Thursday, August 1, 2019

Multicultural Population Study Essay

The objective of this research is to analyze the community based in the U. S. , most of them are Asians in this research we are talking about the Filipinos who are working in U. S. most of them are working there in cheap wages. The population of Filipinos are increasing in US are increasing rapidly. Number of Filipinos are working abroad especially professional ones would rather work abroad than in their own homeland because of monetary necessities. The next step would be conducting a pilot study to test the execution of distributing the survey questionnaires on a large scale. All information gathered from this pilot study will be analyzed if necessary through Fine-tuning. There will be a method recruitment which based on some criteria like Filipino workers will be the resident of U. S. for at least two years with valid work permit and also have an experience of at least one year in U. S. Filipinos as overseas workers in America has a dominant part in the workforce. Remittances of Filipino overseas workers have played a stabilizing role notably during Asian crisis when remittances flows offset the sharp reduction in capital inflows. Most of the Filipinos are migrating towards U. S. for their better living and to help there relatives in their homeland by giving them foreign exchange. The Filipinos country is also stabilizing due to the foreign exchange which is coming from abroad by their Nationals. A large number of researchers make common errors during their interpretive process in research study; these errors result into misinterpretation of the data and inaccurate results that need to be avoided. There are some errors which are selective observations, imprecise observation and Illogical reasoning and Ego participation in understanding. Select a Population During regular trips on grocery markets and shops, I have noticed that a friend of mine have employed several foreigners with different backgrounds, mostly Asians My inquiring mind asked my friend about it since, I have notice that there are a lot of them on different shops I went to. My friend told me that they were Filipinos working there and she also explained to me that there’s a small community of them in our Town. I was curious with that fact and I decided to research about them and create a multicultural study from it. The purpose of this multicultural study is to analyze overseas Filipino workers here in the US. According to the American Community Survey, in 2005, about 3,252,678 Filipinos and Filipino-Americans live in the United States. However, this number is speculated to be at more than 5. 5 million, according to many Filipino-American organizations, with 1 million that are undocumented (All experts, 2010). We will use a descriptive approach; a typical case study in which the mission of this service oriented case study is specific to Filipinos overseas workers (Hadley & Mitchell, 1995). And this will be done to study intensively on why does a lot of Filipinos, especially professional ones would rather work abroad than in their own homeland, sacrificing leaving their families and friends on the Philippines. Although we might already have some assumptions on the reasons they may have, but what is it clearly? Case studies typically document â€Å"what happened† differently than do comparative studies (Confrey & Stohl 2004). This study will also go beyond their race but also analyze their culture and religious preferences, as this social domain was one of the first areas explored mediators of the religion-health association (Baetz & Toews, 2009) purpose of which is further provide inputs on this study’s overall goal of answering why the increasing number of Filipinos coming in. The sample size will also be significant and case studies will be repeated a number of times to assess if there are similar findings from different individuals, in which the results can be, generalized (Hadley & Mitchell, 1995). A survey will also be included to provide some data on age, gender and type of employment, again to assist probable supporting details on the subject. And finally, to have a decent projection if this trend will continue, a further Trend study will be applied to examine changes over time (Hadley & Mitchell, 1995). The results will probably indicate organizational support for multicultural/social justice issues and gains in the participants’ multicultural competence ( Zalaquett, Foley, Tillotson, Dinsmore & Hof, 2008). Potential Ethical Issues It is of prime importance to consider potential ethical issue on conducting this research, especially dealing with an unfamiliar race to be the population of this present study. Tapping into the values that our designated population advocate and the understandings of why do Filipinos immigrate is a challenging endeavour. The complexity of is magnified, in particular this case in which I do not share the cultural background of the people whose values I will be studying. Problems with irresponsible professional conduct and unethical behaviour in the sciences are not limited to biomedical research (Artino Jr & Brown 2009). Meaning that even experienced researchers need to understand the professional rules regarding the conduct of ethical research. The increasing attention to ethical issues by counsellors and other professionals appears to be part of ongoing trends in the larger society toward increasing recognition of individual rights, increasing demands for accountability, and changing views of counselling and research (Hadley & Mitchell, 1995). My research question is why does a lot of Filipinos, especially professional ones would rather work abroad than in their own homeland. The potential ethical issue here probably would be the possible temptation to overemphasize general hypothesis of conclusions to the said research question, like confirming an answer that Filipinos work abroad because of monetary necessities. In choosing participants an assessment will be made by me by beginning a general inquiry to the possible motivations for a person’s decision to volunteer to join the research. According to Appelbaum, Lidz & Klitzman (2009), populations in developing countries are often thought to be subject to a variety of coercive influences, ranging from pressures exerted by authority figures to difficulty understanding that research participation is voluntary. The risk besides what is already stated possibly could be the inconvenience of a participant in answering surveys which could take an ample amount of time; this could be mitigated by the benefit of this research to provide a clear conclusion as to why the increasing trend of my target population is coming in this country. That is why I need an appropriate method to employ when designing this research to avoid negative consequences of an unethical study. Vignette methodology has been found to be particularly useful to study appropriately why Filipinos leave their country to work abroad. I will also follow strictly the guideline ethical principles of Psychologists and code of conduct of 2002. Regulations for human relations such as stated on unfair discrimination explains that In their work-related activities, psychologists do not engage in unfair discrimination based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or any basis proscribed by law. (APA, 2009, Standard 3. 03). 1. ) If you where to create a brief numbered list of research questions what would they be? Create a list of research questions; be specific with a minimum of 5 questions. †¢ What is your job here in this country? †¢ What is your educational background? †¢ How long have you been staying here? †¢ Why have you chosen to work here? †¢ How old are you? 2. ) How are these research questions correlated to developing the methodology (The structure and analysis of your data) of your integrative projects? These questions are very important to provide ample results to comprehend our analysis. The first question will help on what are the majority of jobs here which Filipinos came here for. Educational background, explains the skill level they have to perform their work and also as a basis of compare and contrast if for example one participant has a Masters degree but is working on a blue collar job. The question about the duration of staying here can help this research study understand if they are working only temporarily here or already making a career out of it. The fourth question is basically the fundamental question in which defines our study, why do Filipinos work here and can definitely strengthen conclusive data that we may get from that question alone. The last question supports the demographic analysis to verify the age range of Filipinos working here. Plan of Action According to Hadley & Mitchell (1995), planning is the second major phase of a research project and involves a representation on all the subsequent phases: data collection, data analysis, interpretation and reporting. Following the guidelines on the planning process and steps, I will create a literature review to make it easier for me to conduct my research and improve this project’s quality. My preliminary plan is to conduct survey to my chosen population which are the Filipinos. The next step would be conducting a pilot study to test the execution of distributing the survey questionnaires on a large scale. Purpose of this pilot study also includes gathering information of the Filipino participants and to practice planned procedures before using them in the main study (Hadley & Mitchell 1995, p. 167). All information gathered from this pilot study will be analyzed and revised if necessary through Fine-tuning, as to prepare myself to make different changes before proceeding to my main body of research. Administrative arrangements will also be done to make sure I have all the necessary requirements to do the main research The mixed-method approach will be used in conducting this study, for first qualitative method of inquiry which aims to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and investigate the reasons why does Filipinos keep on working abroad instead staying and living in their motherland (Denzin & Lincoln 2005). This method could produce general conclusions that could also be considered informative guesses, Followed by a quantitative method which can be used to verify which of such hypothesis are facts (Whitley 2007). Meta-analysis will also be applied to avoid discounting probable non-significant data response on the said survey (Howard, Hill, Maxwell, Baptista, Farias, & Coehlno, 2009). Recruitment The proposed study entitled â€Å"Multicultural Study on Filipino Overseas Contract Workers in the US† involves the task of selecting participants, securing consent in their participation, providing a background and purpose of the study, gathering responses, and interpreting data gathered. The method of selecting the participants are based on the following criteria specifically Filipino workers residing in the US for at least 2 years with valid working VISA, has employment status for at least one year, and is willing to participate in the study. The sample size needs to be sufficient that the different categories of industry such as in healthcare, tourism, labour, and information technology among others are represented. Filipinos as overseas workers in America has a dominant part in the workforce. An evidence of this statement is based on a study that presented large remittances flows and international migration have been prominent features of the Philippine economy for many decades (Burgess, R. & Haksar, V. 2005). In fact, remittances serve as a pillar of the Philippine economy mainly as a relatively stable source of foreign exchange. One of the population of Filipino overseas workers, Filipino nurses would choose to work in the US for higher wages, better living and working conditions, and opportunities to advance their education and expertise (Aiken, L et al. , 2005). Another study showed that the current US nurse shortage would place more pressure for additional means to increase foreign nurse recruitment (Brush, B. , Sochalski, J. & Berger, A. 2006). The sample population of this study is qualified Filipino overseas workers based on the given criteria who will then be given questionnaires to determine their reasons, experiences and motivations on migrating to USA. Peer Reviewed References Remittances of Filipino overseas workers have played a stabilizing role notably during Asian crisis when remittances flows offset the sharp reduction in capital inflows. A study made by Burgess and Haksar showed that Filipino overseas workers contribute to the remittances sent to the Philippines. The sampling choice should then be based on Filipino workers who have a valid working VISA and sends his or her share of remittances to the home country. In this way, the researcher will determine and know how many Filipino overseas workers earn and send remittances home. Various reasons and motivations push Filipino overseas workers, especially nurses to work in a foreign land. Filipino nurses would choose to work in the US for higher wages, better living and working conditions, and opportunities to advance their education and expertise (Aiken, L. et al. , 2005). The study attempts to determine the reasons why Filipino overseas workers would give up their work and living in his or her country to seize the chance to go to the US. It is interesting to note that there is a higher possibility of continued Filipino migration to United States as overseas workers in the years to come. The current US nurse shortage places more pressure for additional means to increase foreign nurse recruitment (Brush, B. , Sochalski, J. & Berger, A. 2006). The sample population should be well represented through a sample choice of respondents working in different sectors of the community, namely health care, programming, office jobs, among others. In this way, the large sample size leads to increased precision in estimates of various properties of the population. Compare Data Collection It is reported that large population of Filipino people live in America and even well trained professionals from Philippines tend to leave their homeland besides missing their family and friends (American Psychological Association, 2002). The clear reasons behind this personal preference need to be explored in detail with well-tailored research program. The research exercise proposed require detailed categorization of data types based on which the methodology could be decided. The research would require both the qualitative as well as quantitative type information (Appelbaum et al, 2009). The qualitative factors would help the research to understand the non-quantifiable factors or the responses that are more descriptive in nature like better acceptability of Filipinos in U. S. While any specific measure like the percentage of Filipino population in U. S. across different time is an example of quantitative information (Le, 2010). Thus the main research questions that need to be answered through research are explained below What is the major reason that attracts Filipino to United States. This question would give specific information regarding the major reason that attracts the Filipino to U. S. This information could be collected from the records at external affairs departments regarding the various employment opportunities being availed by Filipinos (Le. , 2010). Is there gender skewness in the movement of Filipino population to US ? This question tries to explore whether any specific gender specific attractions are being offered in U. S. (American Psychological Association, 2002). This could be collected in the questionnaire survey. In addition, a set of qualitative information on their objective in traveling to US are also collected. Is the employment attraction or the pride of being in United States of America a key factor that drives the people to undertake this journey is the vital element in the research (American Psychological Association, 2002). Also, the level of protection of legal cover of a Filipino in United States and the level of service oriented ness in an average Filipino across the Asian population are also explore here giving due importance to the ethical component in the research initiative (Atrino and Brown, 2009). Compare Data Analysis There are two research studies that are similar in the area of interest specifically having the sample population who are Filipinos working in the States. The difference of the sample population between the studies is that the current study investigates the reasons why Filipino overseas contract workers choose to migrate and work in a foreign land rather than in their native land, Philippines, while the other study focuses on the levels of stress among Filipino registered nurses in the States. The multicultural study on Filipino overseas contract workers in the US would require the use of both quantitative and qualitative types of data (Appelbaum et al, 2009). On the other hand, the other research focusing on the levels of stress among Filipino registered nurses in the US made use of the Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS). The similarity of the two studies is that both used a mixed method gathering data based on the responses of their respective sample population. The multicultural study on Filipino overseas contract workers in the US and its data will be better understood when the responses are expressed in a descriptive form and in quantitative information. Thus, the current study utilized a mixed method, which is quantitative and qualitative. The data are based on the following questions asked to the sample population: the better acceptability of Filipinos in US, what is the major reason that attracts some Filipinos to US, is there gender skewness in the movement of some Filipinos to the US (American Psychological Association, 2002), and the level of protection of legalities of these Filipino as overseas contract workers in the US. The quantitative information, according to the study, are those percentage of Filipino population in US across different periods of time, A data analysis method used on the study that â€Å"explores the stress levels of Filipino registered nurses in US† emphasizes on the use of a scale called Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS) by French et al. (2000) without any need for identifying information. Thus, the study concealed the identities of the participants. Upon comparison, it is noted that the current study does not use any measuring scale to gather important and pertinent data of the sample population. The topic of interest is limited to the reasons and motivations on why Filipino overseas workers chose to migrate in the US. Hence, there is no appropriate scale to facilitate in the process of data gathering. I am therefore confident in the method of data analysis for the current study. The challenge is to administer the structured questionnaire and interview as efficient as possible. Additionally, the most updated and recent statistics should be secured for the purpose of having reliable data. The ethics of confidentiality and privacy are two ethical issues that are crucial to social researchers who, by the very core of their research, typically requests participants to share them their perception, attitudes, thoughts, and experiences (Gregory 2003). The question of ethics also plays into the method of data analysis when it comes to protecting the identities of individuals and the companies they work for. The modification that should be applied to the current study is to omit any identifying information of the sample population upon data analysis and interpretation. Common Errors Introduction A large number of researchers make common errors during their interpretive process in research study; (Weed, 2005) these errors result into misinterpretation of the data and inaccurate results that need to be avoided Selective observation Selective scrutiny takes place when the researcher draws attention to the observations to prove his or her prior understanding and beliefs about the topic of study. In order to avoid this error, I will review and make some evaluations on literatures done by other researchers for relationship analysis about the subject of study. In addition, I will vigilantly take notes rather than depend on my memory. Location sampling will help me to concentrate on a smaller task for a specified period of time and gather the data that is accurate. A research conducted by (Weed, 2005) on Meta interpretation, confirms that several methods of research synthesis that emerge as a result of lack of understanding of interpretivists on customary literature reviews, have been put in place with no sense of the findings from the anthological studies. The study aimed at providing a valid method of Meta interpretation that centered on interpretive synthesis of data for improved research. Imprecise Observation Mistaken observation happens when the researcher fails to record down the data during the research study. I will Focus on the really task observations to boost my accuracy in gathering and interpreting the data. Illogical Reasoning Illogical reasoning takes place when the researcher makes assumptions that are inconsistent . To eliminate this error, I will base my study on the existing research theories and make broad utilization of peer evaluation of my writings to rectify on the aspects that will tend to be reasoned illogically. Suggestions made by (Resnik, 2009) on the meaning of research ethics and its importance, found several reasons for adhering to ethical standards in research and are listed below; i. Supporting the objectives of research ii. Promotion of important values for collaboration iii. Ability for researchers to account for the public demands iv. Moral and communal values. Ego Participation in Understanding Self involvement in understanding occurs when the researcher accepts human side force the outcomes and his or her views on the findings of research study done by others. I will remain neutral and honest while carrying out my research study. According to (Kaptchuk, 2008) on the analysis of the effects of bias interpretation of research data, states that facts cannot build up on the empty schedules of researchers’ minds and data cannot articulate for itself. He encourages the researchers to advance on their critical assessment skills since data is predictably subjective and it can result in bias. Kaptchuk also argues that unbiased data interpretation is very vital in the production of sound judgments. Conclusion Careful methods of data interpretation results into accurate findings and eliminates errors associated with misinterpretation that are carelessly made by researchers. Adhering to ethical standards in research helps to produce qualitative results from a research study. References Aiken, L. , Buchan, J. , Sochalski, J. , Nichols, B. and Powell, M. , (2005), Trends in International Nurse Immigration. Health Affairs, Vol. 23 No. 3, 69-77. All Experts (2010). Countries with large Filipino populations, (Data File), Retrieved from http://en. allexperts. com/e/o/ov/overseas_filipino. htm. American Psychological Association, (2002). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct (PDF) Appelbaum, P. , Lidz, C. , & Klitzman, R. (2009). Voluntariness of Consent to Research: A Preliminary Empirical Investigation. 39(1):30–39. Hastings Center Report Artino Jr. A, & Brown, S. (2009), Ethics in Educational Research: A comparative analysis of Graduate Student and Faculty Beliefs. College Student Journal, 439(2), 599-615. Retrieved from Academic Research Database Baetz, M. and Toews, J. Clinical implications of research on religion, spirituality, and mental health. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54, no. 5 (Mar 2009): 292-301. Brush, B. , Sochalski, J. & Berger, A. , (2006), Imported Care: Recruiting Foreign Nurses to U. S. Health Care Facilities, Health Affairs, Vol. 23 No. 3, 78-87. Burgess, R. & Haksar, V. , (2005), Migration and Foreign Remittances in the Philippines. IMF Working Paper. Volume 5. p. 3. Confrey, J. and Stohl, V (2004). On evaluating curricular effectiveness: judging the quality of K-12 mathematics evaluations. National Academies Press, 167. Denzin, N & Lincoln, Y. (Eds. ). (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-2757-3 French, S. E. , Lenton, R. , Walters. , V. Eyles, J. (2000). An empirical evaluation of an expanded nursing stress scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 8(2), 161-78. Gregory, I. (2003). Ethics in Research. New York: Continuum, 45 Hadley, R. and Mitchell, L. (1995). Counseling research and program evaluation. Brooks/Cole Hadley, R. G. & Mitchell, L. K. , (1995), Counseling research and program evaluation. Pacific Grove, Ca: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Howard, G. , Hill, T. , Maxwell, S. , Baptista, T. , Farias, M. , & Coehlno, C. et al (2009), Whats wrong with research literatures? And how to make them right, Review of General Psychology, 13(2), 146-166 Kaptchuk, T. , (2008). Effect of interpretive bias on research evidence. Boston; Osher Institute. Le, C. N. (2010) , Population Statistics & Demographics† Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America† Retrieved from on 8 May 2010. Resnik, D. , (2009). What is Ethics in Research & Why is It Important. New York; Oxford University Press. Shamoo, A. , &Resnik, D. , (2009), Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd Ed. New York; Oxford University Press. Weed, M. , (2005), Meta Interpretation: A Method for the Interpretive Synthesis of Qualitative Research. Phoenix; Wright Mills Whitley, R. (2007). Mixed-method studies. Journal of mental health, 16(6), 697-701 Zalaquett, C. , Foley, P. , Tillotson, K. , Dinsmore, J. , Hof, D. (2008). Multicultural and Social Justice Training for Counselor Education Programs and Colleges of Education: Rewards and Challenges. Journal of Counseling & Development, Volume 86, Number 3, 323 – 329.

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