to the filipinos like emilio aguinaldo etc. to defend Filipino people from foreign accusations of foolishness and lack of knowledge; to show how the Filipino people lives during Spanish colonial period and the cries and woes of his countrymen against abusive officials; to discuss what religion and belief can really do to everyday lives; and to expose the cruelties, graft, and corruption of the false government at honestly show the wrongdoings of Filipinos that led to further failure. Dr. Jose Rizal Mercado y Alonso is by far, without a doubt, the greatest hero this nation can ever have. Ever since the very foundation of our early education, we have been taught about a man to whom we owe the sweet taste of independence we now have the privilege to enjoy. Rafael Palma, a person of great significance once said, â€Å"The doctrines of Rizal are not for one epoch, but for all epochs. They are as valid today as they were yesterday and it will still be strongly valid in the future. This signifies the immortality of Rizal’s life, works, and genuine character. And as our beloved country’s National Hero, Dr. Jose Rizal will be remembered, forever. That we can be sure of. However, the world will never run out of skeptics. Some have lead themselves to believe that Dr. Rizal was a made-to-order hero; one that personifies what we want to see in a person, or in a hero, for this matter. But we strongly believe, that these opinions hold no truth. Dr. Jose Rizal was a very real human being. One who had his share of mistakes, and heartaches, but nevertheless stood for what he believed in, and lead his nation to freedom. Who made Jose Rizal our foremost national hero, and why? But before we can come up with a logical answer to that, we must first look into the character and works of Dr. Jose Rizal that made him our national hero. First and foremost, as stated by the authors Gregorio and Sonia Zaide in the book Jose Rizal, Dr. Rizal is our greatest hero because he took an â€Å"admirable part† in that movement which roughly covered the period from 1882-1896. His wondrous magic with words in his writings, had a tremendous contribution to the formation of Filipino nationality, lead his fellow men to assert their right to our nation. Dr. Rizal’s works sparked a flame that set us free. The authors have previously stated, â€Å"†¦no Filipino has yet been born who could equal or surpass Rizal as â€Å"person of distinguished valor or enterprise in danger, or fortitude in suffering. † This is the second point. We can all agree about the fact that not one citizen of the country had yet to show the same characteristics, or had done the bravest of acts for his country as Dr. Jose Rizal. Considering his natural endowments—intellegence, wealth, influence—Dr.Jose Rizal could’ve chosen a life in prosperity, up, up and away in another island. But instead, he dedicated his life into writing for the sake of his love for public service to the Filipino people, and the Philippines. nd lastly, Jose Rizal is the greatest Filipino hero because he is â€Å"a man honored after death by public worship, because of exceptional service to mankind. † (Gregorio and Sonia Zaide, Jose Rizal). Dr. Jose Rizal is not only highly acclaimed up to this very time because of the exemplary literature we still study to this day. He is still very highly remembered and ever adored because of his conviction, service, and great love for the Filipino people, and the country. This is because he is still celebrated years after he left the face of the earth. He was a great leader, who offered exceptional service to mankind. Going back to our main question: Who made Dr. Jose Rizal our foremost national hero, and why? My answer is going to be brief, and simple. Not one person or organization can be held responsible for making Dr. Jose Rizal our national hero. Rizal himself, his own people, and the foreigners all together contributed to make him the greatest hero and martyr of his people. This is because; Dr. Jose Rizal didn’t become our National Hero by way of traditional election. The fruits of his exceptional dedication and conviction to his life’s purpose are seen in our everyday lives. If he hadn’t, and among other note-worthy heroes of our history fought for our well-deserved freedom, maybe we’ll still be in the hands of our unjust captors. His â€Å"excellent qualities and merits† (Rafael Palma) made him Our Foremost National Hero.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Battle with Skin Cancer

While eagerly awaiting the end of High School, in the year 2005, my world disintegrated. I was in the last Semester of High School when I was diagnosed with stage 3 Skin Cancer.In the US skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer and malignant melanoma, which constitutes one of the most virulent forms of this disease. The incidence of this disease has been continually on the increase.Moreover, there has been a drastic increase in its occurrence. The annual death toll due to this disease has been estimated in the thousands (The Burden of Skin Cancer, 2006).Basically, skin cancer can be classified as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. The latter two forms of the disease make the patient quite ill and if ignored, result in significant mutilation and harm.The deadliest form of this disease is melanoma, which is responsible for around three – fourths of the deaths that occur in the US due to skin cancer. The principal culprit for this disease has been identified as exposure to the ultraviolet rays emanating from the sun. In addition, it is possible to develop skin cancer if over exposed to sun lamps and tanning beds (The Burden of Skin Cancer, 2006).Skin cancer is categorized as stage 0 or that which affects the epidermis, stage 1 cancer that is around three fourths of an inch in diameter, stage 2 where the affected area is greater than that in stage 1 and stage 3 in which the disease has spread to the tissues.Finally, there is the stage 4 cancer, wherein the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. In general, such cancers are detected and treated before they reach the third stage. Early diagnosis of this malady makes it possible to effect a cure. As such it entails the excision of the affected parts (skin cancer , 2008).I was unfortunate in being diagnosed with stage 3 skin cancer. Due to my comparatively, tender years, I had not encountered any major crises in life. This diagnosis was veritably like a bolt from the blue. However, after the initial despondency, I steeled myself.The endless visits to the health care professionals, the seemingly interminable treatment sessions and other therapy sessions occupied most of my time.I lost a lot during that time and I was constrained to discontinue further education for a period of two years. Now, by God’s Grace, I have recovered completely and I am eager and enthusiastic to study in college. In a way this disease proved to be a blessing in disguise, because it taught me forbearance and courage in adversity.I have developed a very strong and positive attitude towards life. I view even the small blessings of life with deep gratitude. I no longer consider any task or venture as being too difficult to accomplish or succeed at. I am confident that I will complete my college education successfully and make it to the Dean’s List.Referencesskin cancer . (2008). Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite . Chicago: Encyclopà ¦dia Britannic a.The Burden of Skin Cancer. (2006, March 27). Retrieved January 3, 2008, from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: